Last updated on 5 January 2018

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Gadus morhua

SPECIES NAME(s)

Atlantic cod

COMMON NAMES

2J3KL cod, northern cod

Cod in this region is considered to be a metapopulation with small inshore and larger offshore components (DFO, 2005) which mix in the summer, excluding the possibility of assessing them independently. The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife considers a Newfoundland and Labrador “Designatable Unit” which includes this (NAFO 2J3KL) management unit, along with Northern Labrador cod (NAFO 2GH), and Southern Grand Bank cod (NAFO 3NO) (COSEWIC, 2010).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Stock appears to be increasing due to low natural mortality, good recruitment, and low exploitation
  • Off-shore fishery is under a mortarium
  • Exploitation appears to be low
  • A new model providing projections and uncertainty is currently in place and updated regularly
  • The impact of the fishery on the seabed ecosystem and on protected species is not considered to be an issue due to current fishing effort.
Weaknesses
  • Stock is well below its LRP.
  • Catch have more than doubled in the last year
  • Recreational catches are not incorporated into the assessment and are not estimated
  • The Stewardship fishery, while controlled by induvial quotas, have no overall TAC
  • Managers have not defined rebuilding time frames or upper biomass reference points
  • Fishing mortality reference points are not in use

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

< 6

Managers Compliance:

< 6

Fishers Compliance:

< 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

2.7

Future Health:

< 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Work with managers to develop and implement a time-bound recovery plan for this stock. This should include, biological reference points based on robust data and stock analysis and controls to constrain total catch to enable stock rebuilding.
  • Ask managers to improve collection of recreational catch data to enable robust estimation of recreational catches and associated uncertainty.

FIPS

  • Canada Atlantic cod (2J3KL) - longline/trawl/gillnet/hook & line:

    Stage 5, Progress Rating A

  • Canada Northern cod (2J3KL) - handline/gillnet/longline:

    Stage 4, Progress Rating A

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Newfoundland Canada/NAFO 2J3KL Canada Bottom-set longlines
Bottom trawls
Gillnets and entangling nets
Hooks and lines
Mechanized lines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 3 August 2014

Strengths
  • Stock appears to be increasing due to low natural mortality, good recruitment, and low exploitation
  • Off-shore fishery is under a mortarium
  • Exploitation appears to be low
  • A new model providing projections and uncertainty is currently in place and updated regularly
  • The impact of the fishery on the seabed ecosystem and on protected species is not considered to be an issue due to current fishing effort.
Weaknesses
  • Stock is well below its LRP.
  • Catch have more than doubled in the last year
  • Recreational catches are not incorporated into the assessment and are not estimated
  • The Stewardship fishery, while controlled by induvial quotas, have no overall TAC
  • Managers have not defined rebuilding time frames or upper biomass reference points
  • Fishing mortality reference points are not in use
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 24 September 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Work with managers to develop and implement a time-bound recovery plan for this stock. This should include, biological reference points based on robust data and stock analysis and controls to constrain total catch to enable stock rebuilding.
  • Ask managers to improve collection of recreational catch data to enable robust estimation of recreational catches and associated uncertainty.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 5 January 2018

A new State-Space model has been created and peer reviewed (Cadigan, N. 2016)(DFO 2016) and replaces the older survey based methodology. It allows for incomplete information on removals, provides projections as well as estimates of uncertainty.  Major uncertainties include the natural mortality event in the 1990’s, the continued under reporting of catch by the recreational sector, and the tag-return rate.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 5 January 2018

No absolute advice is given in the latest DFO stock assessment report but only a recommendation that removals should remain low in the next four years to promote the stock growth (DFO 2016). Even at zero removals it is unlikely that his stock will be above limit reference points in the near future.

