Last updated on 5 October 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Dissostichus eleginoides

SPECIES NAME(s)

Patagonian toothfish

COMMON NAMES

Chilean seabass

Patagonian toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides occurs in the Southern Ocean and on the South American Plateau. Several stock identification methods suggest the existence of at least four biological stock units within the wide Patagonian toothfish’s distribution (Appleyard et al., 2002; CCAMLR, 2004; Laptikhovsky et al., 2006; Ashford et al., 2012): a South American stock; a South Georgia Islands stock, a Macquarie Islands stock, and a Southern Indian Ocean Islands stock.

In the South American stock, each country manages their fisheries independently.


ANALYSIS

No related analysis

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

0 to ≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 6 to 10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

3.0 to < 6

Future Health:

0 to ≥ 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Monitoring of all fishery areas should be improved to collect appropriate biological and fishery data to enable future stock assessments.
2. Research should focus on the understanding of stock identification and developing stock assessments for each biological stock.
3. Management should closely follow scientific advice.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Support improved monitoring so that the biological and fisheries data necessary to inform future assessments are collected.
2. Encourage managers to follow scientific advice.
3. Request that your supply chain participates in SFP’s South American Whitefish Supplier Roundtable (http://www.sustainablefish.org/fisheries-improvement/whitefish/south-american-whitefish-roundtable/south-american-whitefish-supplier-roundtable).


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • Argentine Patagonian toothfish:

    Withdrawn

  • Falkland Island toothfish:

    MSC Recertified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Argentine Argentina Argentina Bottom trawls
Longlines
Traps
Chilean Chile North 47ºS - Artisanal Chile Bottom-set longlines
Chile South 47ºS - Industrial Chile Bottom-set longlines
Falkland Falklands Falkland Islands (malvinas) Longlines
Peruvian Peru Peru Bottom-set longlines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Monitoring of all fishery areas should be improved to collect appropriate biological and fishery data to enable future stock assessments.
2. Research should focus on the understanding of stock identification and developing stock assessments for each biological stock.
3. Management should closely follow scientific advice.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Support improved monitoring so that the biological and fisheries data necessary to inform future assessments are collected.
2. Encourage managers to follow scientific advice.
3. Request that your supply chain participates in SFP’s South American Whitefish Supplier Roundtable (http://www.sustainablefish.org/fisheries-improvement/whitefish/south-american-whitefish-roundtable/south-american-whitefish-supplier-roundtable).

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Work actively to address and close out conditions placed upon the certification of the fishery in the agreed timeframe.
2. Report achievements publicly to share progress with buyers.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met.
2. Express your support to help meet conditions that may be at a government/regulatory level (where applicable). Please contact the relevant SFP Sector Group or Supplier Roundtable for more specific information.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Although the stock structure has not been conclusively determined, Patagonian toothfish in the South American Plateau is thought to constitute a single stock (Laptikhovsky et al., 2006; Ashford et al 2012). There are indications that the fish inside the EEZ migrate from central to southern Chile to spawn (Oyarzun et al. 2003; Cespedes et al. 2005 Young et al.1998). However there is no estimate of the population size in the South American Plateau.

The stock assessments for this species are indirect (age-structured model), using data from the fleet, the Fisheries Development Institute (IFOP), and onboard observers. The stock is assessed considering only the southern area (47ºS-57ºS.). In addition, this part of the population is assessed considering it as isolated from the northern fishing area. The northern stock or northern portion of the stock is not assessed through a formal stock assessment, due to the lack of biological and fishery data from this region where the artisanal fishery (<18 mts vessels) is conducted (SUBPESCA, 2015c). However, it is assessed analyzing the historical landings and a Catch-MSY based reference point suggested by the scientific body IFOP (SUBPESCA, 2013b).

The Deep Waters Demersal Resources Scientific-Technical Committee (CCT-RDAP) evaluated the different stock assessment models (under different stock scenarios) presented by IFOP; however the CCT-RDAP did not achieve consensus for selecting one model and made recommendations for improvements (SUBPESCA, 2014a). The 2014 stock assessment is not publicly available because it is currently under revision.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

After the amendments to the Fisheries and Aquaculture Law in 2013, the scientific advice for this fishery – concerning the Total Allowable Catch (TAC) – is given in three stages each year: a recommendation is given by IFOP for each management unit the year before. The Deep Waters Demersal Resources Scientific-Technical Committee (CCT-RDAP) analyzes IFOP technical and stock assessments reports and proposes a biologically acceptable catch (CBA). Finally, SUBPESCA submits a final TAC recommendation to be considered by the Ministry of Economy, Development and Tourism (Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, MEFT).

