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SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

Last updated on 31 October 2016

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Ammodytes spp.

SPECIES NAME(s)

Sandeels nei

The complete stock structure of North Sea sandeel is unclear, and although several reproductively isolated sub-populations have been identified, some exchange appears to take place between neighbouring populations in early life stages. From 2010 onwards ICES has present advice for the North sea sandeel divided into 7 management areas, based on the assumption that this will better reflect the stock structure and enable improved management avoiding local depletion (ICES, 2010a). This profile represents the SA3 area: Central Eastern North Sea. Since 2017, the name of this management area changed to Sandeel Area 3r because of a change in the statistical rectangles (divisions 4.a–b and Subdivision 20) included in management area (ICES 2017).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • EU and Norway have used real-time monitoring for setting TACs within the fishing year.
  • Stock assessments are now conducted separately for each of the sandeel management areas in the North sea. This stock was benchmarked in 2016 and revised biologic reference points were set.
  • High recruitment in 2013 and 2014 lead to an increase of reproductive biomass in recent years (2015-2017) and it is considered at full reproductive capacity. 
  • Fishing mortality (F) in recent years has been below the long-time average and below the F ceiling defined by ICES.
  • Catches have been well below the TAC
  • Some effort towards ecosystem-based management has been made in the past.
  • Misreporting in the Danish fleet has been overpassed with the introduction of the only one fishing area per trip rule.
Weaknesses
  • Recruitment in 2015 is estimated to be low and recruitment estimate for 2016 is highly uncertain.
  • The large retrospective pattern in the recruitment leads to overestimation of the recruitment. 
  • Although above the biomass target point, in 2017 the reprodutive biomass decrease about 12% in comparison with the previous year.
  • Limited effort data available and incomplete coverage by the dredge surveys increase the uncertainty in the stock assessment. 
  • Sandeel in SA 3r is not jointly managed by the EU and Norway and there is no agreed management plan that applies to all of SA 3r.
  • Possible effects of the fishery in PET species and over the seabed needs to be evaluated.

FishSource Scores

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 8

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

10

Future Health:

9.8


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Press national fisheries administrations and the European Commission to develop an ecosystem-based, multi-annual management plan for North Sea pelagic fisheries.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • DFPO and DPPO North Sea, Skagerrak and Kattegat sandeel, sprat and Norway pout:

    MSC Certified

  • Norway sandeel, pout and north sea sprat:

    MSC Full Assessment

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Central Eastern North Sea Norway/EU North Sea SA 3 Norway Small mesh bottom trawls
United Kingdom Small mesh bottom trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 8 May 2017

Strengths
  • EU and Norway have used real-time monitoring for setting TACs within the fishing year.
  • Stock assessments are now conducted separately for each of the sandeel management areas in the North sea. This stock was benchmarked in 2016 and revised biologic reference points were set.
  • High recruitment in 2013 and 2014 lead to an increase of reproductive biomass in recent years (2015-2017) and it is considered at full reproductive capacity. 
  • Fishing mortality (F) in recent years has been below the long-time average and below the F ceiling defined by ICES.
  • Catches have been well below the TAC
  • Some effort towards ecosystem-based management has been made in the past.
  • Misreporting in the Danish fleet has been overpassed with the introduction of the only one fishing area per trip rule.
Weaknesses
  • Recruitment in 2015 is estimated to be low and recruitment estimate for 2016 is highly uncertain.
  • The large retrospective pattern in the recruitment leads to overestimation of the recruitment. 
  • Although above the biomass target point, in 2017 the reprodutive biomass decrease about 12% in comparison with the previous year.
  • Limited effort data available and incomplete coverage by the dredge surveys increase the uncertainty in the stock assessment. 
  • Sandeel in SA 3r is not jointly managed by the EU and Norway and there is no agreed management plan that applies to all of SA 3r.
  • Possible effects of the fishery in PET species and over the seabed needs to be evaluated.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 25 May 2017

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Press national fisheries administrations and the European Commission to develop an ecosystem-based, multi-annual management plan for North Sea pelagic fisheries.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 7 April 2017

In 2017 the name of this sandeel management area was changed from Sandeel Area 3 to Sandeel Area 3r because of a change in the statistical rectangles included in the management area (ICES, 2017).