Reference Points

Last updated on 05 Jan 2018

In 2010 a relative limit reference point for SSB (LRP) was established (SAR 2011/041) and defined as the average spawning stock biomass during the 1980s. An upper limit is not defined (DFO 2016). Fishing mortality or exploitation based reference points are not in use. DFO is currently considering rebuilding time frames including interim an target of 50% SSB growth in five-years(DFO 2016).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 5 January 2018

Stock is currently well below its limit reference point. Exploitation is thought to be low, but removals are uncertain especially given the lack of tag returns and lack of data on the recreational sector. Stewardship fishery removals have more than doubled 2015 to 2016 (DFO 2017).

Trends

Last updated on 05 Jan 2018

Stock has increased as a result of good recruitment working its way into the spawning and exploitable biomass.  This has been further reinforced by low exploitation rates and lower natural mortality. However, stock is not predicted to be above its limit reference points even with zero removals (DFO 2016). Removals by the Stewardship fishery have greatly increased from 2015 to 2016 (DFO 2017).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 5 January 2018

The Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO) has authority for the stock outside Canada’s 200 mile EEZ; the NAFO Fisheries Commission sets quotas, and allocates portions of such quotas to the Contracting Parties. Within the Canadian jurisdiction, regulation of the fishery is under the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO).

A moratorium has been in place for the offshore stock since 1992, and is also in force outside the Canadian EEZ (NAFO, 2010). A limited entry stewardship fishery with gear, vessel and season restrictions have been permitted since 2006. No formal TAC is presently set but individual fishers’ allowances are defined (Brattey et al., 2009 and DFO, 2014).

Generally, this Stewardship fisher quotas greatly exceed the scientific advice; and has resulted in a doubling of the removals 2015 to 2016, despite scientific advice to keep removals low. The recreational fishery is not accounted for, but is thought to be an important and increasing source of mortality (Cadigan, N. 2016)(DFO 2016).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 05 Jan 2018

A formal recovery plan is not in place. However, DFO is currently considering rebuilding time frames including interim target of 50% SSB growth in five-years (DFO 2016).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 5 January 2018

Landings are monitored both at sea and in port. However, there is considerable uncertainty surrounding commercial and recreational catches and an unknown but “substantial” amount of illegal inshore fishing is occurring (DFO 2016).


Discarding of small fish in the recreational fishery appeared to have been widespread, from the analysis of mean lengths of sampled fish (DFO, 2013a).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 4 January 2018

Humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae and White-sided dolphin Lagenorhynchus acutus (both Least concern; 2008 IUCN Redlist) are the most abundant species. Fin whales Balaenoptera physalus (Endangered; 2013 IUCN Redlist), White-beaked dolphin Lagenorhynchus albirostris (Least concern; 2012 IUCN Redlist), Common Dolphin Delphinus delphis (Least concern; 2008 IUCN Redlist), Harbour Porpoise Phocoena phocoena (Least concern; 2008 IUCN Redlist), Blue Whale Balaenoptera musculus (Endangered; 2008 IUCN Redlist), North Atlantic Right Whale Eubalaena glacialis (Endangered; 2012 IUCN Redlist) and Leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea (Vulnerable; 2013 IUCN Redlist) also occur (DFO, 2012c).

The impact of the fishery on Protected, Endangered and Threatened (PET) species is not considered to be an issue due to current fishing effort.

Other Species

Last updated on 5 January 2018

A directed commercial fishery and recreational fishery for cod was re-opened from 2006 in the inshore area of 2J3KL for a limited period. However, catches and effort are small as the off-shore fishery is closed (DFO 2016).  It is unlikely that this fishery will have any impact on other species via bycatch. 

HABITAT

Last updated on 5 January 2018

Given that the off-shore directed fishery is closed, and that the inshore Stewardship fishery is harvested by fixed gear, habitat impacts are likely minimal.

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 05 Jan 2018

A number of habitat closures, marine protected areas, and refuges occur in this area. Some of these are designed in part to protect cod and cod spawning habitat (DFO - List of marine refuges 2017)

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 4 January 2018

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is < 6.

A conservation limit reference point is defined but not timelines for rebuilding are established. The stock is severely depleted and there is no formal recovery plan in place.

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is < 6.

DFO (2016) advises, under the precautionary approach and considering the status of the stock and projections, the maintenance of low levels of removals. Despite this stewardship removals and bycatch have greatly increased in 2017.

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is < 6.

An unknown amount of illegal fishing is occurring and discarding of small fish by the recreational fishery is thought to be widespread. Individual quotas are set but greatly exceed the amount scientifically recommended.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is 2.7.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the SSBlim.

The SSB is 299 ('000 t). The SSBlim is 653 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/SSBlim for this index is 45.7%.

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is < 6.

Fishing mortality is thought to be low, but even at this level it is unlikley that rebuilding to the LRP will occur.

ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS

Click on the score to see subscore

Click on the score to see subscore

Click on the score to see subscore

×

Bycatch Subscores

At-Sea  monitoring required (DFO 2017).  Discarding in the recreational fishery is thought to be problematic.

Bycatch of ETP species in the Stewardship fishery is not known, but effort is low. Off-shore directed fisheries are closed.

Bycatch of non-target species in the Stewardship fishery is not known, but effort is low. Off-shore directed fisheries are closed.

Bycatch management in not known in the Stewardship fishery but effort is low and observers are required. Off-shore directed fishery is currently closed.

×

Habitat Subscores

Given that the off-shore directed fishery is closed, and that the inshore Stewardship fishery uses fixed gear. Habitat impacts are unlikely

Information on important habitats in the area are known and mapped with some certainty (DFO 2017)

Given that the off-shore directed fishery is closed, and that the inshore Stewardship fishery uses fixed gear. Habitat impacts are unlikely

Habitat management measures are in place in the area including closed areas and MPAs (DFO - List of marine refuges 2017)

×

Ecosystem Subscores

Given the size of the Stewardship fishery and the lack of an off-shore directed fishery, ecosystem impacts are unlikely.

Some knowledge of ecosystem impacts in the area are known, particularly the effect of capelin on Cod stocks as well as some information on cod predation by seals. But there is a high degree of uncertainty (Heymans 2003).

Given the size of the Stewardship fishery and the lack of an off-shore directed fishery, ecosystem impacts are unlikely. 

Some ecosystem management measures are in place particularly with the link between capelin, cod, and seals (Krumsick 2014).

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
  1. The offshore fishery is closed. No TAC is formally set but a limited Stewardship fishery is allowed. Individual quotas are set for the stewardship fishery An unknown degree of illegal fishing, considered to be “substantial”, is occurring in this fishery (DFO, 2013a).
  2. Removals are based on the fishing rather than the calendar year.
  3. Reported landings comprise the stewardship fishery, the sentinel survey and by-catch; recreational landings are not estimated thus total landings are unknown.
  4. As such scores 1, 2, 3, and 5 were determined qualitatively

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

SELECT FIP

Access FIP Public Report

Progress Rating: A
Evaluation Start Date: 18 Apr 2015
Type: Comprehensive

Comments:

FIP rating remains A with last stage 4 activity reported in last 12 months - evaluation report on the sensitive habitats to support management decisions

1.
FIP Development
Apr 15
2.
FIP Launch
Apr 15
Apr 16
3.
FIP Implementation
Jun 18
4.
Improvements in Fishing Practices and Fishery Management
Mar 18
5.
Improvements on the Water
May 16
6.
MSC certification (optional)
MSC certificate made public

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

SFP is thankful to John Brattey (DFO, Canada) who provided information for this fishery profile.

