Summary

IDENTIFICATION

Last updated on 14 November 2017

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Sardinella lemuru

SPECIES NAME(S)

Bali sardinella

COMMON NAMES

Lemuru (Indonesian common name for adult size), Lemuru kucing or Bei Kocing (name for the largest size fish), Protolan (name for sub-adult size), Sempenit (name for juvenile size)

Bali sardinella or Lemuru (Sardinella lemuru) is a coastal small pelagic, schooling, strongly migratory species that inhabits tropical waters of the Indo-Pacific region. The fish inhabits a wide area of the ocean from eastern Indian Ocean, southern coast of East Java and Bali (Indonesia), and western Australia, to western Pacific Ocean (Whitehead 1985).

In Indonesia, lemuru occurs throughout the archipelago notably in Fisheries Management Area (FMA) 711 (South China Sea, where lemuru contributed 0.15% of total average catches in the FMA from 2005 - 2014), FMA 712 (Java Sea, 5.7%), FMA 713 (Makassar Strait and Flores Sea, 2.44%), FMA 714 (Pacific Ocean, 0.17%), FMA 715 (Tomini Bay and Seram Sea, 0.02%), and  FMA 573 (Indian Ocean-Southern Java to Western of Timor Sea, 91.53%); FMA 573 is the area where lemuru is mostly found and caught, particularly in the Bali Strait and vicinity (KKP-RI 2016). Due to lemuru's major presence in FMA 573 and the fact that Lemuru Management Plan (KKP-RI 2016) is determined for FMA 573, the management unit for Bali sardinella in this profile is determined at this level.  


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • The lemuru fishery is confined to a very small area (~3,000 sq.km) and is managed by only two provinces – less bureaucracy;
  • The fishery is ‘single species’ in nature and is mainly caught by a single type of gear (i.e., purse seines) – less of multispecies, mixed fisheries nature
  • The fishery has been significantly supporting the local and national economy since mid-1970s, contributing to the creation of ample governance structure for the management, comprising of representatives from the industry, government, and academics;
  • Increased concern from the central government about the potential demise of the fishery resulting to the creation of a road map to rehabilitate the fishery (KKP-RI 2016);
  • Recent reform and decentralization of registration system for fishing vessel > 30 GT would enable to sort out the problem of vessel size marking-down ((Sukmana 2017), (Ambari 2017) 
Weaknesses
  • Catch data has been seriously under-reported, discards and high-grading are not accounted for in official statistics;
  • Stock assessment use basket/aggregated approach where species are aggregated at their ecologically-related group per fisheries management area or FMA (Indrajaya 2017). Therefore, there is only one MSY value and one TAC value for all species combined within each group in the FMA per assessment;
  • FMA has huge size and has lack of internal stratification (e.g., for near-shore small-scale fisheries, or for off-shore deep-water fisheries);
  • Small pelagic group (where lemuru is lumped into) in FMA 573 had reached over-exploited state (E = 1.5), and other studies on lemuru also showed similar results. However, managers have been issuing licenses for pair purse seines vessels, beyond the fOPT agreed by the joint Management Committee.
  • Fishers’ compliance to management regime is low, not only due to lack of facilities and governance efficiency, but also due to prevalent financial insecurity (Buchary et al. 2011);
  • Steep challenges are faced by the Lemuru Management Committee, due to poor coordination and lack of funding. 
Options
  • Improve the implementation of the joint agreement between East Java and Bali Province to control the efforts through limiting the number of license, fishing power, and boat size.
  • Improve the statistics data collection system to obtain accurate catch data, including implementation of logbook system.
  • Implement monitoring, control and surveillance.
  • Improve research on stock assessment and life cycle to estimate the potential of the fishery and the stock status as a basis for management and licensing.

SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

< 6

Fishers Compliance:

< 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

< 6

Future Health:

< 6


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Indonesia Southern Java to Western of Timor Sea Indonesia Barriers, fences, weirs, etc
Beach seines
Drift gillnets
Fixed gillnets (on stakes)
Lift nets
Purse seines
Pushnets
Seine nets