Considering the observations to the analysis and results presented by IFOP to the Scientific Committee and taking into account that these studies are currently being subjected to a Peer Review process by international experts, as well as the need for a recommendation of setting the annual within the schedule of the administrative process for the year 2015 and the absence of indicators of an increased risk of deterioration of the stock during 2014, the Committee recommended for 2015 adopting the same ranges of CBA as for 2014, on both Patagonian toothfish fishery units. i.e. 988 tonnes and 1098 tonnes for the management areas North 47°S and South 47°S, respectively. SUBPESCA adopted the same recommendation as the Scientific Committee (SUBPESCA, 2014b).

The Scientific Committee recommended as well to: i) maintain the mark-recapture program at national level (including both the northern and southern stock distribution regions); ii) study the possible existence of spawning grounds north of parallel 47°S; iii) study the size/depth/fishery relationship along the entire Chilean coast (SUBPESCA, 2014a).

Chile North 47ºS

Last updated on 6 August 2015

The Deep Waters Demersal Resources Scientific-Technical Committee (CCT-RDAP) recommended for 2015 adopting the same ranges of CBA as for 2014, i.e. 988 tonnes. SUBPESCA adopted the same recommendation as the Scientific Committee (SUBPESCA, 2014b).

Reference Points

Last updated on 06 Aug 2015

The Fisheries and Aquaculture Law states that, for all stocks, exploitation should be around the maximum sustainable yield. The northern stock or northern portion of the stock is not assessed through a formal stock assessment, due to the lack of biological and fishery data from this region. IFOP proposed a provisional BMSY proxy = 2,325 tonnes. It was calculated using a Catch-MSY method for data-deficient fisheries. The Technical Committee (CCT-RDAP) adopted this provisional biomass target reference point (SUBPESCA, 2014a).

Chile South 47ºS

Last updated on 7 August 2015

The Deep Waters Demersal Resources Scientific-Technical Committee (CCT-RDAP) recommended for 2015 adopting the same ranges of CBA as for 2014, i.e. 1098 tonnes. SUBPESCA adopted the same recommendation as the Scientific Committee (SUBPESCA, 2014b). 

Reference Points

Last updated on 07 Aug 2015

The Fisheries and Aquaculture Law states that, for all stocks, exploitation should be around the maximum sustainable yield. Patagonian toothfish stock assessment for the south 47°S management area, uses an age structure method. However, due to the unavailability of a statistically satisfactory estimation of the stock/recruit relationship, MSY proxy reference points relative to the virgin biomass (B0) are used. These reference points are expressed in relative terms.

More precautionary reference points were proposed for this fishery by international peer reviewers in 2014 and these have been adopted by IFOP and the Deep Waters Demersal Resources Scientific-Technical Committee (CCT-RDAP, SUBPESCA, 2015d), as follows:
- Biomass limit reference point Blim: 22.5% of SSB0
- Biomass target reference point, BMSY proxy: 45% of SSB0
- Fishing mortality target reference point, FMSY proxy: F45% SSBPR

Previous biomass target reference point was BMSY proxy= 40% of SSB0 and Blim= 20% SSB0.

CURRENT STATUS

In 2013, the Technical Committee reported that, based on the proposed BMSY proxy (=2,325 tonnes) the resource north 47°S was over-exploited (B2012 << BMSY). In 2014, the status of the stock was analyzed assuming different stock units. Although none of the models was finally adopted, considering the biological reference points for this resource recommended by the peer review and the different scenarios presented by IFOP, there was consensus within the Committee members that the resource is in an over-exploitation status and spawning biomass is below Blim (SUBPESCA, 2014a,b).

Trends

Patagonian toothfish started to be commercially exploited in Chile by the artisanal fleet in the 1970s, in central Chile. After a couple of years, the fishing areas extended to the north and mainly to the south of 47ºS. The Chilean fishery, which is inside the EEZ, is harvested by two different fleets: artisanal or small-scale – between 15 and 18 meters – and industrial or large-scale. They operate north and south of 47º S respectively. The northern area did not have any restrictions other than limited access until 2013. Since then, both fishery units have restricted access to new operators until 2017, and both management areas have a quota system; however in the north 47º S area it is a global TAC, while in the south unit it is an individual fishing quota system (IFQs).

