Summary

IDENTIFICATION

Last updated on 16 July 2017

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Clupea harengus

SPECIES NAME(S)

Atlantic herring

Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) is widely distributed in the Northwest and Northeast Atlantic. Within the Northeast Atlantic, they are distributed from the northern Bay of Biscay to Greenland, and east into the Barents Sea.

Stock distribution is uncertain for Atlantic herring in this area.  Many local populations with differing growth rates share similar habitats and may mix during certain times of the year. There has been little indication that the Bothnia stock mixes with the other stocks in the Baltic. In a recent benchmark assessment (ICES 2017)(ICES 2017), the Bay of Bothnia (SD 31) and the Bothnia Sea (SD 30) stocks were combined into one unit the Gulf of Bothnia (SD 30 and 31).


ANALYSIS

No related analysis

SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

10

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

6.1

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

10

Future Health:

7.6


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Support the agreement of the recently proposed mixed species management plan taking.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Contact (or ask you suppliers) your national fisheries administration and your Member of the European Parliament (MEP), refer them to the FishSource assessment, and request that they support the agreement of the recently proposed mixed species management plan.


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia EU Finland Midwater trawls
Sweden Midwater trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 15 November 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Support the agreement of the recently proposed mixed species management plan taking.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Contact (or ask you suppliers) your national fisheries administration and your Member of the European Parliament (MEP), refer them to the FishSource assessment, and request that they support the agreement of the recently proposed mixed species management plan.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 3 July 2017

The assessment uses a State-space Assessment Model (SAM). This model uses two tuning indices; one from an acoustic survey and one from a commercial Trap Net CPUE (ICES 2017)(ICES 2017). Model assumes a natural mortality rate of 0.15 across all ages due to a suggested lack of predation mortality by seals and cod in this area (ICES 2017).

Model output can be directly viewed at https://www.stockassessment.org (username: guest, password: guest), under the stock name “GoBHer_2017_config1”. Projections can also be viewed at the same site (same password and user name) under “sam-tmb-gulf-bot-her-an-2”

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 3 July 2017

In a recent benchmark assessment (ICES 2017)(ICES 2017), the Bay of Bothnia (SD 31) and the Bothnia Sea (SD 30) stocks were combined into one unit. The resulting reference points and advice based on this new unit is uncertain. Overall after combination the advised catch decreases by more than 40% when compared with the combined advice of SD 30 and 31 in 2016. Other major uncertainties include the large confidence around estimations of F in the terminal year, as well as the tuning indices within the model (ICES 2017).

REFERENCE POINTS

Last updated on 3 July 2017

Both Bay of Bothnia (SD 31) and the Bothnia Sea (SD 30) stocks were combined into one unit in early 2017 based on advice during the benchmark assessment. Resulting reference points have yet to be adopted by managers. ICES has proposed reference points based on model advice that are similar to both Bay of Bothnia (SD 31) and the Bothnia Sea (SD 30) units prior to combination(ICES 2017). These include MSY Btrigger = 283,180 t, a Blim = 202,272 t, and a FMSY = 0.21. Additionally, a harvest control rule which reduces F linearly to 0 at Blim is also recommended. This control rule was in place prior to the combining of SD 30 and 31, and is present in the management plan of other herring stocks in the Baltic Sea region (European Commission 2016)(ICES 2017)(ICES 2017).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 3 July 2017

According to the most recent updated assessment (ICES 2017) this stock is well above both Blim and MSY Btrigger. F is slightly above FMSY by 0.03.

TRENDS

Last updated on 3 July 2017

According to ICES (ICES 2017) catch for this stock hovered around 115 kt over the last few years. In 2016 however catch increased to near 130 kt. Likewise F for this combined stock has increased from a low of ~0.15 in 2010 to 0.23 in 2016; and is now above FMSY. Despite this increased catch and F, the stock reached a time-series high SSB in 2014 and has only declined slightly from this high. This high stock size is the result of above time-series average recruitment since 2010; though recruitment in 2017 is estimated to be below this average.