  1. Bell, K.N.I. 1998. Status of Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua, in Canada. Status report commissioned by COSEWIC. ≈100 pp.+8 figs., 137 refs. (Officially unavailable; obtained from author.)http://www.ucs.mun.ca/~kbell/cod/BELLcodrep980204/BELLCod980204sbmtd.html
  2. Benjamins, S., D.W. Kulka, J. Lawson, 2008. Incidental catch of seabirds in Newfoundland and Labrador gillnet fisheries, 2001-2003. Endangered Species Research Vol. 5:149-160.http://www.int-res.com/articles/esr2008/5/n005p149.pdf
  3. Brattey, J., N.G. Cadigan, K. Dwyer, B.P. Healey, M.J. Morgan, E.F. Murphy, D. Maddock Parsons and D. Power, 2008. Assessments of the cod (Gadus morhua) stock in NAFO Divisions 2J3KL (April 2007 and April 2008). DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2008/086. 150 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/CSAS/Csas/Publications/ResDocs-DocRech/2008/2008_086_e.pdf
  4. Brattey, J., N.G. Cadigan, K. Dwyer, B.P. Healey, M.J. Morgan, E.F. Murphy, D. Maddock Parsons, D. Power, 2009. Assessment of the cod (Gadus morhua) stock in NAFO Divisions 2J+3KL in 2009. DFO DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2009/061. 92 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/CSAS/Csas/Publications/ResDocs-DocRech/2009/2009_061_e.pdf
  5. Brattey, J., N.G. Cadigan, K. Dwyer, B.P. Healey, M.J. Morgan, E.F. Murphy, D. Maddock Parsons & D. Power, 2010. Assessment of the cod (Gadus morhua) stock in NAFO Divisions 2J+3KL in 2010. DFO Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document 2010/103.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/CSAS/Csas/publications/resdocs-docrech/2010/2010_103_e.pdf
  6. COSEWIC, 2003. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. xi + 76 pp.http://www.sararegistry.gc.ca/virtual_sara/files/cosewic/sr%5Fatlantic%5Fcod%5Fe%2Epdf
  7. COSEWIC. 2010. COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. Xiii + 105 pp.http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2011/ec/CW69-14-311-2010-eng.pdf
  8. DFO, 2006. Impacts of Trawl Gears and Scallop Dredges on Benthic Habitats, Populations and Communities. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2006/025.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/Csas/status/2006/SAR-AS2006_025_E.pdf
  9. DFO, 2012c. State of the Ocean for the Placentia Bay - Grand Banks Large Ocean Management Area. Can. Manuscr. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2983: viii + 34 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Library/345305.pdf
  10. DFO, 2012c. State of the Ocean for the Placentia Bay - Grand Banks Large Ocean Management Area. Can. Manuscr. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2983: viii + 34 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Library/345305.pdf
  11. DFO, 2013a. Stock Assessment of Northern (2J3KL) Cod in 2013. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2013/014, 27 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas-sccs/Publications/SAR-AS/2013/2013_014-eng.pdf
  12. DFO. 2014. Northern (2J3KL) Cod Stock Update. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Resp. 2014/030.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas-sccs/publications/scr-rs/2014/2014_030-eng.pdf
  13. Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), 2005. A Strategy for the Recovery and Management of Cod Stocks in Newfoundland and Labrador. Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, November 2005. http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/fm-gp/initiatives/cod-morue/strategie-nl-eng.htm
  14. Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), 2005. Stock Assessment Report on Northern (2J3KL) cod in 2006. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2005/024. 21 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/Csas/status/2005/SAR-AS2005_024_E.pdf
  15. Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), 2006. Stock Assessment of Northern (2J3KL) cod in 2006. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2006/015. 23 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/Csas/status/2006/SAR-AS2006_015_E.pdf
  16. Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), 2007. National Plan of Action for Reducing Incidental Catch of Seabirds in Longline Fisheries. March 2007.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/npoa-pan/npoa-pan/npoa-seabirds-eng.htm