From 1980 to 1989, the landings were mainly of the artisanal fleet operating in the VIII Region, with an increasing trend, reaching 6,000 tons in 1986.From 1990, a gradual decrease is observed in the northern region, because the fleet moved southward looking for higher yields, mainly found in the X Region. As a result of a research project in the southern zone, the landings increased to over 14,000 tons in 1992, which was before the Undersecretariat of Fisheries declared a “fishery unit” (Unidad de Pesqueria, UP) south of the in “Incipient Development Regime” (Regimen de Desarrollo Incipiente). However, after reaching that peak, the trend in the landings changed, decreasing from one year to the next, with catch levels of less than 7,000 tons total for both areas, which includes a catch level of less than 3,000 tons for the southern area. From 2005 to 2012, production has stabilized in both areas; average of 1900 tons and 2500 tons were harvested in the north and south management areas, respectively.

Chile North 47ºS

Last updated on 6 August 2015

Trends

Last updated on 06 Aug 2015

The first TAC for the artisanal fleet (north 47ºS management area) started in 2013 at 1,187 tonnes (MEFT, 2013a) and was reduced to 988 tonnes for 2014 and 2015 (MEFT, 2014a).

Chile South 47ºS
Trends

The first TAC for the industrial long-liners (south 47ºS management area) started at 5,000 tonnes in 1993, increased to 7,500 tonnes in 1996 and began to be reduced the next year to 6,000 tonnes, was set at 3,500 tonnes in 2003. Since 2005, the TAC has been set between 2,700 and 3,000 tonnes, however, the landings have been lower than those TACs. For 2014 and 2015, TACs in the southern management area were set at 1,098 tonnes (MEFT, 2014a).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Amendments to the Fisheries and Aquaculture Law in 2013 (LGPA, 2013c), led to the classification of the fisheries according to the definition of conservation measures and management based on the biological and fishery references points defined under the Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) criteria, and to positive changes in the management system. Management Committees and Technical-Scientific Committees were created to assist the fisheries management authority, the Undersecretariat of Fisheries (SUBPESCA); the Deep Waters Demersal Resources Scientific-Technical Committee (CCT-RDAP) analyzes the Patagonian toothfish resource, among others. A Management Committee for Patagonian toothfish is in the process of formation, with the objective to elaborate a Management plan for the fishery.

The National Fisheries Service (SERNAPESCA) is in charge of ensuring proper application of fishing rules and regulations and supervising their enforcement, providing the artisanal fishing activity with technical assistance, and keeping a national record of artisanal fishermen.

From 2013 to 2017 the fishery has restricted access to new operators. A catch quota (TAC) is set annually for the fishery unit. The annual TAC is set into force by the Minister of Economy, Development and Tourism (MEFT). This TAC is established by the end of the year (November – December) and is valid for the following year.

Discarding of target species is illegal since the new Fisheries and Aquaculture Law of 2013, except in fisheries such as that of Patagonian toothfish, where a research project is underway to estimate discard and bycatch rates in order to obtain real historical removals (MEFT, 2015).

A limitation of 12,000 hooks per fishing trip is set since 1986 (SUBPESCA, 2015c).

Recovery Plans

Patagonian toothfish is considered under over-exploitation and the fishery is closed-access since 2013. The Fisheries and Aquaculture law now requires that Management Plans be developed for the fisheries in Chile with a closed-access system or in a recovery regime. A Management Committee is being formed with the objective to elaborate a Management Plan (SUBPESCA, 2015e).

Chile North 47ºS

Last updated on 6 August 2015

This fishery is restricted to vessels <15mts length in the Chilean regions XV to V, and to vessels <18 mts length from Region V to 47°S. TAC for 2015 for the fishery unit north 47°S was set at 988 tonnes, as proposed by the Technical Committee and SUBPESCA. The TAC proposed by IFOP was not publicly available because the stock assessment report is under revision.

Chile South 47ºS

Last updated on 7 August 2015

This fishery unit is administered through individual fishing quotas (IFQs). A temporal closure is set from 1st June to 31st August since 1996, from 53°S to 57°S.