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGERS' DECISIONS

Last updated on 3 July 2017

Both Bay of Bothnia (SD 31) and the Bothnia Sea (SD 30) stocks were combined into one unit in early 2017 based on advice during the benchmark assessment. Managers have yet to set reference points for this new stock unit. However, quotas have been set in line with the scientific advice in the most recent years when SD 30 and 31 quotas and advice are examined (ICES 2017).

RECOVERY PLANS

Last updated on 3 July 2017

Because both Bay of Bothnia (SD 31) and the Bothnia Sea (SD 30) stocks were only recently combined into one unit in early 2017, managers have yet to develop a management plan that can incorporate a rebuilding strategy. ICES recommends, however, that a control rule be adopted which reduces F linearly to 0 at Blim should the stock fall below MSY Btrigger. Such a rule would be consistent with how herring are managed in other Baltic Sea regions(European Commission 2016)(ICES 2017).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 3 July 2017

According to ICES (ICES 2017) harvest of herring in this area has been in line with both advised and set quotas until 2016. In 2016 a large quota overage occurred which was partially the result of increased catch by both Finland and, particularly, Sweden in SD 30 (ICES 2017). No further information on the cause for this overage is available.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP SPECIES

Last updated on 16 November 2016

Current impacts of the Finnish fishery on Protected, Endangered and Threatened (PET) species are not known (Leppänen, 2012). At present, the effects of the fishery in the Bothnian Sea ecosystem are not understood.
The Baltic ringed seal subspecies Phoca hispida botnica is the only mammal considered to be endangered in the Bothnian Sea (HELCOM, 2009a). The Baltic population is thought to be increasing at 5% a year, and Bothnian Bay is its main habitat, with a population estimated at 5,020 individuals (ICES, 2008d). There are reports of seal bycatch in set nets in the Baltic (ICES, 2008e) but no estimates for this fishery, and only 0.2% of catches are taken with gillnets (ICEA, 2009a). Some ringed-seal hunting is permitted in both Sweden and Finland (HELCOM, 2009b).

Twenty-four species of seabirds and sea ducks are also considered endangered in the region, among them several gulls Larus spp, terns Sterna spp, Steller’s eider Polysticta stelleri (Vulnerable), Red-breasted Merganser Mergus serrator (Least concern) and Black guillemot Cepphus grylle (Least concern) (HELCOM, 2009a), and two of which: Velvet scoter Melanitta fusca (Endangered) and Common eider Somateria mollissima (Least concern) have reported considerable mortality in set nets (ICES, 2008e; IUCN, 2013).

Grey seals Halichoerus grypus (Least Concern) increased exponentially between 1985-2005 in the Baltic Sea (Lundin, 2011; Gardmark et al, 2012) and were at around 20,400 in 2009 (Lundin, 2011). They prey preferably on age-6 herring, competing directly with the commercial herring fishery; there are concerns about this interaction which influences the age structure of the stock (Lundström et al., 2010; Lindegren et al., 2011; ICES, 2011b; Lundström, 2012) but the impact of grey seal in the Bothnian Sea herring only needs to be assessed if stock composition, grey feeding preferences or stock development changes (Gardmark et al, 2012). Within other species Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Least concern but considered as Vulnerable by the 2013 Helcom list) are herring predators (ICES, 2013b; IUCN, 2013).

Mitigation experiments of seal-induced damages on fishing gears aim to diminish the interaction of grey seals with trapped fishes (Lundin, 2011).

OTHER TARGET AND BYCATCH SPECIES

Last updated on 16 November 2016

Most herring in the Bothnian Sea is taken in a directed fishery. Sprat is the main bycatch species, but only occurs during autumn and early winter and rates are considered to be minimal (ICES, 2013a). Mesh size of traditional gears should be reviewed to minimize indiscriminant catch of herring, especially of undersized individuals (Lundin, 2011). Bycatch composition is not known.

HABITAT

Last updated on 16 November 2016

A decrease in herring body weight has been noted in the last 20 years, probably in result of density-dependent factors and a decrease in the food availability (zooplankton) (ICES, 2013a). No effects of pelagic trawl are known or expected to occur in the ecosystem. But the impact of bottom trawls, with distinct compositions by the Finnish and Swedish fleets, is not known (ICES, 2013b).

