Profile updated on 28 February 2024





Lutjanus sebae


Emperor red snapper, Red snapper


Kakap Bongkok (local common name in South Sulawesi)

This profile refers to Lutjanus sebae (emperor red snapper) and is locally known in South Sulawesi (Indonesia) as kakap bongkok (kakap = snapper, bongkok = hunchback). L. sebae is caught in multi-species fisheries targeting snappers and groupers (and to a lesser extent, with emperors, sweetlips, and jobfishes species)  ((Nuraini 2016)(Nuraini 2017)). Despite its unique local common name, L. sebae is often collectively referred to as kakap merah or bambangan, a common name used for all Lutjanus genus in the trade.

Snappers are not separated by species in official catch records (same in FAO production dataset) or the fishery evaluations conducted by Indonesia’s Commission for Stock Assessments.  According to data provided by the FIP, this species is included in the top 20 species caught in this FMA (Banks 2020). In the interim harvest control rule, the priority snapper species identified in the FMA-713 is the Malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus) (MMAF 2020). Clarification of the species targeted by the fishery is needed.

 In terms of the Fisheries Management Area, this profile refers to the FMA (WPP) 713 assessment unit that covers Makassar Strait, Bone Bay, Bali Sea, and Flores Sea (under the jurisdiction of 10 provinces). However, in short, we refer it to “Makassar Strait – Flores Sea”. This profile may undergo restructuring in the future as new information comes to light.


  • An interim Harvest control rule for snapper fishery in FMA-713 was developed in 2020 and in 2024 Harvest Strategy was approved by the Legal Bureau, MMAF, however it has not been gazette.


Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6

Fishers Compliance:

< 6

Smale-Scale Fisheries:

Security of Tenure Rights:
Participatory Management: