Last updated on 27 August 2017

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Octopus vulgaris

SPECIES NAME(s)

Common octopus

COMMON NAMES

Octopus, Poulpe

According with FAO/CECAC (FAO 2016) the population of Octopus vulgaris in Western Africa  is divided into three main stocks: Dakhla (26°N-21 °N), Cape Blanc (21°N-16°N) and Senegal- Gambia (16°N-12 °N). This profile refers to the Senegal-Gambia stock unit.


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • A management plan was established in 2016 and anticipates additional measures for when the biomass is below BMSY.
  • Fishing effort has been reduced in recent years. The current level of fishing effort directed to octopus is considered adequate to the recovery of the stock.
  • The stock biomass presents an increasing trend since 2006 although it is still slightly below the target reference point.
  • There are several management measures in place (e.g. closed seasons, restriction of fishing licences, minimum weight landing, and minimum mesh sizes).
  • Several measures have been adopted to  enforce the compliance of the fishery.
Weaknesses
  • There is a long time gap between the CECAF working group session and the publication of the assessment report.
  • More information on the possible effects of the octopus fishery in the environment is needed (e.g. PET species, benthic impacts).
  • Discard rates are very high.
  • There are IUU issues related with the fishery.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6

Fishers Compliance:

< 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

7.8

Future Health:

≥ 6


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Senegal-Gambia Senegal Senegal Bottom-set longlines
Bottom trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 6 September 2017

Strengths
  • A management plan was established in 2016 and anticipates additional measures for when the biomass is below BMSY.
  • Fishing effort has been reduced in recent years. The current level of fishing effort directed to octopus is considered adequate to the recovery of the stock.
  • The stock biomass presents an increasing trend since 2006 although it is still slightly below the target reference point.
  • There are several management measures in place (e.g. closed seasons, restriction of fishing licences, minimum weight landing, and minimum mesh sizes).
  • Several measures have been adopted to  enforce the compliance of the fishery.
Weaknesses
  • There is a long time gap between the CECAF working group session and the publication of the assessment report.
  • More information on the possible effects of the octopus fishery in the environment is needed (e.g. PET species, benthic impacts).
  • Discard rates are very high.
  • There are IUU issues related with the fishery.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 30 August 2017

Fish stocks are usually assessed by the Fishery Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic (FAO/CECAF) Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Resources–Subgroup North. The FAO/CECAF Working Group for the Assessment of Demersal Resources (Subgroup North-between Cap Spartel and the south of Senegal) was created in 2000 and their overall objective is to contribute to the improvement of the management of demersal resources in Northwest Africa.  The most recent CECAF assessment report available was from the FAO/CECAF Working Group held in 2013 (FAO 2016). It should be noted that there is a long delay between the working group session and the publication of the report.

At national level, the Dakar-Thiaroye Centre for Oceanographic Research (CRODT - Centre de Recherches Océanographiques de Dakar-Thiaroye) is the institute responsible for the scientific research. Since 2015, stock assessments have been also carried out by the Working Group of the project “Sustainable Management of Fisheries in Senegal” (ADuPeS). The last assessment report regards to the second working group undertaken in April 2016 in the CRODT.

Due to technical problems of research vessel ITAF DEME, during some years there were no national demersal scientific surveys (FAO 2016). In 2011, a survey of demersal resources was carried out in Mauritania, Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea Bissau and Guinea by the Guinean vessel General Lansana in the context of the Agricultural Policy of the West African Monetary and Economic Union (UEMOA. Also in 2011, the CCLME Project in collaboration with the EAF-Nansen project conducted two ecosystem surveys with the R/V DR. FRIDTJOF NANSEN in the waters off Northwest Africa from Guinea in the South to Morocco in the north (FAO 2015). However, the results from the 2014 survey in the cold season indicated the highest abundances in the southern and North areas, with 1.35 kg/h and 1.43 kg/h, respectively (MPEM 2016).

