Last updated on 25 July 2018

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Ammodytes spp.

SPECIES NAME(s)

Sandeels nei, Sandlances nei

The complete stock structure of North Sea sandeel is unclear, and although several reproductively isolated sub-populations have been identified, some exchange appears to take place between neighbouring populations in early life stages. From 2010 onwards ICES has present advice for the North sea sandeel divided into 7 management areas, based on the assumption that this will better reflect the stock structure and enable improved management avoiding local depletion (ICES, 2010a). This profile represents the SA3 area: Central Eastern North Sea. Since 2017, the name of this management area changed to Sandeel Area 3r because of a change in the statistical rectangles (divisions 4.a–b and Subdivision 20) included in management area (ICES 2017)


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • EU and Norway have used real-time monitoring for setting TACs within the fishing year.
  • Stock assessments are now conducted separately for each of the sandeel management areas in the North sea. This stock was benchmarked in 2016 and revised biologic reference points were set.
  • High recruitment in 2013, 2014, and 2016 lead to an increase of reproductive biomass in recent years (2015-2017) and it is considered at full reproductive capacity. 
  • Fishing mortality (F) in recent years has been below the long-time average.
  • Catches have been well below the TAC
  • Some effort towards ecosystem-based management has been made in the past.
  • Misreporting in the Danish fleet has been overpassed with the introduction of the only one fishing area per trip rule.
Weaknesses
  • Recruitment in 2017 is estimated to be low.
  • The large retrospective pattern in the recruitment leads to overestimation of the recruitment. 
  • Limited effort data available and incomplete coverage by the dredge surveys increase the uncertainty in the stock assessment. 
  • Sandeel in SA 3r is not jointly managed by the EU and Norway and there is no agreed management plan that applies to all of SA 3r.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

10

Future Health:

7.2


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Press regional advisory bodies, national fisheries administrations and the European Commission to develop a multi-species, ecosystem-based management plan for North Sea pelagic fisheries, including a harvest control rule(s).
  • Ensure these recommendations are represented to the EU Pelagic Advisory Council (https://www.pelagic-ac.org/) directly or through one of the General Assembly members. 
  • Engage as a stakeholder in all MSC certifications for this stock and support the MSC Client groups to ensure all conditions attached to the Certifications are fully addressed.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • DFPO and DPPO North Sea, Skagerrak and Kattegat sandeel, sprat and Norway pout:

    MSC Certified

  • Norway sandeel, pout and north sea sprat:

    MSC Certified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Central Eastern North Sea Norway/EU North Sea SA 3 Denmark Small mesh bottom trawls
Norway Small mesh bottom trawls
United Kingdom Small mesh bottom trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 30 May 2018

Strengths
  • EU and Norway have used real-time monitoring for setting TACs within the fishing year.
  • Stock assessments are now conducted separately for each of the sandeel management areas in the North sea. This stock was benchmarked in 2016 and revised biologic reference points were set.
  • High recruitment in 2013, 2014, and 2016 lead to an increase of reproductive biomass in recent years (2015-2017) and it is considered at full reproductive capacity. 
  • Fishing mortality (F) in recent years has been below the long-time average.
  • Catches have been well below the TAC
  • Some effort towards ecosystem-based management has been made in the past.
  • Misreporting in the Danish fleet has been overpassed with the introduction of the only one fishing area per trip rule.
Weaknesses
  • Recruitment in 2017 is estimated to be low.
  • The large retrospective pattern in the recruitment leads to overestimation of the recruitment. 
  • Limited effort data available and incomplete coverage by the dredge surveys increase the uncertainty in the stock assessment. 
  • Sandeel in SA 3r is not jointly managed by the EU and Norway and there is no agreed management plan that applies to all of SA 3r.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Press regional advisory bodies, national fisheries administrations and the European Commission to develop a multi-species, ecosystem-based management plan for North Sea pelagic fisheries, including a harvest control rule(s).
  • Ensure these recommendations are represented to the EU Pelagic Advisory Council (https://www.pelagic-ac.org/) directly or through one of the General Assembly members. 
  • Engage as a stakeholder in all MSC certifications for this stock and support the MSC Client groups to ensure all conditions attached to the Certifications are fully addressed.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 30 May 2018

In 2017 the name of this sandeel management area was changed from Sandeel Area 3 to Sandeel Area 3r because of a change in the statistical rectangles included in the management area (ICES, 2017).