TAC for 2015 for the fishery unit south 47°S was set at 1098 tonnes, as proposed by the Technical Committee and SUBPESCA. The TAC proposed by IFOP was not publicly available because the stock assessment report is under revision.

COMPLIANCE
Chile North 47ºS

Last updated on 6 August 2015

Publicly available reports do not include information related to compliance on this fishery. TAC for this fishery started in 2013 and catches are only available until 2012.

Chile South 47ºS

Last updated on 7 August 2015

Publicly available reports do not include information related to compliance on this fishery. The TAC has not been fully harvested in 2011 and 2012, and preliminary value indicates the same for 2013 (SUBPESCA, 2015b).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

This fishery is associated with bycatch of seabirds and marine mammals. Seabirds (albatrosses and petrels) are attracted to bait, being dragged underwater and drown. With respect to marine mammals (killer whales, sperm whales and sea lions, among others), Patagonian toothfish is part of their diet, and they feed during the longline haul out, which is when the interaction with the vessel may occur.

Several mitigation measures to reduce seabirds mortality were suggested for longline fisheries, e.g. use of streamers (scare away birds by the streamers after Stern), line-weighting, night setting and staining blue bait (OCEANA, 2005). In August 2014, several of proposed measures to reduce the seabird bycatch in longline fisheries were set for both the artisanal and industrial fleets, namely: i) mandatory use of bird scaring lines (tori poles), ii) the line-weighting to accelerate the sinking rate, iii) night setting of lines, iv) dumping fish offal in the opposite side of which hooks are hoisted, v) prohibition to eliminate plastics or fishing gear off board (MEFT, 2014b). Compliance with these requirements is not known.

Mammal interactions with the fisheries can be of two types: competition for the resource, as Patagonian toothfish is part of their diet, and operational interaction during the longline haul out, when mammals approach the lines to feed. In Chile, it has been reported catch of whales, sperm whales and sea lions. This has negative consequences for both mammals and fishing gear, and to repel mammals, drastic measures have been undertaken such as hand guns or harpoons (OCEANA, 2005). No information is available regarding these interactions, and no management measures have been set to reduce them until present.

Chile South 47ºS

Last updated on 7 August 2015

A 2-year research program has been recently adopted to estimate the amount of retained bycatch species and incidental catches of the Patagonian toothfish fishery in this management area (MEFT, 2015).

Other Species

The main bycatch in the Chilean fishery is Chilean Hoki Macruronus magellanicus (Cespedes et al., 2005).

Chile North 47ºS

Last updated on 6 August 2015

No further information is available on bycatch species within this management area.

Chile South 47ºS

Last updated on 7 August 2015

MEFT published a list of 28 bycatch species in the Patagonian toothfish longline fishery in the south 47ºS management area that are allowed to be captured and commercialized (MEFT, 2013b). No information is available regarding the proportions, trends of these species or regarding other bycatch species with no commercial interest.

A 2-year research program has been recently adopted to estimate the amount of retained bycatch species and incidental catches (which are discarded) of the Patagonian toothfish fishery in this management area (MEFT, 2015).

HABITAT

The habitat of this species is between 50 and 3850 meters of depth; it is a deep midwater species just occasionally found on the seafloor. It is not found in waters colder than 2ºC. Patagonian toothfish is the largest predatory fish in the midwaters of the Southern Ocean. Larvae feed on krill and adults feed on different kinds of fish, cephalopods and crustaceans (Goldsworthy et al. 2002.) However, Oyarzun et al. (2003) found that jack mackerel were in the stomach content of Chilean toothfish.

Most of the harvesters use bottom longlines, some demersal trawling, and there is a small percentage that uses traps (mostly experimental). The impacts on the bottom have not been measured, though impact of bottom longlines on habitat is considered low and trawling is made over sandy and muddy seabeds.

Chile North 47ºS

Last updated on 6 August 2015

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 06 Aug 2015

Chile has defined protected areas to meet specific conversation objectives (SUBPESCA, 2015f), including:

- A Ramsar site Lomas Bay (declared a wetland of international importance in December 2004), involving coastal marine systems. It is located in the north-east of Tierra del Fuego sector, with about 70 km long and several salt marshes.

- A Marine Park – Francisco Coloane, created in 2003 for preserving the feeding area of the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), preserving the breeding areas of the Magellan penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) and sea lions (Otaria flavescens). This park covers an area of 1,506 hectares, in a protected coastal marine area of 67,000 hectares, is located in the Strait of Magellan.

