Last updated on 19 July 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Panulirus argus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Caribbean spiny lobster

The complete stock structure of the Caribbean spiny lobster is not fully understood. Silberman et al. (1994) concluded that there is single genetic stock throughout its entire distribution area, however, a recent review of oceanographic and genetic available data indicates that Brazilian populations are characterized by a considerable degree of self-recruitment, and are assessed independently of the Caribbean populations (Andrade, 2015).

This profile refers to the Caribbean spiny lobster assessment unit in Northern Southwest Atlantic, along the tropical Brazilian coast. The Western Central Atlantic profile considers the Caribbean stock. 


ANALYSIS

Strengths

Weaknesses

In Brazil, Caribbean spiny lobster is considered overfished and overfishing is likely to be occurring. Although stricter regulations have been recently implemented, management is still considered ineffective due to lack of enforcement and compliance with regulations. A management plan has been developed in 2008, although up to present it hasn’t been implemented yet.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

< 6

Managers Compliance:

< 6

Fishers Compliance:

< 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

< 6

Future Health:

< 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Conduct an annual stock assessment.
2. Established limit and target reference points, as well as harvest controls such as total allowable catch and community quotas (rights-based management).
3. Improve monitoring and enforcement.
4. Implement a “live lobster” rule requiring that all lobster be delivered to processing plants alive to reduce harvest with illegal gear types (and improve product quality).

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Brazilian exporters should become affiliated with SINDIFRIOS (industry association) and join the Fishery Improvement Project.
2. Implement a traceability program to ensure that products are legally harvested and require that all lobsters in your supply chain be delivered to the processing plant alive.


FIPS

  • Brazil lobster - pots:

    Stage 4, Progress Rating A

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Northern SW Atlantic Brazil Brazil Pots

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 31 March 2013

Strengths

Weaknesses

In Brazil, Caribbean spiny lobster is considered overfished and overfishing is likely to be occurring. Although stricter regulations have been recently implemented, management is still considered ineffective due to lack of enforcement and compliance with regulations. A management plan has been developed in 2008, although up to present it hasn’t been implemented yet.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Conduct an annual stock assessment.
2. Established limit and target reference points, as well as harvest controls such as total allowable catch and community quotas (rights-based management).
3. Improve monitoring and enforcement.
4. Implement a “live lobster” rule requiring that all lobster be delivered to processing plants alive to reduce harvest with illegal gear types (and improve product quality).

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Brazilian exporters should become affiliated with SINDIFRIOS (industry association) and join the Fishery Improvement Project.
2. Implement a traceability program to ensure that products are legally harvested and require that all lobsters in your supply chain be delivered to the processing plant alive.

1.STOCK STATUS

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 24 June 2012

Reference Points

Last updated on 24 Jun 2012

No reference points are known to have been formally adopted.

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 24 June 2012

According to the latest available data (2006), the spiny lobster in Brazil is “overfished” and exploitation levels might not be sustainable on the long term. Fishing mortality in 2006 was regarded as well above the reference point F40% (FAO, 2006).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 24 June 2012

In recent years managers have reviewed the regulations in order to reduce fishing effort: e.g. stricter fishing effort limitations, an increase in the closed seasons and areas, fishing gear restrictions (Ibama, 2006, 2007, 2008a, 2008b). A fishery management plan was implemented in 2008, but there is no specific harvest control rule that anticipates a reduction in F if the stock is in bad shape.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 24 June 2012

In recent years captures have never exceeded the advised maximum sustainable yield of 8,000 t.year-1. However, enforcement is regarded as very weak in some parts of the Brazilian coast. Illegal fishing activities, such as fishing during closed seasons and with illegal fishing methods (e.g. scuba diving), are still taking place (Ibama, 2011b, 2012a, 2012b, 2012c, 2012d).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 25 June 2012

Gillnets, although currently prohibited, are still illegally used in some parts of the Brazilian coast. Gillnets have considerable bycatch, including of sea turtles (e.g. Hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricate, Green turtles Chelonia mydas, Leatherbacks Dermochelys coriacea, Loggerheads Caretta caretta) (Cascorbi, 2005; Ibama, 2008). Hookah divers illegally fishing for lobster also capture the protected giant grouper (Schärer, 2005 In Cascorbi, 2005).

Other Species

Last updated on 25 June 2012

Gillnets were banned from the lobster fishing in Brazil, in part due to the considerable amount of bycatch, which included several protected species such as sea turtles, undersized fish and lobsters (Cascorbi, 2005; Ibama, 2008). Traps (or pots) are considered much more selective (Rocha et al., 1997), although the available information on bycatch is still scarce.

HABITAT

Last updated on 25 June 2012

Although the use of gillnets is currently prohibited in the spiny lobster fishery, in some parts of Brazil fisher are still illegally using this gear (Ibama, 2011b). Gillnet fishing for spiny lobster has been referred to negatively impact the sea bed habitat, particularly in seagrass, calcareous algae and coral reefs habitats (Cascorbi, 2005; Ibama, 2008).