Since 2010, ICES has conducted stock assessments separately for each of the sandeel management areas in the North Sea. A seasonal age-based analytical model (SMS-effort), based on data from a  a Danish dredge survey conducted in November/December and total international catch and fishing effort, is used for the assessment. In 2017, it was also included information from the acoustic survey index (2009–2016). This model assumes that fishing mortality is proportional to fishing effort (ICES, 2013b). This combination of the new assessment model “SMS-effort” with the specific area based approach is considered to have improved the quality of the assessments and has removed retrospective bias in estimated fishing mortality (F) and spawning stock biomass (SSB) for recent years (ICES, 2013).

In 2014 and 2015 occurred some misreporting of catches taken in SA 1, but reported to SA 3 (Central Eastern North Sea). The catches and fishing effort in SA 3 were revised based on information from VMS and previous catch distributions and ICES has reallocated a total of 44 000 tons in 2014 and 15,000 tons in 2015 from SA 3 to SA 1 (ICES, 2016). A northerly extension of the dredge survey area has been made in 2014 in cooperation between Denmark and Norway which lead to the increase of the quality of the survey index. The apparent differences in recruitment between the Norwegian EEZ and the rest of SA 3, the limited effort data available, uncertainty in age and length sampling, and assumptions made in natural mortality and maturity pattern estimates also add to uncertainty in the assessment (ICES, 2015). The 2016 survey index  can be biased due the local high densities which could lead to stock overestimation. In-season monitoring (e.g. acoustic monitoring and age-based commercial cpue) is more precise and should continue in SA 3 (ICES, 2014a).

An ICES assessment benchmark was undertaken in November 2016 to deal with the heterogeneous distribution of both stock and fishery in the calculation of the survey index used in the assessment (ICES 2016). The large retrospective pattern in the recruitment leads to overestimation of the recruitment; this has not been accounted for in the estimation of Fcap. The age 0 dredge survey index for the 2016 year class is high, but the dredge survey also has a large survey coefficient of variation (CV) as estimated by the assessment. Therefore, the 2016 recruitment used in the forecast is calculated as the geometric mean for the years 1986–2015 (ICES 2017).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 6 April 2017

ICES’ advice has been based on a Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) approach for short-lived species (Escapement strategy), allowing for sufficient stock (MSY Bescapement) to remain for successful recruitment. Following the MSY approach, catches in 2016 should not exceed 74,176 tonnes, predicted to maintain the reproductive biomass (SSB) above the MSY Bescapement reference level in 2018. This approach results in F = 0.29 in 2017 that is a value below to the long-term average F and at the same level than the F ceiling defined by ICES. The ICES advice for 2017 (74,176 tonnes) represents a strong decreased in relation to the two previous years. ICES recommended that management measures similar to those applied in the Danish fishery, should be taken to avoid similar misreporting in the future by other countries (ICES, 2015; ICES, 2017).

Norway’s Institute of Marine Research provides advice for the Norwegian zone – a preliminary quota of 50,000 tonnes was advised for 2017 for the ICES areas IIIa, IIIb and IIb for the period between 15 April and 23 June. This TAC was revised in May after the acoustic survey,for 120,000 tonnes, considering the good recruitment indices (IMR, 2017).

ICES recommends that a joint EU–Norway management plan should be developed for SA 3 sandeel, including different options depending on the age structure of the stock (ICES, 2014a).

REFERENCE POINTS

Last updated on 7 April 2017

Biomass reference points:

The biologic reference points of this stock were revised in the stock assessment benchmark undertaken in November 2016 (ICES 2016).

MSY Approach: MSY Bescapement has been defined at 129,000 tonnes (Bpa). In 2015, ICES introduced a ceiling on Fishing mortality (F) level on the escapement strategy to ensure the ICES precautionary criterion (probability of Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB)  being below Blim is ≤ 5%) is met. The value of Fcap was revised during the benchmark and a new value was established (Fcap=0.29)  (ICES, 2017).

Precautionary approach (PA): The lower limit biological reference point, Blim, has been defined at 80,000 tonnes, corresponding to the lowest SSB at which a high recruitment is observed. Bpa has been defined at 129,000 tonnes (ICES, 2017).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 6 April 2017

Since 2013, ICES bases the advice on the MSY approach, allowing for sufficient stock (MSY Bescapement) to remain for successful recruitment. This hasn’t prevented the stock from dropping to below Blim in 2013 and 2014 but according with the most recent estimates, this stock has been above biomass target reference point in the last three years (2015-2017).