- Four Nature sanctuaries in order to protect spawning grounds, fishing grounds and areas of repopulation of Humblodt penguins and sea lions, colonies of sea lions; wetlands associated with the Rio Cruces and the estuary of Quitralco Estero.

FishSource Scores

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MANAGEMENT QUALITY

Different components of this stock score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

Different components of this stock score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

Different components of this stock score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

STOCK HEALTH:

Different components of this stock score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

Different components of this stock score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

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No related analysis

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

Argentine Patagonian toothfish

STATUS

Withdrawn on 20 January 2015

SCORES

"Argentine Patagonian toothfish fishery has withdrawn from the MSC assessment process."

Certification Type:

Sources

Credits
  1. Appleyard, S.A.; Ward, R.D.; Williams, R. 2002. Population structure of the Patagonian toothfish around Heard, McDonald and Macquarie Islands. Antarctic Science 14 (4). 10 pp. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayFulltext?type=1&fid=139800&jid=ANS&volumeId=14&issueId=04&aid=139799
  2. Ashford, J.R., Fach, B.A., Arkhipkin, A.I., Jones, C.M. 2012. Testing early life connectivity supplying a marine fishery around the Falkland Islands. Fisheries Research 121-122, 9 pp. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165783612000549
  3. Andrews, J., Hough, A., Medley, P., 2014. Falkland Islands Toothfish Longline Fishery - Public Certification Report. Intertek Moody Marine Ltd, March 2014. 279pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/south-atlantic-indian-ocean/falkland-island-toothfish/assessment-downloads-1/20140305_PCR_TOO370.pdf
  4. Andrews, J., Hough, A., Medley, P., 2015. Surveillance Report Falkland Islands Toothfish Longline Fishery. Intertek Moody Marine Ltd., April 2015. 31pphttps://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/south-atlantic-indian-ocean/falkland-island-toothfish/assessment-downloads-1/20150421_SR_TOO370.pdf
  5. CCAMLR, 2004. Population Genetic Structure of Patagonian toothfish in the West Indian Ocean Sector of the Southern Ocean. CCAMLR Science, Vol. 11. 12 pp. https://www.ccamlr.org/en/system/files/science_journal_papers/02appleyard-etal.pdf
  6. Departamento de Oceanografía, Universidad de Concepción (DO-UC), 2008. Informe Final, Proyecto del Fondo de Investigación Pesquera “Unidades Poblacionales del Bacalao de Profundidad” Nº2006-41.http://www.fip.cl/FIP/Archivos/pdf/informes/inffinal%202006-41.pdf
  7. des Clers, S., Nolan, C. P., Baranowski, R. and Pompert, J. (1996), Preliminary stock assessment of the Patagonian toothfish longline fishery around the Falkland Islands. Journal of Fish Biology, 49: 145–156. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1996.tb06072.x/abstract
  8. Instituto del Mar del Peru (2008). Situación de la Pesqueria del bacalao de profundidad (Dissostichus eleginoides Smitt 1898) en el Mar Peruano, durante el 2007. Unidad de Investigaciónes en peces demersales, bentonicos y litorales, 8 p. http://www.imarpe.gob.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_16)_situacion_de_la_pesqueria_de_bacalao_de_profundidad_web.pdf
  9. Laptikhovsky, V., and P. Brickle. 2005. The Patagonian toothfish fishery in Falkland Islands’ waters. Fisheries Research 74: 11–23http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016578360500127X
  10. Laptikhovsky V, Arkhipkin A, Brickle P (2006) Distribution and reproduction of the Patagonian toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides Smitt around the Falkland Islands. Journal of Fish Biology 68, 849-861.
  11. Ley General de Pesca y Acuicultura (LGPA), 2013. Fija el texto refundido, coordinado y sistematizado de la Ley N° 18.892, de 1989 y sus modificaciones, Ley General de Pesca y Acuicultura (texto actualizado incorpora modificación Ley N°20.657). Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Valparaíso, Chile. 186 pp.http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-516_documento.pdf
  12. MEFT, 2013a. D EX Nº 1322-2013, Establece Cuota Anual de Captura recurso Bacalao de Profundidad, Año 2014. http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-82041_documento.pdf
  13. MEFT, 2013b. R EX Nº 3200-2013 Establece listado de especies asociadas al Arte de pesca y proporciones para los efectos previstos en el Artículo 33 de la Ley General de Pesca y Acuicultura. deja sin efecto R EX Nº 2251-2013. (F.D.O. 29-11- 2013).http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-81934_documento.pdf