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 15 November 2017

Strengths
  • The lemuru fishery is confined to a very small area (~3,000 sq.km) and is managed by only two provinces – less bureaucracy;
  • The fishery is ‘single species’ in nature and is mainly caught by a single type of gear (i.e., purse seines) – less of multispecies, mixed fisheries nature
  • The fishery has been significantly supporting the local and national economy since mid-1970s, contributing to the creation of ample governance structure for the management, comprising of representatives from the industry, government, and academics;
  • Increased concern from the central government about the potential demise of the fishery resulting to the creation of a road map to rehabilitate the fishery (KKP-RI 2016);
  • Recent reform and decentralization of registration system for fishing vessel > 30 GT would enable to sort out the problem of vessel size marking-down ((Sukmana 2017), (Ambari 2017) 
Weaknesses
  • Catch data has been seriously under-reported, discards and high-grading are not accounted for in official statistics;
  • Stock assessment use basket/aggregated approach where species are aggregated at their ecologically-related group per fisheries management area or FMA (Indrajaya 2017). Therefore, there is only one MSY value and one TAC value for all species combined within each group in the FMA per assessment;
  • FMA has huge size and has lack of internal stratification (e.g., for near-shore small-scale fisheries, or for off-shore deep-water fisheries);
  • Small pelagic group (where lemuru is lumped into) in FMA 573 had reached over-exploited state (E = 1.5), and other studies on lemuru also showed similar results. However, managers have been issuing licenses for pair purse seines vessels, beyond the fOPT agreed by the joint Management Committee.
  • Fishers’ compliance to management regime is low, not only due to lack of facilities and governance efficiency, but also due to prevalent financial insecurity (Buchary et al. 2011);
  • Steep challenges are faced by the Lemuru Management Committee, due to poor coordination and lack of funding. 
Options
  • Improve the implementation of the joint agreement between East Java and Bali Province to control the efforts through limiting the number of license, fishing power, and boat size.
  • Improve the statistics data collection system to obtain accurate catch data, including implementation of logbook system.
  • Implement monitoring, control and surveillance.
  • Improve research on stock assessment and life cycle to estimate the potential of the fishery and the stock status as a basis for management and licensing.
RECOMMENDATIONS
Indonesia
Purse seines

Last updated on 15 November 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Improve the regulations, especially for the joint agreement between East Java and Bali Province to control the efforts through limiting the number of license and the fishing power.
2. Improve the statistic data collection to obtain accurate catch data, including the implementation of logbook system.
3. Implement monitoring, control and surveillance.
4. Improve the research on stock assessment to estimate the potential of the fishery and the stock status as a basis for management and licensing.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Key buyers of shrimp (and other aquaculture products such as tilapia) from Indonesia to ask to their suppliers (shrimp/farmed fishes exporters) if Bali Sardinella is an ingredient used in aquaculture feed in any of their supply chains.
2. If the partners use Bali sardinella as an ingredient for feed in aquaculture production, encourage the supplier to get involved in developing a proactive approach to sustainable aquaculture feed (including to develop a fishmeal strategy and using Bali sardinella as the case study) initiated by GMPT (Indonesia Feed Mills Association).

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 13 November 2017

Fish stock assessments in Indonesia are carried out by government fisheries scientists affiliated with the Research Center for Fisheries (Pusriskan). Research outputs from Pusriskan and other best scientific evidence are then reviewed and synthesized by the National Commission for Fish Stock Assessment (Komnas Kajiskan), an independent, ad-hoc, and non-structural entity under (and report to) the Minister of KKP-RI and whose members have expertise in fisheries resources and are drawn from various relevant organizations (KKP-RI 2016). A series of workshops, as a form of peer-review, inviting representatives from various backgrounds are also conducted. Upon review and synthesis, Komnas Kajiskan then make policy recommendations to the Minister (KKP-RI 2016). The Minister then stipulate, decree, and gazette a Ministerial Decree pertaining to the estimation of MSYs, TACs, and exploitation rates (Es) of fish stocks within Indonesia’s FMAs (KKP-RI 2016).

Indonesia’s fisheries are highly multispecies and multi-fleet; spanning across 11 FMAs (KKP-RI 2009). Consequently, basket or aggregated MSYs, TACs, and Es assessment system per species groups in each FMA had been chosen as an empirical solution to a very difficult and potentially very expensive problem (Prof. Ali Suman, Senior Shrimp Expert from Pusriskan, member of Komnas Kajiskan, 2012 – present, pers. comm., 25 October 2017). In the 2015-2016 stock assessment (Indrajaya 2017), the most recent assessment whose results are due to be decreed, fish resources are allocated into nine ecologically-related groups: small pelagic fish, large pelagic fish (except tuna and skipjack), demersal fish, reef fish, penaeid shrimp, lobster, mud crab, swimming crab, and squid. Consequently, under the national stock assessment system which is the one that has the strongest legal basis (i.e., Ministerial Decree), lemuru is lumped together in the small pelagic group and does not have its own MSY, TAC, or E (KKP-RI 2016). Although independent stock assessments of lemuru are numerous since mid-1970s (Buchary 2010) they are not legally acknowledged in the recently decreed Lemuru Fishery Management Plan (RPP) (KKP-RI 2016). Previously, fish stocks that are considered important for a region would have had their MSY, TAC, and fOPT set regionally, advised by various studies on the stocks that took place. This has been always the case for lemuru prior to the stipulation of the Lemuru RPP.   