  17. Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), 2007. Stock Assessment of Northern (2J3KL) cod in 2007. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2007/018. 25 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/Csas/status/2007/SAR-AS2007_018_E.pdf
  18. Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), 2008. Stock Assessment of Northern (2J3KL) cod in 2008. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2008/034. 22 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/CSAS/Csas/Publications/SAR-AS/2008/SAR-AS2008_034_E.pdf
  19. Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), 2009. Stock Assessment of Northern (2J3KL) cod in 2009. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2009/009. 22 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/CSAS/Csas/Publications/SAR-AS/2009/2009_009_E.pdf
  20. Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), 2010. Stock Assessment of Northern (2J3KL) cod in 2010. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2010/019. 23 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/CSAS/Csas/publications/sar-as/2010/2010_019_e.pdf
  21. Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), 2011a. Stock Assessment of Northern (2J3KL) cod in 2011. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2011/041. 23 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Csas-sccs/publications/sar-as/2011/2011_041-eng.pdf
  22. Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), 2011b. Recovery potential assessment for the Newfoundland and Labrador Designatable Unit (NAFO Divs. 2GHJ, 3KLNO) of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua). DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2011/037. 30 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Csas-sccs/publications/sar-as/2011/2011_037-eng.pdf
  23. Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), 2012b. Fisheries Management Decisions, Atlantic, Quebec and the Arctic – 2012, Northern Cod Stewardship Fishery 2J3KL [Accessed 09 August 2013]http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/decisions/fm-2012-gp/atl-029-eng.htm
  24. Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), 2012. Stock Assessment Update of Northern (2J3KL) Cod. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Resp. 2012/009. 13 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas-sccs/Publications/ScR-RS/2012/2012_009-eng.pdf
  25. Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), 2013b. Fisheries Management Decisions, Atlantic, Quebec and the Arctic – 2013, Northern Cod Stewardship Fishery 2J3KL [Accessed 09 August 2013] http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/decisions/fm-2012-gp/atl-029-eng.htm
  26. Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), 2013c. Newfoundland and Labrador Recreational Groundfish Fishery [Accessed 13 August 2013]http://www.nfl.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/NL/CC/Gilbert-Bay-MPA-Science-Monitoring-Results
  27. Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), 2013c. Newfoundland and Labrador Recreational Groundfish Fishery [Accessed 13 August 2013]http://www.nfl.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/NL/CC/Gilbert-Bay-MPA-Science-Monitoring-Results
  28. Fisheries Resource Conservation Council (FRCC), 2003. 2003/2004 Conservation Requirement for 2J3KL Cod Stocks. Report to the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans. FRCC.2003.R.2. 20 pp.http://www.frcc.ca/2003/2j3kl.pdf
  29. Gordon, D.J., K. Gilkinson, E. Kenchington, J. Prena, C. Bourbannais, K. MacIsaac, D. McKeown, and W. Vass, 2002. Summary of the Grand Banks otter trawling experiment (1993-1995): Effects on benthic habitat and communities. Can Rep Fish Aquat Sci, 2146: p. 72pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Library/264541.pdf
  30. Hammill, M.O., Stenson, G.B., Doniol-Valcroze, T., Mosnier, A. 2011. Northwest Atlantic Harp Seals population trends, 1952-2012. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2011/099http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Csas-sccs/publications/resdocs-docrech/2012/2012_148-eng.pdf
  31. Lilly, G.R., and Murphy, E.F., 2004. Biology, fishery and status of the 2GH and 2J3KL (northern) cod stocks: information supporting an assessment of allowable harm under the Species at Risk Act for the COSEWIC-defined Newfoundland and Labrador population of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res Doc. 2004/102. 107 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/Csas/DocREC/2004/RES2004_102_e.pdf