  14. MEFT, 2014a. D EX Nº 816-2014, Establece Cuota Anual de Captura recurso Bacalao de Profundidad, Año 2015. (Publicado en Diario Oficial 24-11-2014).http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-86219_documento.pdf
  15. MEFT, 2014b. R EX N° 2110-2014 Establece Medidas de Administración para Reducir las Capturas Incidentales de Aves de las Pesuqerías de Palangre que se Indica. (Publicada en Pág. Web 13-08-2014) (F.D.O. 19-08-2014). http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-84597_documento.pdf
  16. MEFT, 2015. R EX N° 525-2015 Autoriza Programa de Investigación del Descarte para Pesquerías de Bacalao de Profundidad, Merluza del sur, Congrio Dorado y su Fauna Acompañante, V-X Regiones y aguas Internacionales. (Publicada en Diario Oficial 28-02-2015) http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-87045_documento.pdf
  17. Moreno, C.A., 2008. Significant Conservation Benefits Obtained from the Use of a New Fishing Gear in the Chilean Patagonian Toothfish Fishery. CCAMLR Science 15:79-91.http://www.ccamlr.org/ccamlr_science/Vol-15-2008/04moreno-et-al.pdf
  18. Oceana, 2005. Pesca incidental de aves y mamíferos: DEVASTACIÓN MARINA. Marzo 2005. 81 pp. http://chile.oceana.org/sites/default/files/reports/Pesca_incidental.pdf
  19. Oyarzún, C., S. Gacitúa, M. Araya, L. Cubillos, R. Galleguillos, C. Pino, G. Aedo, M. Salamanca, M. Pedraza & J. Lamilla. 2003a. Monitoreo de la pesquería artesanal de bacalao de profundidad entre la VIII y XI Regiones. Informe Final FIP–Universidad de Concepción 2001-16, 225 p.
  20. Quiroz, J.C., Z. Young & C. Canales. 2007. Investigación Evaluación de Stock y CTP Bacalao de Profundidad Nacional, 2007. Subsecretaría de Pesca – Instituto de Fomento Pesquero. Informe Final. 47 pp.
  21. SUBPESCA, 2013ª. Informe Técnico (R. PESQ.) Nº 166 /2013 – División de Administración Pesquera Diseño de la Cuota Global de Captura de Bacalao de Profundidad (Dissostichus eleginoides) en la unidad de pesqueria, Año 2014. http://www-old.subpesca.cl/transparencia/documentos/RPESQ_166-2013_Diseno_Cuota_Global_de_Captura_BACALAO_UPL_2014.pdf
  22. SUBPESCA, 2010. Informe Técnico (R. Pesq.) N° 98 - 2010 Cuota Global de Captura de Bacalao de Profundidad (Dissostichus eleginoides) en la Unidad de Pesqueria, Año 2011.http://www.subpesca.cl/transparencia/documentos/RPESQ_098-2010_Cuota_Global_Captura_BACALAO_Unidad_Pesquer%C3%ADa_a%C3%B1o_2011.pdf
  23. SUBPESCA, 2013. Informe Técnico (R. PESQ.) Nº 188/2013 – División de Administración Pesquera Diseño de la Cuota Global de Captura de Bacalao de Profundidad (Dissostichus eleginoides) en la pesqueria al norte del paralelo 47° LS, Año 2014 http://www-old.subpesca.cl/transparencia/documentos/RPESQ_188-2013_Diseno_Cuota_Global_de_Captura_BACALAO_AP_2014.pdf
  24. SUBPESCA, 2014a. Informe Técnico CCT-RDAP N°1/2014: Rangos de Captura Biológicamente Aceptables para las Pesquerías de Bacalao de Profundidad, Año 2015 . http://www-old.subpesca.cl/transparencia/documentos/2014/INFORME_TEC_CCT-RDAP_N-1-2014_RANGOS_CBA_PESQUERIAS_BACALAO_2015.pdf
  25. SUBPESCA, 2014b. Informe Técnico (R. PESQ.) Nº 203/2014 División de Administración Pesquera Cuotas Anuales de Captura de Bacalao de Profundidad (Dissostichus eleginoides) para sus dos pesquerias, Año 2015. November, 2014. 5 pp. 
  26. http://www.subpesca.cl/publicaciones/606/articles-87131_documento.pdf
  27. SUBPESCA, 2015a. Normativa relacionada a la Especie Hidrobiológica Bacalao de Profunidad. http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/w3-article-826.html
  28. SUBPESCA, 2015b. Informe Sectorial de Pesca y Acuicultura 2014- Departamento de Análisis Sectorial. January, 2015. 19 pp. http://www.subpesca.cl/publicaciones/606/articles-86801_documento.pdf
  29. SUBPESCA, 2015c. Estado de situación de las principales pesquerías chilenas al año 2014. División de Administración Pesquera. March 2015. 84 pp. http://www.subpesca.cl/publicaciones/606/articles-87256_recurso_1.pdf
  30. SUBPESCA, 2015d. Informe Técnico CCT-RDAP N°1/2015 Puntos Biológicos de Referencia de las Pesquerías Demersales de Aguas Profundas. January 2015. 12 pp.http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-86806_documento.pdf
  31. SUBPESCA, 2015e. Subsecretaría de Pesca y Acuicultura – Postulaciones para el Comité de manejo Bacalao de Profundidad. [Assessed on 6 August 2015].http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/w3-propertyvalue-53738.html
  32. SUBPESCA, 2015f. Subsecretaría de Pesca y Acuicultura – Áreas Marinas Protegidas (AMPS). [Assessed on 6 August 2015]. http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/w3-propertyvalue-50832.html
  33. Departamento de Oceanografía, Universidad de Concepción (DO-UC), 2008. Informe Final, Proyecto del Fondo de Investigación Pesquera “Unidades Poblacionales del Bacalao de Profundidad” Nº2006-41. http://www.fip.cl/FIP/Archivos/pdf/informes/inffinal%202006-41.pdf