Currently, the spawning stock biomass (SSB) is estimated at around 194 thousand tons, above the target reference point Bpa (= MSY Bescapement) and it is considered at “Full reproductive capacity”. However, in 2017 a decrease of about 12% in SSB was observed in comparison with the previous year. Fishing mortality has been oscillating in recent years, but has remained below the long term average and below the proposed Fcap. Recruitment in 2015 is estimated to be low and the estimate for 2016 is highly uncertain. Catches in 2016 decreased about 50% in relation to 2015.

TRENDS

Last updated on 6 April 2017

Spawning Stock Biomass increased from a record low of 26,000 tons in 2004 to 254 thousand tons in 2010, well above the target reference point Bpa (MSY Bescapement). However it has decreased rapidly since then, falling below Bpa in 2012 and below the limit reference point in 2013 and 2014 (ICES, 2013; ICES, 2014). The recent decrease is due to the historically low 2010 and 2011 recruitment. Recruitment has been below the long term average since 1996 but the 2012 value is closer to this average level (ICES, 2013). Following the high recruitment in 2013 and 2014, SSB was estimated to be well above precautionary biomass level Bpa (= MSY Bescapement) in 2015 and 2016 (ICES, 2016). A low recruitment estimate in 2015 could explain the decreased of the reproductive biomass (SSB) in 2017.

Fishing mortality decreased from a peak in 1999 to an historical low in 2006, and has been oscillating around values below the long term average ever since. After a maximum value of catches reached in 1997 (more than 600 thousand tons), catches estimates strongly decreased with the period of low catches have been observed between 2003 and 2013. In the last 2 years (2014-2015), catches values have been recovering but decreased again in 2016 (provisional values).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGERS' DECISIONS

Last updated on 4 August 2017

The sandeel fishery in SA 3r is managed separately by the EU and Norway. Since management area 3r covers both EU and Norwegian catches,in 2016 the European Union set a TAC of 63,000 tonnes. Based on the Norwegian national management plan, a TAC for the Norwegian EEZ was set at 40,000 tons in 2016 (ICES, 2017). For 2016, the total TAC (103,000 tonnes) was set below the advised TAC (123,000 tonnes). For 2017, Regulation (EU) No 2017/127 set the TAC and quotas provisionally at zero until ICES scientific advice is released and a preliminary TAC for the Norwegian EEZ was set at 50,000 tonnes. However, after the acoustic survey, the norwegian TAC was increased for 120,000 tonnes. (IMR, 2017). The Council regulation (EU) 2017/1398  set for 2017 a TAC of 175,941 tonnes for both areas 2r and 3r together.

The EU fishery has been managed in accordance with the ICES advice, while fisheries in the Norwegian EEZ are managed based on a system of closed areas in combination with acoustic monitoring of the geographical distribution and size of the stock (ICES, 2014a). No management agreement is in place for the whole SA3 area but an experimental management plan for the fishery has been in place in the Norwegian EEZ, including part of SA3, since 2010, although it has not been evaluated by ICES. The plan aims to rebuild the spawning stock, increasing recruitment and yield potential, via alternate closure of areas based on monitoring of abundance and distribution (ICES, 2013). To prevent catch juveniles (age-0; <10 cm), the fishing ground is closed one week if the juveniles represent more than 10% of the catch (ICES, 2016b).

Temporal closures, from January 1st – March 31st and from August 1st – December 31st have been applied to all EU management areas for towed gears with a mesh size less than 16 mm (e.g. European Commission 2017). In 2017, the Norwegian fishing season will start early: between April 15th – June 23rd (IMR, 2017).

As of 1 January 2015, the landing obligation applies also to fisheries for industrial purposes (e.g. fisheries for capelin, sandeel and Norwegian pout) (Article 15 of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013; Regulation (EU) No 2015/104).

Danish vessels have been assigned individual tradable quotas (ITQ) since 2007, with a consequent reduction in number but increase in size of vessels in the sandeel fleet. The Norwegian fleet has also decreased in size by almost two thirds over the last decade (ICES, 2013). To avoid area misreporting, only one fishing area per trip has been mandatory for the Danish fishery (one of the main fishing countries in the SA3) since 2015 (ICES, 2016).