  32. Lilly, G.R., Brattey, J., Cadigan, N.G., Healey, B.P., and Murphy, E.F., 2005. An assessment of the cod (Gadus morhua) stock in NAFO Divisions 2J3KL in March 2005. Can. Sci. Adv. Sec. Res. Doc. 2005/018. 211 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/Csas/DocREC/2005/RES2005_018_e.pdf
  33. Lilly, G.R., Murphy, E.F., Healey, B.P, and Brattey, J., 2006. An assessment of the cod (Gadus morhua) stock in NAFO Divisions 2J3KL in April 2006. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2006/043. 159 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/Csas/DocREC/2006/RES2006_043_e.pdf
  34. Lilly, G.R., Murphy, E.F., Healey, B.P., Maddock Parsons, D., and Stead, R., 2004. An update of the status of the cod (Gadus morhua) stock in NAFO Divisions 2J+3KL in March 2004. Can. Sci. Adv. Sec. Res. Doc. 2004/023. 55 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/Csas/DocREC/2004/RES2004_023_e.pdf
  35. Lilly, G.R., Shelton, P.A., Brattey, J., Cadigan, N.G., Healey, B.P., Murphy, E.F., Stansbury, D.E., and Chen, N., 2003. An assessment of the cod stock in NAFO Divisions 2J+3KL in February 2003. DFO Can. Sci. Adv. Sec. Res. Doc. 2003/023. 157 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/Csas/DocREC/2003/RES2003_023_E.pdf
  36. Myers, R.A., Hutchings, J.A., and Barrowman, N.J. 1997. Why do fish stocks collapse? The example of cod in Atlantic Canada. Ecological Applications 7: 91-106.Myers_et_al_Newfoundland_cod.pdf
  37. NAFO, 2004. Annual Compliance Review – 2003. 26th Annual Meeting – September 2004. NAFO/FC Doc. 04/13, N5063.http://archive.nafo.int/open/fc/2004/fcdoc04-13.pdf
  38. NAFO, 2007. Annual Compliance Review. 29th Annual Meeting – September 2007. NAFO/FC Doc. 07/23, N5450.http://archive.nafo.int/open/fc/2007/fcdoc07-23.pdf
  39. NAFO, 2008. Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization Conservation and Enforcement Measures. NAFO FC Doc. 08/1, N5480.http://www.nafo.int/fisheries/CEM/CEM.pdf
  40. NAFO, 2009. Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization Conservation and Enforcement Measures. Annual Compliance Review 2009. NAFO/FC Doc. 09/16, N5708. 16 pp.http://archive.nafo.int/open/fc/2009/fcdoc09-16.pdf
  41. NAFO, 2010. NAFO Conservation and Enforcement Measures. Annual Quota Table (Annex I.A) and Effort Allocation Scheme (Annex I.B)http://www.nafo.int/fisheries/frames/fishery.html
  42. Rivard, D. and J. Rice., 2003. National Workshop on Reference Points for Gadoids, 5-8 November 2002, Ottawa. Can. Sci. Adv. Sec. Proc. Ser. 2002/033. 16 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/Csas/proceedings/2002/PRO2002_033e.pdf
  43. Ruzzante, D. E., Taggart, C. T., Cook, D., Goddard, S. 1996. Genetic differentiation between inshore and offshore Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) off Newfoundland: microsatellite DNA variation and antifreeze level, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 53: 634–645http://myweb.dal.ca/ruzzante/pubs/ruzzante%20et%20al%20cod%20inshore-offshore%20I.pdf
  44. Serebryakov, V.P. 1991. Predicting year-class strength under uncertainties related to survival in the early life history of some north Atlantic commercial fish. NAFO Sci. Coun. Studies 16:49-55.http://archive.nafo.int/open/studies/s16/serebrya.pdf
  45. Shelton, P.A. 2006. Management strategies for recovery of northern cod. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2006/044. 16 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/Csas/DocREC/2006/RES2006_044_e.pdf
  46. Shelton, P. and D. Rivard, 2003. Developing a Precautionary Approach to Fisheries Management in Canada – the Decade Following the Cod Collapses. NAFO SCR Doc. 03/1, N4808.http://archive.nafo.int/open/sc/2003/scr03-001.pdf
  47. Stenson, G.B. 2013. Estimating consumption of prey by Harp Seals, (Pagophilus groenlandicus) in NAFO Divisions 2J3KL. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2012/156. iii + 26 p.http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2013/mpo-dfo/Fs70-5-2012-156-eng.pdf
  48. Templeman, N.D., 2010. Ecosystem Status and Trends Report for the Newfoundland and Labrador Shelf. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2010/026. 72 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/CSAS/Csas/publications/resdocs-docrech/2010/2010_026_e.pdf
References

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    Atlantic cod - Newfoundland

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