Stock assessments are carried out continuously, although it is not always every year. To date, other than the most recent one in 2016 (Indrajaya 2017),  there have been six official stock assessments recorded since the founding of Komnas Kajiskan in 1998: 1997, 2001, 2005, 2011, 2013, and 2015 (Prof. Ali Suman, pers. comm., 29 October 2017).

The general stock assessment methods comprise several approaches for data collection (e.g., (Komnas Kajiskan 1998); (Suman et al. 2016)(Indrajaya 2017)): census/transect method, swept area method, and acoustic, with surplus production modeling technique as the main models used to determine MSY, TAC, and fOPT. TAC is set at 80% of MSY ((DKP-RI 2005); (Suman et al. 2016); (Indrajaya 2017)).

In earlier assessment (prior to 2015), heavy reliance (~ 90%) was given to landing and effort statistics as model inputs (Suman et al. 2016). To improve the accuracy of model estimates, from 2015 assessment and onward, primary data from acoustic survey, when possible, was primarily (~80%) used as model inputs (Suman et al. 2016). Target strengths used for small pelagics in the acoustic data analyses follows the values assumed by (Hannachi et al. 2004).

The model assessment used for small pelagics is based on Gulland’s models ((Gulland 1970)(Gulland 1971)) with a modification in the estimator used as proposed by Cadima (in (Troadec 1977)) for exploited fish stock that have limited data. Modification was made in the constant used to account for a more conservative estimation:

MSY = 0.2 * Z * Bave   (Indrajaya 2017), where Z if the total mortality and Bave is average annual biomass.

There is no referral to uncertainties or sensitivity analyses in any of the stock assessments ((Suman et al. 2016)(Indrajaya 2017)). Model assumptions are (Indrajaya 2017):

  • Biomass is estimated from non-regular acoustic surveys
  • Exploitation rate is assumed to be moderate
  • Small pelagic fish stock is assumed to be of not virgin biomass (Binf )
  • Time series data for landings and fishing effort is limited
SCIENTIFIC ADVICE
Indonesia
Purse seines

Last updated on 13 November 2017

The 2016 stock assessment (Indrajaya 2017) provides the following advice for small pelagic fish group for FMA 573 (where the Bali Strait is located):

Small pelagics

MSY (tons)

TAC (tons)

fOPT

(units)

E

fcurrent

(units)

Ccurrent

(tons)

Standard effort

FMA 573

630,521

504,417

6,812

1.50*

10,206

174,583

Purse seines

  Note: E < 0.5  = moderately-exploited;   0.5 ≤ E < 1 = fully-exploited;  E ≥ 1 = over-exploited (*)
REFERENCE POINTS
Indonesia
Purse seines

Last updated on 13 November 2017

No target reference points (TRPs) have been officially assessed for lemuru. (Purwanto and Wudianto 2012), however, had independently estimated TRPs (purse seines) for the management of lemuru in the Strait. Results show that TRPs at the optimal levels for four conflicting objectives (pro-growth, pro-poor, pro-job, and pro-environment), with equal priority, of fisheries management could be achieved by controlling fishing effort at the level equal to 146 purse-seiners.

CURRENT STATUS
Indonesia
Purse seines

Last updated on 13 November 2017

The exploitation rate for small pelagics in FMA 573 (where the Bali Strait is located and where lemuru dominates the FMA landing) had reached over-exploited state (E = 1.50), which means that the stock state had declined and thus, fishing effort need to be reduced (Indrajaya 2017). Previous lemuru stock assessments in the Strait also suggested that the lemuru is overfished (Buchary 2010).

Recent study by (Purwanto and Wudianto 2012) suggest that the current status of lemuru fishery had surpassed the advised reference points. Discarding and high-grading exist, but only during glut periods and El Niño years (Buchary 2010).

TRENDS

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGERS' DECISIONS
Indonesia
Purse seines

Last updated on 13 November 2017

First initiative to develop management framework for the lemuru fishery took place in 1977 when a joint management agreement between the provincial governments of East Java and Bali was established ((FAO-Norway Government Cooperative Programme 1999), (FAO-Norway Government Cooperative Programme 2001)). The Central Government, in this case through DG of Fisheries (now DG of Capture Fisheries) and the Research Institute for Marine Fisheries (now Pusriskan) had been involved from the start.