Anthropic activities such as construction and extraction of marine aggregates impact the spawning and nursery areas of herring, mainly situated in coastal areas (Fredriksson et al, 2011; Backer and Frias, 2013; ICES, 2013a).
With several sources of pollution, levels of dioxins in herring remain high and above stipulated EU values for human consumption (Wiberg et al. 2013) but have been decreasing since the 1990s (ICES, 2013a).

MARINE RESERVES

Last updated on 16 November 2016

Covering 4.4% of the Gulf of Bothnia, four Baltic Sea Protected Areas (BSPAs) are defined within the Bothnian Sea, three along Finland’s coastline and one on Sweden’s: the Uusikaupunki Archipelago, the Oura Archipelago, the Outer Bothnian Threshold Archipelago (the Quark) and the Trysunda/Ullanger/Ulvoarna/Ulvo (HELCOM, 2009c).
The aim of BSPAs is to contribute to the protection of the entire functional ecosystem and not just isolated species or habitats. Some overlap occurs with areas designated as EU Natura 2000 sites, which have more complete legal protection, but a narrower scope in terms of habitats and species protected (HELCOM, 2009b). New areas were proposed to the Helsinki Commission in mid-2013, increasing to 4.8% of coverage (Helcom, 2013a,b).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 16 July 2017

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2017 data.

This measures the F at low biomass as a percentage of the F management target.

The F at low biomass is 0.00 (from management plan). The F management target is 0.210 .

The underlying F at low biomass/F management target for this index is 0.00%.

As calculated for 2017 data.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 141 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 141 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 100%.

As calculated for 2016 data.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 128 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 103 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 124%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2017 data.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the MSY Btrigger.

The SSB is 521 ('000 t). The MSY Btrigger is 283 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/MSY Btrigger for this index is 184%.

As calculated for 2016 data.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 0.230 . The F management target is 0.210 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 110%.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses for all fisheries operating within this stock or assessment unit. If there are more than on risk level noted, individual fisheries have different levels. Click on the "Select Scores" drop-down list for your fisheries of interest.

No data available for recruitment
DATA NOTES

Last updated on 3 July 2017

Since the Baltic herring management plan was implemented in 2016 Herring in SD 30 and 31 underwent a benchmark which combined them as one stock in 2017. Because managers have yet to set measures for this new combined stock, scores were generated using ICES recommended reference points.

Download Source Data

Registered users can download the original data file for calculating the scores after logging in. If you wish, you can Register now.

Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. Backer, H. and Frias, M. (eds.) 2013. Planning the Bothnian Sea – key findings of the Plan Bothnia project. Digital edition, 153 pp.http://www.helcom.fi/Documents/Action%20areas/Maritime%20spatial%20planning/Planning%20The%20Bothnian%20Sea%20(digital%20edition%202013).pdf

  2. Council Regulation (EC) No 2187/2005 of 21 December 2005 for the conservation of fishery resources through technical measures in the Baltic Sea, the Belts and the Sound, amending Regulation (EC) No 1434/98 and repealing Regulation (EC) No 88/98, Official Journal of the European Union, 23pp.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2005:349:0001:0023:EN:PDF

  3. EC 1256/2011, Council Regulation (EU) No 1256/2011 of 30 November 2011 fixing for 2012 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks applicable in the Baltic Sea and amending Regulation (EU) No 1124/2010http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:320:0003:0011:EN:PDF

  4. EC, 2008. Council Regulation (EC) No 1322/2008 of 28 November 2008, fixing the fishing opportunities and associated conditions for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks applicable in the Baltic Sea for 2009.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/Notice.do?mode=dbl&lang=en&ihmlang=en&lng1=en,ro&lng2=bg,cs,da,de,el,en,es,et,fi,fr,hu,it,lt,lv,mt,nl,pl,pt,ro,sk,sl,sv,&val=485668:cs&page=