There is a high interannual and seasonal variability of the octopus stock biomass associated to the spring recruitment event that is associated with the coastal upwelling index and sea surface temperature (Thiaw et al. 2011).  This high variability of the environment associated with the short life-cycle of this species raised some concerns in using MSY approach to manage this fishery and it has been suggested the use of analytical models integrating the environmental variable rather than global models (Meissa et al. 2016).

In 2016, the second Working Group of the project Sustainable Management of Fisheries in Senegal” carried out the most recent of the octopus for the Senegal based on GLM modelling to estimate the abundance indices and through a new Bayesian approach to improve the estimation of the biological reference points. An age-structured model considering the environmental effect was also applied with an analysis of the spatial variability of the size structure at Kayar and Mbour. Data for the models resulted from the CPUEs of the artisanal fleet (lines) and from the industrial component (trawels) for the period between1985-2014. There are some concerns about the quality of the data used in the model since there are catch data differences between the Maritime Fisheries Directorate (DMP) and the CRODT (Meissa et al. 2016).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 30 August 2017

CECAF Scientific Sub-Committee is responsible to provide appropriate advice to the Committee for fisheries managing decisions. According to the most recent report available of the FAO/CECAF Working Group undertaken in 2013, it should be maintained the fishing effort at its current level (Status quo 2012) and ensure the control of the management measures (FAO 2015, FAO 2016).

The new management plan established that when the biomass is in a situation below BMSY, the Ministry, on the advice of the CRODT, will take additional measures, namely, a temporary reduction of the production to restore the stock in a reasonable period of time (MPEM 2016).

Reference Points

Last updated on 30 Aug 2017

In 2016, the results of the second working group indicated a Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) of 9,631 tonnes per year. The biologic biomass reference point (BMSY) was estimated at around at 35,600 tonnes and the current biomass was estimated at 0.93 of BMSY and represented 34% of the virgin biomass (Meissa et al. 2016).

The previous reference points were established in 2013 working group based on the surveys data (Source: FAO 2016)

Bcurrent/B0.1=115%

Bcurrent/BMSY=127%

Fcurrent/F0.1=93%

Fcurrent/FMSY=84%

Fcurrent/ FSYcur= 115%

Bcur/B0.1: Relationship between the estimated biomass for the last year of the series and the biomass corresponding to F0.1.

Fcur/FSYcur: Relationship between the observed fishing mortality coefficient during the last year of the series and the coefficient that would provide a sustainable yield at the current biomass level.

Fcur/FMSY: Relationship between the observed fishing mortality coefficient during the last year of the series and the coefficient that would give a maximum sustainable yield over the long term.

Fcur/F0.1: Relationship between the observed fishing mortality during the last year of the series and F0.1.

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 30 August 2017

The results of the second Working Group of the project Sustainable Management of Fisheries in Senegal”, carried out in 2016, indicated that octopus stock in Senegal-Gambia is slightly below the target reference biomass (Bcurrent/BMSY=0.93) but that the current level of fishing effort directed to octopus is allowing the recovery of the stock (Meissa et al. 2016). The current biomass of the octopus stock represents 34% of the virgin biomass and 68% of the biomass at the beginning of the data series (1986). Catches in 2014 were of 1,700 tonnes, one of the lowest values of the time series.

 Previous assessment of the CECAF working group in 2013 suggested that the stock was shifting from overexploited to non-exploited in the Senegambian zone (FAO 2016).

Trends

Last updated on 30 Aug 2017

The most important species group in the region in terms of catch is the cephalopods, particularly octopus (Octopus vulgaris) which represented around 37% of total demersal catches during the study period. Total catch of octopus decreased, albeit with some fluctuations, from 159,000 tonnes in 1999 to 66,000 tonnes in 2012 (FAO 2016).