RECOVERY PLANS

Last updated on 7 April 2017

No management plan or recovery plan are in place for the EU fishery. A management plan is in use in Norway which determines which subareas are opened for the season based on acoustic survey and catch information – a large and wide distribution leads to the opening of an adjacent subarea. If abundance is still strong in the following year, the paired subarea is opened. The preliminary TAC may be increased and new subareas opened based on data from the in-year survey (ICES, 2012b). The main goal of this plan is to guarantee that there is enough stock in order to ensure a sustainable sandeel fishing and increase the availability of food for species that prey on sandeels larvae and older sandeels (IMR, 2017).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 7 April 2017

Prior to 2010 set TACs referred to the entire North Sea area (which encompasses the zone IIIa, EC waters of Division IIa and Subarea IV). Historically compliance has been relatively strong in the North Sea sandeel fishery; with the exception of 2007 and 2010 landings in the North Sea did not surpass set TACs in recent years.

For the Central Eastern North Sea area (SA 3) specifically, since a separate TAC has been set it has not been exceeded. In 2016, landings (50,737 tonnes) represented only about 50% of the set TAC (103,000 tonnes). With the reformulation of the management area into SA 3r (divisions 4.a–b and Subdivision 20),  the total catch estimate for this area in 2016 (44, 000 tonnes) it was smaller than the previous area SA 3. Discards are considered to be negligible (ICES, 2017).

In the past, misreporting occurred of catches taken in SA 1, but reported to SA 3 (Central Eastern North Sea) which ICES has reallocated a total of 44,000 tons in 2014 and 15,000 tons in 2015 from SA 3 to SA 1. This situation seems to be due that in 2014 the management system operated with individual vessel quotas by sandeel area (SA), which created the incentive and opportunity for misreporting through allocating small shares to vessels in the low TAC areas (ICES, 2015). Management measures adopted in 2015 (only one fishing area per trip) eliminated the misreporting issue for Danish catches. However, this situation seems to occur for other nations which ICES recommends that similar management measures should be implemented (ICES, 2017).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP SPECIES

Last updated on 1 May 2017

In the North Sea ecosystem, sandeel is considered a very important prey species for a variety of predators, including fish, marine mammals and seabirds. In other areas of the North Sea, fishing on sandeel aggregations at a distance less than 100 km from seabird colonies has been found to affect some surface feeding bird species, especially black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) and sandwich tern (Sterna sandvicensis) both “Least Concern” on IUCN’s Red List but the former is decreasing in abundance worldwide (Birdlife International, 2012a; 2012b; ICES, 2012b). Fish and mobile marine mammals’ populations are assumed to be less vulnerable to local sandeel depletion (ICES, 2013). ICES recommended that management should avoid depleting sandeel aggregations in areas where predators are abundant, and management has in the past closed areas of the North Sea on this basis (ICES, 2012b). Some studies suggest that concerns that this industrial fishery may indirectly impact predatory fishes by depriving them of food might have some basis (Engelhard et al., 2008; Cook et al., 2014). According to Daunt et al. (2008), years of bad recruitment in sandeels have led to poor breeding success in seabirds (e.g. little tern and black-legged kittiwakes) that feed mainly the 0-group cohorts. There is little bycatch of protected species (ICES, 2012b).

OTHER TARGET AND BYCATCH SPECIES

Last updated on 1 May 2017

The levels of bycatch in the sandeel fishery are considered to be very low, including of species for which a TAC has been set (ICES, 2013; ICES, 2016). Sandeel catches include several Ammodytoidei species but consist largely of lesser sandeel Ammodytes marinus. EU Bycatch levels are regulated, by a 5% ceiling for mesh size <16 mm and a 10% ceiling including a 5% maximum of cod, haddock and saithe for mesh size of 16 to 31 mm (ICES, 2012b). In years with low abundance of sandeel, bycatches of sprat, herring, mackerel and whiting may occur, however in recent years, those species represented less than 1% of sandeel (Scheveningen Group, 2014). Heath et al. (2014) alerts for possible ecological effects of eliminating fishery discards. 