  5. European Commission (EC) No 1180/2013. Council Regulation (EU) No 1180/2013 of 19 November 2013 fixing for 2014 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks applicable in the Baltic Sea, European Commission, 9 pp. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2013:313:0004:0012:EN:PDF

  6. Fredriksson, R., Bergström, U., et al. 2011. Plan Bothnia MSP 3 Meeting Helsinki 19-20, Fisheries-Background Document, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) Coastal laboratory team, 10 pp.http://meeting.helcom.fi/c/document_library/get_file?p_l_id=80557&folderId=1612076&name=DLFE-47142.pdf

  7. Gårdmark, A., Östman, Ö, Nielsen, A., Lundström, K., Karlsson, O., Pönni, J., Aho, T. 2012. Does predation by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) affect Bothnian Sea herring stock estimates? ICES Journal of Marine Science 69(8): 1448–1456http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/content/69/8/1448.full.pdf+html

  8. HELCOM, 2009a. Baltic Sea Protected Areas Database. Endangered Species by Subregion: Bothnian Sea. Helsinki Commission – Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission.http://bspa.helcom.fi/flow/bspa.tammi.esbyregion.search.w.2?nop&Id=3

  9. HELCOM, 2009b. Biodiversity in the Baltic Sea: an integrated thematic assessment on biodiversity and nature conservation in the Baltic Sea. Baltic Sea Environment Proceedings No. 116B. http://www.helcom.fi/stc/files/Publications/Proceedings/bsep116B.pdf

  10. HELCOM, 2009c. HELCOM Atlas. Helsinki Commission – Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission.http://www.helcom.fi/GIS/helcom_atlas/en_GB/atlas/

  11. Helcom, 2013c. HELCOM Red List Species Information Sheets (SIS) Fish, Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission, 306 pp.http://helcom.fi/Documents/Ministerial2013/Associated%20documents/Background/HELCOM%20RedList%20All%20SIS_Fish.pdf

  12. Helsinki Commission (Helcom), 2013a. Oceana: New proposals for Marine Protected Areas in the Baltic Sea and Kattegat, Agenda Item 3 Matters arising from the HELCOM Groups HELCOM HOD 41/2013, Heads of Delegation 41st Meeting, Helsinki, Finland, 17-18 June 2013, 8pp.http://meeting.helcom.fi/c/document_library/get_file?p_l_id=18975&folderId=2258447&name=DLFE-54253.pdf

  13. Helsinki Commission (Helcom), 2013b. HELCOM PROTECT - Overview of the status of the network of Baltic Sea marine protected areas, 31 pp.http://www.helcom.fi/Lists/Publications/PROTECT/HELCOM%20BSPAs%20report%202013.pdf

  14. ICES, 2007. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment and Advisory Committee on Ecosystems, Book 8: The Baltic Sea. 8.4.6 Herring in Subdivision 30, Bothnian Sea.http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2007/may/Her-30.pdf

  15. ICES, 2008a. Report of the Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS), 8 - 17 April 2008, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen (ICES CM 2008\ACOM:06).http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2008/WGBFAS/WGBFAS08.pdf

  16. ICES, 2008b. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment and Advisory Committee on Ecosystems, Book 8: The Baltic Sea. 8.4.6 Herring in Subdivision 30, Bothnian Sea.http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2008/2008/Her-30.pdf

  17. ICES, 2008c. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment and Advisory Committee on Ecosystems, Book 8: The Baltic Sea. 8.4.7 Herring in Subdivision 31, Bothnian Bay. http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2008/2008/Her-31.pdf

  18. ICES, 2008d. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment and Advisory Committee on Ecosystems, Book I. 1.5.1.2 Status of small cetaceans and bycatch in European waters.http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2008/2008/Status%20of%20small%20cetaceans%20and%20bycatch%20in%20European%20waters.pdf

  19. ICES, 2008e. Report of the Working Group for Regional Ecosystem Description (WGRED), 25-29 February 2008, ICES, Copenhagen, Denmark (ICES CM 2008/ACOM:47).http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2008/WGRED/wgred_2008.pdf