Since 2010, ICES has conducted stock assessments separately for each of the sandeel management areas in the North Sea. A seasonal age-based analytical model (SMS-effort), based on data from a  a Danish dredge survey conducted in November/December and total international catch and fishing effort, is used for the assessment. In 2017, it was also included information from the acoustic survey index (2009–2016). This model assumes that fishing mortality is proportional to fishing effort (ICES, 2013b). This combination of the new assessment model “SMS-effort” with the specific area based approach is considered to have improved the quality of the assessments and has removed retrospective bias in estimated fishing mortality (F) and spawning stock biomass (SSB) for recent years (ICES, 2013).

In 2014 and 2015 occurred some misreporting of catches taken in SA 1, but reported to SA 3 (Central Eastern North Sea). The catches and fishing effort in SA 3 were revised based on information from VMS and previous catch distributions and ICES has reallocated a total of 44 000 tons in 2014 and 15,000 tons in 2015 from SA 3 to SA 1 (ICES, 2016). A northerly extension of the dredge survey area has been made in 2014 in cooperation between Denmark and Norway which lead to the increase of the quality of the survey index. The apparent differences in recruitment between the Norwegian EEZ and the rest of SA 3, the limited effort data available, uncertainty in age and length sampling, and assumptions made in natural mortality and maturity pattern estimates also add to uncertainty in the assessment (ICES, 2015). The 2016 survey index  can be biased due the local high densities which could lead to stock overestimation. In-season monitoring (e.g. acoustic monitoring and age-based commercial cpue) is more precise and should continue in SA 3 (ICES, 2014a).

A stock assessment was undertaken in 2017 for this stock (ICES 2018)(ICES 2018) using a similar technique as other assessments in the recent past. In this most recent benchmark, the three-year natural mortality estimates from southern sandeel were used. Tuning indices from the Norwegian acoustic survey as well as the dredge survey were used.

Overall the model seemed to perform well, though there was a tendency to overestimate recruitment, compared to subsequent years; called a retrospective pattern. While the assessment is classified as uncertainty for ICES, it was deemed useable in providing management advice (ICES 2018)(ICES 2018)

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 30 May 2018

ICES’ advice has been based on a Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) approach for short-lived species (Escapement strategy), allowing for sufficient stock (MSY Bescapement) to remain for successful recruitment. Following the MSY approach, catches in 2016 should not exceed 74,176 tonnes, predicted to maintain the reproductive biomass (SSB) above the MSY Bescapement reference level in 2018. This approach results in F = 0.29 in 2017 that is a value below to the long-term average F and at the same level than the F ceiling defined by ICES.  ICES recommended that management measures similar to those applied in the Danish fishery, should be taken to avoid similar misreporting in the future by other countries (ICES 2018)(ICES 2018).

For 2018 ICES has recommended a catch of 108,000 t (ICES 2018)(ICES 2018). Preliminary quota for Norway was recommended at 151,955 t for Skagerrak and Kattegat which encompasses areas 2r, 3r and 6r (IMR 2017) and for the EU at 0 t (EUR-Lex 2018). This was later revised to 8,699 t for area 3r by the EU (EUR-Lex 2018) and 70,000 t in Norway (NORGES SILDESALGSLAG 2018), bringing the total set quota to 78,699 and below advice. 

ICES recommends that a joint EU–Norway management plan should be developed for SA 3 sandeel, including different options depending on the age structure of the stock (ICES, 2014a).

Biomass reference points:

The biologic reference points of this stock were revised in the most recent stock assessment benchmark 

MSY Approach: MSY Bescapement has been defined at 129,000 tonnes (Bpa). In 2015, ICES introduced a ceiling on Fishing mortality (F) level on the escapement strategy to ensure the ICES precautionary criterion (probability of Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB)  being below Blim is ≤ 5%) is met. The value of Fcap was revised during the benchmark and a new value was established (Fcap=0.29)  (ICES 2018)(ICES 2018)

Precautionary approach (PA): The lower limit biological reference point, Blim, has been defined at 80,000 tonnes, corresponding to the lowest SSB at which a high recruitment is observed. Bpa has been defined at 129,000 tonnes(ICES 2018)(ICES 2018).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 30 May 2018

Since 2013, ICES bases the advice on the MSY approach, allowing for sufficient stock (MSY Bescapement) to remain for successful recruitment. This hasn’t prevented the stock from dropping to below Blim in 2013 and 2014 but according with the most recent estimates, this stock has been above biomass target reference point in the last four years (2015-2018).

The SSB in 2017 was estimated at 167,042 t (ICES 2018)(ICES 2018) well above the Blim of 80,000 t, but lower than 2016 vaule of ~236,000 t. While recruitment was strong in 2016, it was near record lows for 2017; indicating that the bulk of the removals will be coming from older fish in 2018. It is anticipated that SSB will increase further in 2018 to 339,762 as the large 2016-year class move through.

Both catch and fishing mortality have remained highly variable over the time series since 2006. In 2017 F was equal to 0.35, higher than Fcap of 0.29.

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 30 May 2018

The sandeel fishery in SA 3r is managed separately by the EU and Norway. Since management area 3r covers both EU and Norwegian catches,in 2016 the European Union set a TAC of 63,000 tonnes. Based on the Norwegian national management plan, a TAC for the Norwegian EEZ was set at 40,000 tons in 2016 (ICES, 2017). For 2016, the total TAC (103,000 tonnes) was set below the advised TAC (123,000 tonnes). For 2017, Regulation (EU) No 2017/127 set the TAC and quotas provisionally at zero until ICES scientific advice is released and a preliminary TAC for the Norwegian EEZ was set at 50,000 tonnes. However, after the acoustic survey, the norwegian TAC was increased for 120,000 tonnes. (IMR, 2017). The Council regulation (EU) 2017/1398  set for 2017 a TAC of 175,941 tonnes for both areas 2r and 3r together. In 2018 ICES has recommended a catch of 108,000 t (ICES 2018)(ICES 2018).

For 2018 ICES has recommended a catch of 108,000 t (ICES 2018)(ICES 2018). Preliminary quota for Norway was recommended at 151,955 t for Skagerrak and Kattegat which encompasses areas 2r, 3r and 6r (IMR 2017) and for the EU at 0 t (EUR-Lex 2018). This was later revised to 8,699 t for area 3r by the EU (EUR-Lex 2018) and 70,000 t in Norway (NORGES SILDESALGSLAG 2018), bringing the total set quota to 78,699 and below advice. 

 A management plan is in use in Norway which determines which subareas are opened for the season based on acoustic survey and catch information – a large and wide distribution leads to the opening of an adjacent subarea. If abundance is still strong in the following year, the paired subarea is opened. The preliminary TAC may be increased and new subareas opened based on data from the in-year survey (ICES, 2012b). The main goal of this plan is to guarantee that there is enough stock in order to ensure a sustainable sandeel fishing and increase the availability of food for species that prey on sandeels larvae and older sandeels (IMR, 2017).

No management agreement is in place for the whole SA3 area but an experimental management plan for the fishery has been in place in the Norwegian EEZ, including part of SA3, since 2010, although it has not been evaluated by ICES. The plan aims to rebuild the spawning stock, increasing recruitment and yield potential, via alternate closure of areas based on monitoring of abundance and distribution (ICES, 2013). To prevent catch juveniles (age-0; <10 cm), the fishing ground is closed one week if the juveniles represent more than 10% of the catch (ICES, 2016b). 

Temporal closures, from January 1st – March 31st and from August 1st – December 31st have been applied to all EU management areas for towed gears with a mesh size less than 16 mm (e.g. European Commission 2017). In 2017, the Norwegian fishing season will start early: between April 15th – June 23rd (IMR, 2017).

As of 1 January 2015, the landing obligation applies also to fisheries for industrial purposes (e.g. fisheries for capelin, sandeel and Norwegian pout) (Article 15 of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013; Regulation (EU) No 2015/104).

Danish vessels have been assigned individual tradable quotas (ITQ) since 2007, with a consequent reduction in number but increase in size of vessels in the sandeel fleet. The Norwegian fleet has also decreased in size by almost two thirds over the last decade (ICES, 2013). To avoid area misreporting, only one fishing area per trip has been mandatory for the Danish fishery (one of the main fishing countries in the SA3) since 2015 (ICES, 2016). ICES (ICES 2018)(ICES 2018) recommends a similar approach with other fisheries as misreporting for those is also a concern.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 30 May 2018

Prior to 2010 set TACs referred to the entire North Sea area (which encompasses the zone IIIa, EC waters of Division IIa and Subarea IV). Historically compliance has been relatively strong in the North Sea sandeel fishery; with the exception of 2007 and 2010 landings in the North Sea did not surpass set TACs in recent years.

For the Central Eastern North Sea area (SA 3) specifically, since a separate TAC has been set it has not been exceeded. In 2016, landings (50,737 tonnes) represented only about 50% of the set TAC (103,000 tonnes). With the reformulation of the management area into SA 3r (divisions 4.a–b and Subdivision 20),  the total catch estimate for this area in 2016 (44, 000 tonnes) it was smaller than the previous area SA 3. Discards are considered to be negligible (ICES, 2017).

In the past, misreporting occurred of catches taken in SA 1, but reported to SA 3 (Central Eastern North Sea) which ICES has reallocated a total of 44,000 tons in 2014 and 15,000 tons in 2015 from SA 3 to SA 1. This situation seems to be due that in 2014 the management system operated with individual vessel quotas by sandeel area (SA), which created the incentive and opportunity for misreporting through allocating small shares to vessels in the low TAC areas (ICES, 2015). Management measures adopted in 2015 (only one fishing area per trip) eliminated the misreporting issue for Danish catches. However, this situation seems to occur for other nations which ICES recommends that similar management measures should be implemented (ICES, 2017) (ICES 2018). 

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 30 May 2018

There is little bycatch of protected species  in the sandeel fishery (ICES, 2012b). Most of the fishery impacts are indirect, through potential removal of this forage species.

Other Species

Last updated on 30 May 2018

The levels of bycatch in the sandeel fishery are considered to be very low, including of species for which a TAC has been set (ICES, 2013) & (ICES 2018)). Sandeel catches include several Ammodytidae species but consist largely of lesser sandeel Ammodytes marinus. EU Bycatch levels are regulated, by a 5% ceiling for mesh size <16 mm and a 10% ceiling including a 5% maximum of cod, haddock and saithe for mesh size of 16 to 31 mm (ICES, 2012b). In years with low abundance of sandeel, bycatches of sprat, herring, mackerel and whiting may occur, however in recent years, those species represented less than 1% of sandeel (Scheveningen Group, 2014). Heath et al. (2014) alerts for possible ecological effects of eliminating fishery discards. 

HABITAT

Last updated on 7 April 2017

Sandeels are the principal species targeted by the small fish bottom trawl fishery in which small meshed-gear is used (i.e. trawls with mesh sizes < 16 mm) (ICES, 2007b,c, 2008a). Bottom trawling can have significant impacts on benthic communities and habitats and this has been shown to have occurred effectively in several parts of the North Sea in the past (Hiddink et al., 2006; Callaway et al., 2007).Seabed habitats in the North Sea and the distribution of trawling activities have been mapped to some extent. 

During the recent MSC evaluation of the Danish sandeel fishery, interactions with the bottom were not found to be problematic, but that more data was in need of collection (Rice et al. 2017)

Sandeel distribution is mainly influenced by the availability of suitable substrates for settlement and burrowing (Lancaster et al., 2014). Tagging studies indicated that once settled on the seabed, sandeels remain settled within a small area which means that local aggregations may be easily depleted (JNCC, 2014).

Several coastal areas and zones of known deep-water coral communities in the North Sea have been closed to fishing, in order to protect both benthic communities/habitats and juvenile demersal fish (OSPAR, 2009).

Closures of depleted areas and for certain periods is used as a management measure on a local scale. Since 2010, the sandeel fishery in the Norwegian EEZ is restricted to the April 23rd – June 23rd period, and the closure of subareas is used as a real-time management measure (ICES, 2012b). ).  In 2017, the Norwegian fishery starts early (15th April). The EU sandeel fishery fishing season runs from April 1st to July 31st.

In 2003, a joint ministerial meeting of the Helsinki and OSPAR commission (JMM), agreed to establish a Network of Marine Protected Areas (MPA) in the Northeast Atlantic (OSPAR Commission, 2011). Several of the nominated OSPAR MPAs are inside the central eastern North Sea area (OSPAR, 2010).

 
ECOSYSTEM

In the North Sea ecosystem, sandeel is considered a very important prey species for a variety of predators, including fish, marine mammals and seabirds. In other areas of the North Sea, fishing on sandeel aggregations at a distance less than 100 km from seabird colonies has been found to affect some surface feeding bird species, especially black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) and sandwich tern (Sterna sandvicensis) both “Least Concern” on IUCN’s Red List but the former is decreasing in abundance worldwide (Birdlife International, 2012a; 2012b; ICES, 2012b). Fish and mobile marine mammals’ populations are assumed to be less vulnerable to local sandeel depletion (ICES, 2013). ICES recommended that management should avoid depleting sandeel aggregations in areas where predators are abundant, and management has in the past closed areas of the North Sea on this basis (ICES, 2012b).

Some studies suggest that concerns that this industrial fishery may indirectly impact predatory fishes by depriving them of food might have some basis (Engelhard et al., 2008; Cook et al., 2014). According to Daunt et al. (2008), years of bad recruitment in sandeels have led to poor breeding success in seabirds (e.g. little tern and black-legged kittiwakes) that feed mainly the 0-group cohorts. Mackinson and Daskalov (2007) formulated an ecopath/ecosim modeling approach which highlights the importance of sandeels to the North Sea.

To mitigate possible depletion of sandeel stocks that serve as forage, ICES adopted area management which distributes effort and catch among the areas. It also uses a Bescapement which is designed to allow for adequate biomass in the areas after fishing has taken place (ICES 2018), to serve as both forage and SSB. Additionally Norway and the EU both have time area closures in place to prevent depletion in sensitive areas and times, which are important for predators (ICES 2018).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 13 July 2018

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

An experimental management plan is in place for the Norwegian EEZ since 2010, but has not been evaluated by ICES. There is no agreed management plan that applies to all of SA 3. In recent years EU and Norway have used real-time monitoring for setting TACs within the fishing year. Since 2013, ICES bases the advice on the MSY approach, allowing for sufficient stock (MSY Bescapement) to remain for successful recruitment.

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 78.7 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 108 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 72.6%.

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 121 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 296 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 40.9%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the Bmsy.

The SSB is 340 ('000 t). The Bmsy is 129 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/Bmsy for this index is 263%.

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is 7.2.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management limit.

The F is 0.350 . The F management limit is 0.290 .

The underlying F/F management limit for this index is 121%.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses for all fisheries operating within this stock or assessment unit. If there are more than on risk level noted, individual fisheries have different levels. Click on the "Select Scores" drop-down list for your fisheries of interest.

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No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
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DATA NOTES
  • Sandeel in SA 3r (divisions 4.a–b and Subdivision 20) is managed separately by the EU and Norway
  • For 2018 the EU has set a preliminary quota of 0 t while Norway has set a quota of 955 t
  • For 2017, ICES TAC advice was 74,176 tonnes due to a change in the rectangles used
  • No target fishing mortality is set and no harvest control rule is in place so score 1 have been assigned qualitatively (please mouse-over for explanation). However, ICES recommends a ceiling on Fishing mortality (F) level on the escapement strategy (Fcap = 0.29). This value was used to calculate score 5. 
  • Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB) estimate for 2018 was calculated using mean weight-at-age from 2012 to 2016 and proportion mature from December 2016 (ICES 2017).
  • Catches are represented as the ICES estimated catches for the SA 3r area (ICES 2018)(ICES 2018).
  • Catches in 2017 are preliminary

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

DFPO and DPPO North Sea, Skagerrak and Kattegat sandeel, sprat and Norway pout

STATUS

MSC Certified on 17 March 2017

SCORES

  Sandeel Sprat  Pout  
Principle Trawl   Trawl     Purse seines

Trawl

Principle 1 - Target Species 82.3 84.4 81.3
Principle 2 - Ecosystem 82.3 82.3 85.0 82.3
Principle 3 - Management System 87.5