HABITAT

Last updated on 7 April 2017

Sandeels are the principal species targeted by the small fish bottom trawl fishery in which small meshed-gear is used (i.e. trawls with mesh sizes < 16 mm) (ICES, 2007b,c, 2008a). Bottom trawling can have significant impacts on benthic communities and habitats and this has been shown to have occurred effectively in several parts of the North Sea in the past (Hiddink et al., 2006; Callaway et al., 2007).Seabed habitats in the North Sea and the distribution of trawling activities have been mapped to some extent. However, specific research on the impact of the sandeel trawl fishery on bottom habitats is scarce.

Sandeel distribution is mainly influenced by the availability of suitable substrates for settlement and burrowing (Lancaster et al., 2014). Tagging studies indicated that once settled on the seabed, sandeels remain settled within a small area which means that local aggregations may be easily depleted (JNCC, 2014).

Several coastal areas and zones of known deep-water coral communities in the North Sea have been closed to fishing, in order to protect both benthic communities/habitats and juvenile demersal fish (OSPAR, 2009).

Besides fishery, there are other factors that influence the sandeels stocks. Eigaard et al. (2014) mentioned cannibalism on sandeels larvaes. However, this behaviour may not only be a key factor in explaining recruitment fluctuations in North Sea sandeel stocks. A recent study of Deurs et al. (2015) suggests that changes in prey quality induced by climate change or other factors can have major implications for growth, survival, and reproduction of zooplanktivorous fish. This author mentioned that a shift from large energy-rich Calanus copepods to smaller non-diapausing copepod species will impact the specific growth potential of sandeels. Also, Wright et al. (2017) suggests that the rising of sea water temperature could have impacts on the reproductive investment of this species. There is also spatial differences in the growth of the sandeels in the North Sea: mean length at age is higher in central/north eastern fishing grounds (Rindorf et al. 2016).

MARINE RESERVES

Last updated on 7 April 2017

Closures of depleted areas and for certain periods is used as a management measure on a local scale. Since 2010, the sandeel fishery in the Norwegian EEZ is restricted to the April 23rd – June 23rd period, and the closure of subareas is used as a real-time management measure (ICES, 2012b). ).  In 2017, the Norwegian fishery starts early (15th April). The EU sandeel fishery fishing season runs from April 1st to July 31st.

In 2003, a joint ministerial meeting of the Helsinki and OSPAR commission (JMM), agreed to establish a Network of Marine Protected Areas (MPA) in the Northeast Atlantic (OSPAR Commission, 2011). Several of the nominated OSPAR MPAs are inside the central eastern North Sea area (OSPAR, 2010).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 4 August 2017

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

An experimental management plan is in place for the Norwegian EEZ since 2010, but has not been evaluated by ICES. There is no agreed management plan that applies to all of SA 3. In recent years EU and Norway have used real-time monitoring for setting TACs within the fishing year. Since 2013, ICES bases the advice on the MSY approach, allowing for sufficient stock (MSY Bescapement) to remain for successful recruitment.

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

Traditional, managers usually followed the scientific advice. However, for 2017, the proposal TAC joined areas 2r and 3r. Since the advice is separate by area is dificult to compare if the managers follow or not advice but according with the current values available, there is low risk of the set TAC overpass the advice.

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 44.0 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 103 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 42.7%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the B=Bmsy.

The SSB is 194 ('000 t). The B=Bmsy is 129 .

The underlying SSB/B=Bmsy for this index is 150%.

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is 9.8.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management limit.

The F is 0.157 . The F management limit is 0.290 .

The underlying F/F management limit for this index is 54.1%.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses for all fisheries operating within this stock or assessment unit. If there are more than on risk level noted, individual fisheries have different levels. Click on the "Select Scores" drop-down list for your fisheries of interest.

No data available for recruitment
DATA NOTES

1) Sandeel in SA 3r (divisions 4.a–b and Subdivision 20) is managed separately by the EU and Norway: in 2016, a TAC was set at 63,000 tonnes by the EU and Norway set a provisional TAC of 40,000 tonnes for the Norwegian EEZ part of SA 3r, based on its national management plan (ICES 2017; IMR,2016).

2) For 2017, ICES TAC advice is 74,176 tonnes.

3) Before the release of the ICES advice the Council Regulation (EU) 2017/127 set a provisional TAC of zero tonnes for EU but a publication of a new TAC is expected. The Norway Marine Research Institute (IMR) advised a provisional TAC of 50,000 tonnes for the period 15 April-23 June. This TAC was revised in May after the acoustic survey and considering the good recruitment indices increased for 120,000 tonnes (IMR, 2017). The Council Regulation (EU) 2017/1398  established the final 2017 TAC for both 2r and 3r areas together (175,941 tonnes). Since the advice is separated by area is difficult to compare if the managers followed or not advice but according with the current values available, there is a low risk of the set TAC overpass the advice.

4) The biologic reference points were revised in the stock assessment benchmark undertaken in 2016.

5) No target fishing mortality is set and no harvest control rule is in place so score 1 have been assigned qualitatively (please mouse-over for explanation). However, ICES recommends a ceiling on Fishing mortality (F) level on the escapement strategy (Fcap = 0.29). This value was used to calculate score 5. 

6) Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB) estimate for 2017 was calculated using mean weight-at-age from 2012 to 2016 and proportion mature from December 2016 (ICES 2017).

7) Catches are represented as the ICES estimated catches for the SA 3r area (ICES 2017).

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

DFPO and DPPO North Sea, Skagerrak and Kattegat sandeel, sprat and Norway pout

STATUS

MSC Certified on 17 March 2017

SCORES

  Sandeel Sprat  Pout  
Principle Trawl   Trawl     Purse seines

Trawl

Principle 1 - Target Species 82.3 84.4 81.3
Principle 2 - Ecosystem 82.3 82.3 85.0 82.3
Principle 3 - Management System 87.5

Certification Type: Silver

Sources

Credits
  1. BirdLife International 2012a. Rissa tridactyla. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. [Downloaded on 21 March 2013.]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/106003255/0
  2. BirdLife International 2012b. Sterna sandvicensis. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. [Downloaded on 21 March 2013.]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/106003265/0
  3. Callaway, R., Engelhard, G.H., Dann, J., Cotter, J. and Rumohr, H., 2007. A century of North Sea epibenthos and trawling: comparison between 1902-1912, 1982-1985 and 2000. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 346: 27-43.http://www.int-res.com/articles/meps_oa/m346p027.pdf
  4. Cook, Aonghais S.C.P., Dadam, D., Mitchell, I., Ross-Smith, V.H., Robinson, R.A., 2014. Indicators of seabird reproductive performance demonstrate the impact of commercial fisheries on seabird populations in the North Sea.Ecological Indicators 38:1-11http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X13003981
  5. Council Regulation (EU) No 2016/72 of 22 January 2016 fixing for 2016 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in Union waters and, for Union fishing vessels, in certain non-Union waters, and amending Regulation (EU) 2015/104. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32016R0072&from=EN
  6. Council Regulation (EU) No 297/2013 of 27 March 2013 amending Regulations (EU) No 44/2012, (EU) No 39/2013 and (EU) No 40/2013 as regards certain fishing opportunities. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2013:090:0010:0047:EN:PDF
  7. Council Regulation (EU) No 40/2013 of 21 January 2013 fixing for 2013 the fishing opportunities available in EU waters and, to EU vessels, in certain non- EU waters for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks which are subject to international negotiations or agreements.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2013:023:0054:0153:EN:PDF
  8. Daunt, F., Wanless, S., Greenstreet, S.P.R., Jensen, H., Hamer, K.C. & Harris, M.P., 2008. The impact of the sandeel fishery closure in the northwestern North Sea on seabird food consumption, distribution and productivity. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 65: 362-381https://core.ac.uk/download/files/79/62542.pdf
  9. Deurs, M.,Jørgensen, C., Fiksen, Ø., 2015. Effects of copepod size on fish growth: a model based on data for North Sea sandeel. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 520: 235–243http://www.int-res.com/articles/meps_oa/m520p235.pdf
  10. EC, 2011a. Council Regulation (EC) No 57/2011 of 18 January 2009, fixing for 2011 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in EU waters and, for EU vessels, in certain non-EU waters.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:024:0001:0125:EN:PDF
  11. EC, 2011b. Council Regulation (EC) No 476/2011 of 17 May 2011, amending Council Regulation (EU) No 57/2011 as regards catch limits for the fisheries on sandeel in EU waters of ICES zones IIa, IIIa and IV.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:131:0012:0013:EN:PDF
  12. EC, 2012a. Council Regulation (EU) No 44/2012 of 17 January 2012, fixing for 2012 the fishing opportunities available in EU waters and, to EU vessels, in certain non- EU waters for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks which are subject to international negotiations or agreements.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2012:025:0055:0147:EN:PDF
  13. Eigaard, O.R., Deurs, M., Behrens, J.W., Bekkevold, D., Brander, K., Plambech, M., Plet-Hansen, K.S., Mosegaard, H., 2014. Prey or predator—expanding the food web role of sandeel Ammodytes marinus. Marine Ecology Progress Series 516:267-273 doi:10.3354/meps11064http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/meps/v516/p267-273/
  14. European Commission (EC), 2012b. Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 368/2012 of 27 April 2012 amending Council Regulation (EU) No 44/2012 fixing for 2012 the fishing opportunities available in EU waters and, to EU vessels, in certain non-EU waters for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks which are subject to international negotiations or agreement.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2012:116:0017:0018:EN:PDF
  15. Heath, M.R., Cook, R.M., Cameron, A.I., Morris, D.J., Speirs, D.C., 2014. Cascading ecological effects of eliminating fishery discards. Nature Communications 5, Article number: 3893 doi:10.1038/ncomms4893http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2014/140513/ncomms4893/full/ncomms4893.html?WT.ec_id=NCOMMS-20140514
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  17. ICES, 2010a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.4.21 Sandeel in Division IIIa and Subarea IV. http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2010/2010/san-34.pdf
  18. ICES, 2010b. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.3.3.1 EC request on in-year management advice for sandeel in the North Sea http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2010/Special%20Requests/EC%20in-year%20management%20advice%20for%20sandeel.pdf
  19. ICES, 2010c. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak (WGNSSK), 5 -11 May 2010, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen (ICES CM 2010/ACOM:13). 1058 pp. http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2010/WGNSSK/WGNSSK%202010.pdf
  20. ICES, 2010d. Report of the Benchmark Workshop on Sandeel (WKSAN), 6–10 September 2010, Copenhagen, Denmark (ICES CM 2010/ACOM:57). 201 pp.http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2010/WKSAN/wksan_2010.pdf
  21. ICES, 2011a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.4.21 Sandeel in Division IIIa and Subarea IV.http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2011/2011/san-34.pdf
  22. ICES, 2011b. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak (WGNSSK Feb. 2011); 4 – Sandeel in IV. 95 pp.http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2011/WGNSSK/Sec%2004%20Sandeel.pdf
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  34. Institute of Marine Research (IMR), 2017. Tobisfiskeriet i norsk økonomisk sone – foreløpg råd 2017 http://www.imr.no/radgivning/kvoterad/kvoterad_for_2017/254885/tobisfiskeriet_i_norsk_okonomisk_sone_forelopg_rad_2017/nb-no

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  42. Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 of the European Parliament and the Council of 11 December 2013 on the Common Fisheries Policy, amending Council Regulations (EC) No 1954/2003 and (EC) No 1224/2009 and repealing Council Regulations (EC) No 2371/2002 and (EC) No 639/2004 and Council Decision 2004/585/EC. Official Journal of the European Union 28.12.2013http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32013R1380&from=EN
  43. Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 of the European Parliament and the Council of 11 December 2013 on the Common Fisheries Policy, amending Council Regulations (EC) No 1954/2003 and (EC) No 1224/2009 and repealing Council Regulations (EC) No 2371/2002 and (EC) No 639/2004 and Council Decision 2004/585/EC. Official Journal of the European Union 28.12.2013.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32013R1380&from=EN
  44. Regulation (EU) No 2015/104 of 19 January 2015 fixing for 2015 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in Union waters and, for Union vessels, in certain non-Union waters, amending Regulation (EU) No 43/2014 and repealing Regulation (EU) No 779/2014. Official Journal of the European Union. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32015R0104&from=EN
  45. Regulation (EU) No 43/2014 of 20 January 2014 fixing for 2014 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in Union waters and, to Union vessels, in certain non-Union waters . Official Journal of the European Union.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2014:024:0001:0145:EN:PDF
  46. Scheveningen Group, 2014. Joint recommendation of the Scheveningen Group Discard plan for the industrial fisheries in Kattegat, Skagerrak and the North Sea. http://www.nsrac.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Sch-Ind-Fish-NS-final-2014-07-17.pdf
References

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