According the biomass estimates from the last stock assessment (2016), there were observed tree periods of biomass decrease along the time: the first one occurred at 1987-1988, the second between 1995 and 1997 and the third in 2005. These periods correspond to periods of increase in the fishing effort and consequent overexploitation. Since 2006, the biomass started to continuously recovering and is current slight below BMSY (2015 estimate).

In terms of catches, the highest value was obtained in 1999 (45,000 tonnes). The trend has been very variable; with an average of 7,300 tonnes between 2005-2012, but in 2013-2014 the catches fall again. In 2014 the catches were less 35% than the previous year and more than 80% less than 2010’s catches (Meissa et al. 2016). These strong interannual variations are associated to the intensity of upwelling (MPEM 2016).

According to the management plan, there were two periods of overcapacity in the trawl fishery: 1992-1998 and 2000-2011, with a respective average overcapacity rate of 37 and 49%. However, between 2001and 2013, the number of fish-cephalopod trawlers with a fishing license decline from 84 to 57 (MPEM 2016).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 30 August 2017

The fisheries in Senegal are regulated by the Ministry of Fisheries and Maritime Economy, through the Maritime Fisheries Department, that is national authority responsible for the monitoring and evaluation of fisheries policies.

A new Code of Maritime Fisheries was implemented in 2015 (Law nr. 2015-18 of 13 July 2015) and the management plan for octopus fishery was developed in 2016 (Decree n° 2016-90 from January 19Th). This plan established that both segments of the fleet (artisanal and industrial) will be managed on the basis of quotas. A three-year transitional phase was defined to consolidate the management measures and to guarantee the implementation of the prerequisites needed.

For the artisanal fishery, the management plan foresee the implementation of a number of technical management measures (e.g. spawning and juveniles season closure, establishment of local fisheries management committees) and effective catch control. During the main phase of the management strategy of the octopus fishery will be established a system of Individual Transfers Quotas (ITQ) to be managed by the Local Artisanal Fishing Councils (CPLA - Conseil Local de Pêche Artisanale). Since January 2015, the registration of pirogues is stopped with the aim to limit artisanal fishing capacity.

Also for the industrial fishery several measures are expected: the minimum mesh size for cephalopod-fish trawlers will remain fixed at 70 mm, seasonal closures, minimum weight size (350gr for no-eviscerated state or 300gr for eviscerated state), limitation of the fishing licences and the maintenance of no more licences for the coastal demersal fishing that is in place since 2006 (MPEM 2016).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 30 Aug 2017

management plan for the octopus fishery in Senegal was published in 2016  and defines the strategy for the sustainable management of octopus resources in waters under Senegalese jurisdiction.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 6 September 2017

Several measures are in place to enforce the compliance of the octopus fishery: all trawlers authorized to fish in waters under Senegalese jurisdiction shall have VMS (Vessels Monitoring System) and logbooks.. Inspections of industrial and artisanal fishery products as well as authorization and monitoring of transhipments at sea measures are in place. Information on the geographical origin of catches of octopus (Senegalese EEZ or waters under jurisdiction of neighbouring countries) needs to be provided. The size of octopus landed is monitored. Also, on-board observers programme has been implemented  (MPEM 2016).

Octopus represents about 80% of the total catches of cephalopods in Senegal and is mainly caught by the artisanal component (60-70% total catches). Since 2006, coastal foreign trawler fishing is not occurring anymore with the end of the Agreement with the EU. Data from 2012, indicates that there were 33 fish trawlers and 2010 jigs operating in the coastal fishery.  Between 2001-2013, the number of fish-cephalopod  trawlers with a fishing license decline about 35%  (MPEM 2016).

Illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing is a serious concern for Senegal. Total IUU catches between 2000 and 2011 have been recently estimated at 4.2 million metric tons (Belhabib et al. 2014).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 30 August 2017

A recent study on the status of marine biodiversity in the Eastern Central Atlantic (West and Central Africa) indicated that 8% of all marine species assessed in this region are in threatened categories, while 4% are listed as Near Threatened, 73% are Least Concern, and 15% are Data Deficient (Polidoro et al. 2017).