Over time as the fisheries developed, the joint agreement was reviewed and updated. In 1992, the two provinces jointly drafted a revised agreement, which is still valid until now (KKP-RI 2016); this agreement include three important management measures:

  • The zoning scheme for the Bali Strait delineates two important fishing zones: zone-I (for artisanal fishers, without powered vessels) and zone-II (for fishers with powered vessels, including purse seiners).
  • The maximum sizes of the purse seine net are 300m long and 60m deep.
  • Limitation in fishing effort (fOPT, unit of purse seine vessels) to a total of 273 unit, of which 190 for East Java and 83 for Bali.

A minimum purse seines mesh size of 1 inch (= 2.54 cm) as stipulated by the Decree of the Minister of Agriculture No.123/Kpts/Um/3/1975 also still applies until now.

In 2004, the local governments of East Java and Bali suggested to revise the joint agreement to reduce fOPT from 273 to 145 (Sumenep Regency Government 2007) to account for dwindling stock. However, this suggestion has not been addressed.

As a follow up to the joint management scheme noted above, a framework for Lemuru Fishery Management Plan in the Bali Strait was then developed in 1999 (FAO-Norway Government Cooperative Programme 1999). A Management Committee was further established in March 2000 during a joint meeting between the Provincial Fisheries of East Java and Bali (FAO-Norway Government Cooperative Programme 2001). Over time, however, it appears that the Joint Management Committee faced steep challenges in jointly managing the fishery and in keeping the meeting frequency regular with active participation from all parties involved.

Fishing vessel registration system has also been problematic in Indonesia. License for fishing vessel that is of < 30GT is issued by the Provincial government, while license for vessel that is > 30GT is issued by the Central government in Jakarta. However, the long distance to Jakarta, plus the time and resources necessary to process the vessel registration had discouraged fishers to report the real size of their fishing vessels, prompting them to mark their vessels down to less than 30GT (Ambari 2017). This also occurs in the Bali Strait with most of the purse seine vessels (Buchary 2010). One recent decision has been to improve the database of fishing vessel registration, particularly those vessels that are of > 30 GT (Sukmana 2017). The Ministry had decided to decentralize and streamline the fishing vessel registration system by opening up 30 vessel registration outlets throughout Indonesia in areas near fishing ports and centers of fishing industry to recapture those unregistered fishing vessels ((Sukmana 2017)(Ambari 2017)), including in the Bali Strait (Ketut Sumajaya, Manager of Bintang Group of Lemuru fishers, pers. comm. 13 November 2017).

RECOVERY PLANS
Indonesia
Purse seines

Last updated on 13 November 2017

In 2016, with combined effort from all stakeholders involved and led by the DG of Capture Fisheries at the national level, a Fisheries Management Plan (RPP) for Lemuru Fishery has finally been approved and decreed (KKP-RI 2016). The RPP presented a Road Map for the rehabilitation of the lemuru stock (particularly in the Bali Strait), and consequently the fishery. The RPP, which use ecosystem approach to fisheries management has three objectives:

  1. To achieve sustainable lemuru fishery management and its habitat;
  2. To increase the prosperity of the lemuru fishery business actors/appropriators; and
  3. To increase the active participation and compliance of fishers in achieving responsible lemuru fishery management.
COMPLIANCE
Indonesia
Purse seines

Last updated on 13 November 2017

Local governments of East Java and Bali, and the DG of Capture Fisheries have combined their efforts in strengthening management of the lemuru fishery. However, compliance has always been a problem, as will be discussed below:

  1. Under-reporting of catch is considerable, particularly during glut periods (Buchary et al. 2011); it is estimated that on average, only 28% to 56 % of what is actually caught is landed and recorded in official landing site during average fishing-day, the remaining would likely arrive at unofficial landing sites or directly taken to processing plants, unrecorded. Discards and high-grading are also not taken into account. Improvement to catch data recording continue to take place (Abdul Razak, Pengambengan Fishing Port Authority Officer, pers. comm., 15 Aug 2015). By 2016 – 2017, all lemuru fishers are aware that all catches has to be auctioned and recorded by officers at Fish Landing Site and compliance was quite high (Ketut Sumajaya, pers. comm. 13 November 2017). It is not clear, however, whether the high compliance is real or simply because there is not enough lemuru anymore being landed (as the stock dwindles), rendering easier control of catch recording (Ketut Sumajaya, pers. comm. 13 November 2017). Better recording of catches had enabled Pusriskan scientists to re-estimate lemuru landings data, showing an improved trend of reported lemuru landing data (DG Capture Fisheries, KKP-RI, pers. comm. 7 Nov 2017) compared to those official reported landings presented in (Buchary et al. 2011).
  1. Compliance to the 1-inch mesh size regulation is almost nil. Fishers have been resistance and claim that 1-inch would increase the incidence of fish gilling, which makes sorting difficult and at the worst case, boat may capsize if the net are full with gilled fish. Fishers have been using ¾ inch (1.9 cm) mesh size nets (e.g., (Merta et al. 2000), Ketut Sumajaya, pers. comm. 13 November 2017).
  1. Purse seines vessels, especially those vessels that are of smaller size (i.e., 10 – 12 GT), have frequently strayed into area I (Ketut Sumajaya, pers. comm. 13 November 2017), an area reserved for traditional gears, which could lead to a conflict with fishermen using smaller gears.
  1. Historically, lemuru fishers did not report their real vessel size when applying for their vessel licenses, and often mark-down the size, due to technical reason (e.g., (Buchary 2010)) as also described in the  above-noted ‘Manager’s Decision’ section. However, recent reform in vessel registration system ((Sukmana 2017)(Ambari 2017)) had managed to recapture these marked-down vessels, including those in the Bali Strait; about 50% of these re-measured purse seine vessels in the Strait were found to be > 30 GT (Ketut Sumajaya, pers. comm. 13 November 2017). However, procedure is still on-going since April 2017, and licenses are yet to be seen (Ketut Sumajaya, pers. comm. 13 November 2017).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP SPECIES
Indonesia
Purse seines

Last updated on 13 November 2017

The fishery sometimes would interact with dolphins (mainly bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus), but not in detrimental fashion. During high sardine season, some purse seines would be ‘attacked’ by dolphin pods (~40 – 60 animals) (Buchary 2010). Fishers would avoid dolphins as much as they can when setting the net, although one or two might got caught, rendering damage to the net (Buchary 2010). All species of dolphins (family: Delphinidae) are protected by law in Indonesia (PEMRI 1999).

OTHER TARGET AND BYCATCH SPECIES
Indonesia
Purse seines

Last updated on 13 November 2017

Other than rare accidental catch of dolphins noted above, the fishery has almost negligible bycatch species. Non-sardine species, such as other sardine species (Sardinella spp.), round scad (Decapterus spp.), bonito (Sarda sp.), mackerel (Rastrelliger spp.) and small tunas (Auxis spp., Euthynus affinis), would be caught, landed and sold during off-sardine season, but they are not considered as bycatch species (Buchary 2010). Juveniles (sempenit) and sub-adult (protolan) stages of lemuru are also caught by other fishing gear operating in the area, but not by purse seines.

HABITAT
Indonesia
Purse seines

Last updated on 13 November 2017

The impact of the fishery (purse seines) on habitats is minimal or negligible, as it mainly operates in the water column. In its operation, the fishing gear rarely touches the sea floor (Buchary, pers. obs., 22 - 23 September 2004; Ketut Sumajaya, pers. comm., 13 November 2017).

MARINE RESERVES

Last updated on 13 November 2017

A 55-ha protected area was established in Kayu Aking, near Muncar, under the COFISH Project (ADB 2008), where artificial reefs were deployed and protected as it was designated as a fish sanctuary. Fish fry were released into the sanctuary and mangrove were planted nearby the fish sanctuary. By 2014, the mangrove belt had flourish and expanded beyond the original planting area.

FishSource Scores

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

Different components of this unascertained score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

Different components of this unascertained score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

STOCK HEALTH:

Different components of this unascertained score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low
DATA NOTES

Last updated on 13 November 2017

  1. Lack of quantitative data needed for the FishSource scoring prevented the calculation of quantitative scores, so qualitative scores were assigned, instead.
  2. Stock assessments use basket/aggregated approach where fish species are lumped into ecologically-related group and assessed per FMA.
  3. Assessment outputs are only MSY, TAC and fOPT per group per FMA (Indrajaya 2017)
  4. Basket TACs from recent assessment for small pelagic group in FMA 573 (Indrajaya 2017) were included under ‘management set catch limit’ as a reference only.
  5. Reported landings (1975 – 2015), which is official government data (Directorate General of Capture Fisheries, KKP-RI), has no reference to discards or high-grading.
  6. Under-reporting occurred historically to a very high degree (Score #3); estimated corrected catch figures, accounting for under-reported fish, discards and high-grading, are presented where available (1950 – 2001) (Buchary et al. 2011), to compare with official reported landings.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

References

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    Bali sardinella - Southern Java to Western of Timor Sea

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