FishSource Scores

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is < 6.

A management plan for the spiny lobster was developed in 2008 (Ibama, 2008) but it is not clear if it is implemented nowadays. There is no specific harvest control rule that anticipates a reduction in Fishing mortality if the stock is in bad shape. Several management measures to control fishing effort (fishing licenses limitations, gear restrictions, closed seasons and areas) and protect juveniles and spawning stock (minimum size limits, minimum mesh sizes, closed areas for reproduction purposes) are in place (Ibama, 2006, 2007, 2008a, 2008b; Cavalcante et al., 2011).

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is < 6.

As recommended by the scientific committee, managers have reviewed the regulations to reduce fishing effort and recover the lobster stocks: e.g. stricter fishing effort limitations, an increase in the closed seasons (from January to April; Law n° 2.164 of 29 October 1990 that is still in place; Lima et al., 2014) and areas, fishing gear restrictions (Ibama, 2006, 2007, 2008a, 2008b). No catch limits are defined however and there is no systematic monitoring of the stock despite the exploitation of the resource (Lima et al., 2014).

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is < 6.

Enforcement is still regarded as very weak in some parts of the Brazilian coast despite the official measures in place since the 1960s (Cavalcante and Furtado-Neto, 2012). Illegal fishing activities, such as fishing during closed seasons, use of illegal fishing methods (e.g. scuba diving), catch of individuals below the minimum legal size and immature females are still taking place nowadays (Lourenço et al., 2008; Ibama, 2011b; 2012a,b,c,d; Cruz et al., 2013; Lima et al., 2014). Silva & Fonteles-Filho (2011) found that more than 85% of the total Brazilian catch was obtained by illegal harvesting and the control is not effective (Lima et al., 2014).

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is < 6.

According to the most recent assessment using a biomass dynamic model based on a Bayesian approach (data from 1955-2009) the population is considered to be ‘close to collapse’ (Andrade, 2015).

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is < 6.

According to the most recent assessment (using data up to 2009) the population has been over-exploited since 1980s (Andrade, 2015).

No data available for biomass
No data available for biomass
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.

No related analysis

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

SELECT FIP

Access FIP Public Report

Progress Rating: A
Evaluation Start Date: 1 Apr 2013
Type: Comprehensive

Comments:

FIP rating remains at A with last stage 4 achievement within 12 months. 

1.
FIP Development
Jun 12
2.
FIP Launch
May 12
Jun 17
3.
FIP Implementation
Oct 17
4.
Improvements in Fishing Practices and Fishery Management
Jun 18
5.
Improvements on the Water
Verifiable improvement on the water
6.
MSC certification (optional)
MSC certificate made public

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. Andrade, H.A. 2015. Stock assessment of the red spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) caught in the tropical southwestern Atlantic. Lat. Am. J. Aquat. Res., 43(1). 14 pp. http://www.scielo.cl/pdf/lajar/v43n1/art17.pdf
  2. Cascorbi, Alice. 2005. Seafood Watch® Caribbean Spiny Lobster (Panulirus argus) report: United States, Brazil, Bahamas. Monterey Bay Aquarium. 27 pp.http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/cr_seafoodwatch/content/media/MBA_SeafoodWatch_CarribbeanSpinyLobsterReport.pdf
  3. Cavalcante, P.P.L. Furtado-Neto, M.A.A. 2012. Implementação de quotas individuais transferíveis e do desembarque compulsório de lagosta viva como estratégia de ordenamento de pesca. Arq. Ciên. Mar, Fortaleza 45(2): 49 – 59. http://www.periodicos.ufc.br/index.php/arquivosdecienciadomar/article/viewFile/132/132
  4. Cruz, R., Silva, K. C. A., Cintra, I. H. A. 2013. Assessment of wild lobsters in the continental shelf of Brazil. Crustaceana 86(3): 336-356. http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/10.1163/15685403-00003173
  5. Ehrhardt, N. M. and Rocha, C.A.S. 2002. An Assessment of the Brazilian spiny lobster, P. argus, fishery. In: Second Workshop on the managment of the Caribbean spiny lobster fisheries in the WECAFC area. Havana, Cuba, 30 September – 4 October 2002. FAO Fisheries Report No. 715 http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y4931b/y4931b0a.htm
  6. FAO, 2006. Report of the Fifth regional workshop on the assessment and management of the Caribbean spiny lobster. FAO Fisheries Report No. 826. 19–29 September 2006. Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico. 109 pp.ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/010/a1518b/a1518b00.pdf
  7. Ibama, 2006. Instrução Normativa Nº- 138, de 6 de Dezembro de 2006. Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis – Ibama. Brasília. 3 pp.http://www.ibama.gov.br/category/1?download=147%3A138-06&start=100
  8. Ibama, 2007. Instrução Normativa Nº144, de 3 de Janeiro de 2007. Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis – Ibama. Brasília. (in Portuguese)http://www.ibama.gov.br/index.php?option=com_phocadownload&view=category&download=2612:144-2007-.p&id=40&Itemid=331
  9. Ibama, 2008a. Plano de gestão para o uso sustentável de Lagostas no Brasil. Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis – Ibama. Brasília. 123 pp. (In Portuguese)http://www.ibama.gov.br/category/40?download=2432%3A.p
  10. Ibama, 2008b. Instrução Normativa Nº 206, de 14 de Novembro de 2008. Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis – Ibama. Brasília. (in Portuguese) http://www.ibama.gov.br/category/1?download=146%3A206-08&start=100
  11. IBAMA, 2011a. Comerciantes de lagosta têm até 30/11 para declarar estoques ao Ibama na Paraíba. Press release. 27 November 2011. (in Portuguese)http://www.ibama.gov.br/publicadas/comerciantes-de-lagosta-tem-ate-30/11-para-declarar-estoques-ao-ibama-na-paraiba
  12. IBAMA, 2011b. Ibama no Ceará combate pesca ilegal da lagosta. Press release. 4 November 2011. (in Portuguese)http://www.ibama.gov.br/publicadas/ibama-no-ceara-combate-pesca-ilegal-da-lagosta
  13. IBAMA, 2012a. Ibama apreende carregamento ilegal de lagostas em Itabuna/BA. Press release. 27 January 2012. (in Portuguese) http://www.ibama.gov.br/publicadas/ibama-apreende-carregamento-ilegal-de-lagostas-em-itabuna/ba
  14. IBAMA, 2012b. Flagrante de pesca com compressor de mergulho no Rio Grande do Norte: 600 kg de peixes apreendidos. Press release. 24 April 2012. (in Portuguese)http://www.ibama.gov.br/publicadas/flagrante-de-pesca-com-compressor-de-mergulho-no-rio-grande-do-norte-600-kg-de-peixes-apreendidos-
  15. IBAMA, 2012c. Ibama apreende 3,8 toneladas de lagostas em Ilhéus. Press release. 1 June 2012. (in Portuguese) http://www.ibama.gov.br/publicadas/ibama-apreende-38-toneladas-de-lagostas-em-ilheus
  16. IBAMA, 2012d. Operação Argus II faz apreensão recorde de 7,74 toneladas de lagosta na Bahia. Press release. 13 June 2012. (in Portuguese)http://www.ibama.gov.br/publicadas/operacao-argus-ii-faz-apreensao-recorde-de-774-toneladas-de-lagosta-na-bahia
  17. Lima, W. M. G., Mendes, N. C. B., Silva, B. B. 2014 Estudo da produção pesqueira e fecundidade de lagostas no Norte do Brasil, Municípios de Bragança e Augusto Corrêa – PA, Biota Amazônia – Macapá 4(3): 48-56 https://periodicos.unifap.br/index.php/biota/article/view/919
  18. Lourenço, J.A., Santos, C.H.A., Cavalcante, S.G., Igarashi, M.A. 2008. Desenvolvimento tecnológico do cultivo de lagostas espinhosas, R. Bras. Agrociência, Pelotas 14(1):11-18 https://periodicos.ufpel.edu.br/ojs2/index.php/CAST/article/viewFile/1416/1417
  19. Neves, S.S. 2014. Organização e gestão atual da pesca da lagosta vermelha (Panulirus argus LATREILLE, 1804) na plataforma continental do Ceará, Brasil. Dissertação de Mestrado apresentada ao Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Pesca, do Departamento de Engenharia de Pesca da Universidade Federal do Ceará, 56pp. http://www.repositorio.ufc.br/bitstream/riufc/14118/1/2014_dis_ssneves.pdf
  20. Rocha, C.A., Júnior, W.F., Dantas, N.P., Farias, M.F. and Oliveira A.M.E., 1997. Fauna e Flora Acompanhantes da Pesca da Lagosta no Nordeste do Brasil. Bol. Téc. Cient. CEPENE, Tamandaré, v.5, n.1, p.11 – 22. (in Portuguese)http://www4.icmbio.gov.br/cepene/modulos/boletim/visualiza.php?id_arq=31
  21. Silberman, J.D., Sarver, S.K., Walsh, P. J. 1994. Mitochondrial DNA variation and population structure in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. Marine Biology, 120(4): 601-608.http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00350081?LI=true
  22. Silva, A.C. and Fonteles-Filho, A.A. 2011. Avaliação do defeso aplicado a pesca da lagosta no nordeste do Brasil. Editora Expressão Gráfica, Fortaleza, 110 pp. http://www.icmbio.gov.br/cepsul/images/stories/biblioteca/download/livros_digitais/lagosta/livro_2011_pesca_da_lagosta.pdf
References

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    Caribbean spiny lobster - Northern SW Atlantic

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