  20. ICES, 2009a. Report of the Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS), 22 - 28 April 2009, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen (ICES CM 2009\ACOM:07).http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2009/WGBFAS/WGBFAS09.pdf

  21. ICES, 2009b. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 8: The Baltic Sea. 8.4.6 Herring in Subdivision 30 (Bothnian Sea).http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2009/2009/Her-30.pdf

  22. ICES, 2010. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 8: The Baltic Sea. 8.4.6 Herring in Subdivision 30 (Bothnian Sea). http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2010/2010/Her-30.pdf

  23. ICES, 2011a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 8: Baltic Sea 8.4.6 Ecoregion: Baltic Sea. Stock: Herring in Subdivision 30 (Bothnian Sea). Advice summary for 2012, 7 pp.http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2011/2011/Her-30.pdf

  24. ICES, 2011b. Report of the Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS), 12 - 19 April 2011, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2011\ACOM:10. 795 p.http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2011/WGBFAS/WGBFAS%20Report%202011.pdf

  25. ICES, 2012b. Report of the Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group 2012 (WGBFAS), 12 - 19 April 2012, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2012/ACOM:10. 859 pp.http://www.ices.dk

  26. ICES, 2013a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 8: Baltic Sea 8.4.2 Ecoregion: Baltic Sea. Stock Herring in Subdivision 30 (Bothnian Sea). Advice summary for 2014, 7 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2013/2013/her-30_201304142144.pdf

  27. ICES, 2013b. Report of the Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS), 10 - 17 April 2013, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2013/ACOM:10, 747 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2013/WGBFAS/WGBFAS%202013.pdf

  28. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), 2013. The IUCN Red list of Threatened species [Accessed 25 February 2014]http://www.iucnredlist.org/

  29. Lassen, H. 2011. Industrial Fisheries in the Baltic Sea, Directorate-General for Internal Policies, Policy Department B: Structural and Cohesion Policies, IP/B/PECH/NT/2010-152, European Parliament, 54 pp.http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/note/join/2011/460040/IPOL-PECH_NT(2011)460040_EN.pdf

  30. Leppänen, J. 2012. Main messages from the Initial Assessment and Targets for the Good Environmental Status, Finland. Marine Research Center, Finnish Environment Institute. MARMONI Seminar: “Stakeholders as important actors in Marine Strategy. Framework Directive implementation: from decision makers to general public”, Tallinn, 15 and 16 November. PowerPoint presentationhttp://marmoni.balticseaportal.net/wp/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/07_Initial-assessment-in-Finland-J-M_Leppanen.pdf

  31. Lindegren, M., Östman, Ö., Gardmark, A. 2011. Interacting trophic forcing and the population dynamics of herring, Ecology, 92(7): 1407–1413http://www.esajournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1890/10-2229.1

  32. Lundin, M. 2011. Herring (Clupea harengus membras) in the Baltic and Bothnian Sea: Biology, behavior and a sustainable, viable fishery, Introductory Research Essay No. 13, Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 17 p.http://pub.epsilon.slu.se/8365/1/Lundin_M_111013.pdf

  33. Lundström, K., Hjerne, O., Lunneryd, S-G., Karlsson, O. 2010. Understanding the diet composition of marine mammals: grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in the Baltic Sea. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67: 1230–1239http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/content/67/6/1230

  34. Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF), 2013. Review of scientific advice for 2014 - part I - Advice on stocks in the Baltic Sea (STECF-13-10), Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, EUR XXXX EN, JRC XXXX, 33 pp.http://www.mmm.fi/attachments/kalariistajaporot/lausuntopyynnot/6JOvWEHoC/STECF2014.pdf

  35. Wiberg, K. et al. 2013. Managing the dioxin problem in the Baltic region with focus on sources to air and fish, Final report from the research project Baltic POPs, Report 6566, 132 pp.http://www.naturvardsverket.se/Documents/publikationer6400/978-91-620-6566-9.pdf

References

    Comments

    This tab will disappear in 5 seconds.

    Comments on:

    Atlantic herring - Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia

    comments powered by Disqus
    ADD COMMENT