More than 30 species of cetaceans occur in the eastern tropical Atlantic (between Mauritania and Angola) and several human activities are described as impacting cetacean species: directed takes (whaling and small cetaceans); by-catch or entanglement in fishing gear; the ETA tuna purse seine fishery; overfishing; habitat loss and degradation; vessel strikes; marine ecotourism; and live captures for display. Climate change may represent a future threat (Weir and Pierce 2013). However, specific literature on the possible impacts of the octopus fishery in PET species was not found.

Other Species

Last updated on 30 August 2017

The main target species in the cephalopod fisheries are octopus (Octopus vulgaris), cuttlefish (Sepia spp, most of which are Sepia officinalis, S. bertheloti and S. hierredda) and squid (Loligo vulgaris). Octopus is the dominant species in the sub-region and accounts for 48 to 87 percent of total cephalopod landings in 2012 (FAO 2016).

The cephalopod fishery is associated with higher rates of discarding. The Senegalese demersal trawls’ discard rate was estimated around 37% in 2011 (Belhabib et al. 2014). Soles and octopus are the most common bycatch species.

HABITAT

Last updated on 30 August 2017

The octopus fishery includes an artisanal segment (lines) and a national industrial segment (trawl) whose activity zone covers the Petite Côte and extends to the North of the Grande Côte. It also extends to the south, to Djifere and Casamance (FAO 2016, MPEM 2016). It is expect that these gears impact the seabed but  there is no information available. Additionally, information on vulnerable marine ecosystems (VME) is needed as well as the possible impacts of the fishing activity in the benthic habitats.

There is a high interannual and seasonal variability of the octopus stock biomass associated to the spring recruitment event that is associated with the coastal upwelling index and sea surface temperature (Thiaw et al. 2011)

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 30 Aug 2017

In the Senegal there are 12 marine protected areas and 4 marine managed areas. A complete list can be found here. Some aspects of the community participatory governance of marine protected areas have been discussed in Senegal (Cormier-Salem 2014).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 30 August 2017

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

A management plan for the octopus fishery started in 2016, with an initial transition phase of tree-years. The new management plan establishs that when the biomass is below BMSY, additional measures will be taken to restore the stock status. There are several management measures in place. However, the results of the last stock assessment indicated that the stock is slightly overexploited.

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

The Minister has been restricting the licences of the artisanal coastal fishery and the new management plan introduces the management of fisheries by quota. However, it is not clear if these measures are already in force.

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is < 6.

There are some issues with IUU which the Fishery Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic (CECAF) held in 2013 mentioned that a better evaluation of various impacts of IUU is needed, as well as improve monitoring/inspection, and increase transparency on IUU fleets between countries. The information available does not allow compare the set TAC and the total catches.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is 7.8.

This measures the TB as a percentage of the B=Bmsy.

The TB is 34.7 ('000 t). The B=Bmsy is 36.6 .

The underlying TB/B=Bmsy for this index is 94.8%.

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

The current level of fishing effort directed to octopus is allowing the recovery of the stock (Meissa et al., 2016). Since January 2015, the registration of pirogues is stopped with the aim to limit artisanal fishing capacity. Between 2001-2013, the number of fish-cephalopod trawlers with a fishing license decline about 35% (MPEM, 2016). This reduction of the fishing effort is expected to improve the stock in the future.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES

Catch and biomass data is from the second working group  report  of the project “Sustainable Management of Fisheries in Senegal” (Meissa et al. 2016).

Download Source Data

Registered users can download the original data file for calculating the scores after logging in. If you wish, you can Register now.

Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

References

    Comments

    This tab will disappear in 5 seconds.

    Comments on:

    Common octopus - Senegal-Gambia

    comments powered by Disqus