Additional credits:

SFP is thankful to Gabriela McLean (CeDePesca) who provided information for this fishery profile.

  1. Cascorbi, A. (2006) Chilean toothfish. Seafood Watch, final report, Monterrey Bay Aquarium.
  2. Céspedes, R., L. Adasme, V. Ojeda, C. Toledo, L. Muñoz, H. Hidalgo, R. Bravo, L. Cid, L. Chong & K. Hunt. 2005. Investigación Situación Pesquería Demersal Austral, 2004. Programa de Seguimiento del Estado de Situación de las Principales Pesquerías Nacionales. SUBPESCA. Informe final, IFOP, 186 p.
  3. Cubillos, L. & M. Ararya. 2007. Estimaciones empiricas de mortalidad natural en el bacalao de profundidad (Dissostichus eleginoides Smitt, 1898). Revista de Biologia Marina y Oceanografia 42(3): 287-297.
  4. Goldsworthy, S.D., M. Lewis, R. Williams, X. He, J.W. Young & J. van den Hoff. 2002. Diet of Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) around Macquarie Island, South Pacific Ocean. Marine and Freshwater Research, 53: 49-57.
  5. IFOP, 2010. Informe Final “Investigación del Estatus y Evaluación de Estrategias de Explotación Sustentables en Bacalo de profundidad, 2010. SUBPESCA/Marzo-2011.
  6. IFOP, 2011. Informe Final Convenio “Investigación del Estatus y Evaluación de Estrategias de Explotación Sustentables 2011, de las Principales Pesquerías Chilenas”. Actividad 2: Peces Demersales Bacalo de profundidad, 2011. SUBPESCA/mayo 2011.
  7. IFOP, 2013. Segundo Informe: Convenio II: Estatus y posibilidades de explotación biológicamente sustentables de los principales recursos pesqueros nacionales 2014. Proyecto 2.7: Investigación del estatus y posibilidades de explotación biológicamente sustentables en bacalao de profundida, año 2014. 153 pp.
  8. Laptikhovsky V, Arkhipkin A, Brickle P (2006) Distribution and reproduction of the Patagonian toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides Smitt around the Falkland Islands. Journal of Fish Biology 68, 849-861.
  9. Resolucion ministerial nº 236-2001-PE, Aprueban el Reglamento de Ordenamiento de la Pesquería del Bacalao de Profundidad, 12 p.
References

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    Patagonian toothfish - South American

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