Certification Type: Silver

Sources

Credits
  1. BirdLife International 2012a. Rissa tridactyla. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. [Downloaded on 21 March 2013.]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/106003255/0
  2. BirdLife International 2012b. Sterna sandvicensis. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. [Downloaded on 21 March 2013.]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/106003265/0
  3. Callaway, R., Engelhard, G.H., Dann, J., Cotter, J. and Rumohr, H., 2007. A century of North Sea epibenthos and trawling: comparison between 1902-1912, 1982-1985 and 2000. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 346: 27-43.http://www.int-res.com/articles/meps_oa/m346p027.pdf
  4. Cook, Aonghais S.C.P., Dadam, D., Mitchell, I., Ross-Smith, V.H., Robinson, R.A., 2014. Indicators of seabird reproductive performance demonstrate the impact of commercial fisheries on seabird populations in the North Sea.Ecological Indicators 38:1-11http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X13003981
  5. Council Regulation (EU) No 2016/72 of 22 January 2016 fixing for 2016 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in Union waters and, for Union fishing vessels, in certain non-Union waters, and amending Regulation (EU) 2015/104. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32016R0072&from=EN
  6. Council Regulation (EU) No 297/2013 of 27 March 2013 amending Regulations (EU) No 44/2012, (EU) No 39/2013 and (EU) No 40/2013 as regards certain fishing opportunities. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2013:090:0010:0047:EN:PDF
  7. Council Regulation (EU) No 40/2013 of 21 January 2013 fixing for 2013 the fishing opportunities available in EU waters and, to EU vessels, in certain non- EU waters for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks which are subject to international negotiations or agreements.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2013:023:0054:0153:EN:PDF
  8. Daunt, F., Wanless, S., Greenstreet, S.P.R., Jensen, H., Hamer, K.C. & Harris, M.P., 2008. The impact of the sandeel fishery closure in the northwestern North Sea on seabird food consumption, distribution and productivity. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 65: 362-381https://core.ac.uk/download/files/79/62542.pdf
  9. Deurs, M.,Jørgensen, C., Fiksen, Ø., 2015. Effects of copepod size on fish growth: a model based on data for North Sea sandeel. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 520: 235–243http://www.int-res.com/articles/meps_oa/m520p235.pdf
  10. EC, 2011a. Council Regulation (EC) No 57/2011 of 18 January 2009, fixing for 2011 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in EU waters and, for EU vessels, in certain non-EU waters.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:024:0001:0125:EN:PDF
  11. EC, 2011b. Council Regulation (EC) No 476/2011 of 17 May 2011, amending Council Regulation (EU) No 57/2011 as regards catch limits for the fisheries on sandeel in EU waters of ICES zones IIa, IIIa and IV.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:131:0012:0013:EN:PDF
  12. EC, 2012a. Council Regulation (EU) No 44/2012 of 17 January 2012, fixing for 2012 the fishing opportunities available in EU waters and, to EU vessels, in certain non- EU waters for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks which are subject to international negotiations or agreements.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2012:025:0055:0147:EN:PDF
  13. Eigaard, O.R., Deurs, M., Behrens, J.W., Bekkevold, D., Brander, K., Plambech, M., Plet-Hansen, K.S., Mosegaard, H., 2014. Prey or predator—expanding the food web role of sandeel Ammodytes marinus. Marine Ecology Progress Series 516:267-273 doi:10.3354/meps11064http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/meps/v516/p267-273/
  14. European Commission (EC), 2012b. Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 368/2012 of 27 April 2012 amending Council Regulation (EU) No 44/2012 fixing for 2012 the fishing opportunities available in EU waters and, to EU vessels, in certain non-EU waters for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks which are subject to international negotiations or agreement.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2012:116:0017:0018:EN:PDF
  15. Heath, M.R., Cook, R.M., Cameron, A.I., Morris, D.J., Speirs, D.C., 2014. Cascading ecological effects of eliminating fishery discards. Nature Communications 5, Article number: 3893 doi:10.1038/ncomms4893http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2014/140513/ncomms4893/full/ncomms4893.html?WT.ec_id=NCOMMS-20140514
  16. Hiddink J.G, Kennings S., and Kaiser, M.J., 2006. Indicators of the ecological impact of bottom-trawl disturbance on seabed communities. Ecosystems, 9: 1190-1199. Hiddink_et_al._Ecosystems.pdf
  17. ICES, 2010a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.4.21 Sandeel in Division IIIa and Subarea IV. http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2010/2010/san-34.pdf
  18. ICES, 2010b. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.3.3.1 EC request on in-year management advice for sandeel in the North Sea http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2010/Special%20Requests/EC%20in-year%20management%20advice%20for%20sandeel.pdf
  19. ICES, 2010c. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak (WGNSSK), 5 -11 May 2010, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen (ICES CM 2010/ACOM:13). 1058 pp. http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2010/WGNSSK/WGNSSK%202010.pdf
  20. ICES, 2010d. Report of the Benchmark Workshop on Sandeel (WKSAN), 6–10 September 2010, Copenhagen, Denmark (ICES CM 2010/ACOM:57). 201 pp.http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2010/WKSAN/wksan_2010.pdf
  21. ICES, 2011a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.4.21 Sandeel in Division IIIa and Subarea IV.http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2011/2011/san-34.pdf
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  42. Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 of the European Parliament and the Council of 11 December 2013 on the Common Fisheries Policy, amending Council Regulations (EC) No 1954/2003 and (EC) No 1224/2009 and repealing Council Regulations (EC) No 2371/2002 and (EC) No 639/2004 and Council Decision 2004/585/EC. Official Journal of the European Union 28.12.2013http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32013R1380&from=EN
  43. Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 of the European Parliament and the Council of 11 December 2013 on the Common Fisheries Policy, amending Council Regulations (EC) No 1954/2003 and (EC) No 1224/2009 and repealing Council Regulations (EC) No 2371/2002 and (EC) No 639/2004 and Council Decision 2004/585/EC. Official Journal of the European Union 28.12.2013.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32013R1380&from=EN
  44. Regulation (EU) No 2015/104 of 19 January 2015 fixing for 2015 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in Union waters and, for Union vessels, in certain non-Union waters, amending Regulation (EU) No 43/2014 and repealing Regulation (EU) No 779/2014. Official Journal of the European Union. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32015R0104&from=EN
  45. Regulation (EU) No 43/2014 of 20 January 2014 fixing for 2014 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in Union waters and, to Union vessels, in certain non-Union waters . Official Journal of the European Union.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2014:024:0001:0145:EN:PDF
  46. Scheveningen Group, 2014. Joint recommendation of the Scheveningen Group Discard plan for the industrial fisheries in Kattegat, Skagerrak and the North Sea. http://www.nsrac.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Sch-Ind-Fish-NS-final-2014-07-17.pdf
References

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