Last updated on 28 October 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Trachurus trachurus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Atlantic horse mackerel

The North sea stock is one of four stocks of horse mackerel in the Northeast Atlantic - Western, Southern and Saharo-Mauritanian - that have been distinguished based on genetic, parasite, morphometric, otolith and life history trait analyses (Abaunza et al. 2008), but the boundaries of their distribution areas have not been conclusively determined (ICES, 2014).


ANALYSIS

Strengths

Landings have in general been below the Set TACs. Discarding is considered negligible (ICES, 2011a).

Weaknesses

Available information on the stock is considered inadequate to assess the stock; the stock status is unknown. No management objectives are known, and reference points have not been defined yet. Scientific advice and Set TAC areas do not correspond; TACs have generally surpassed scientific advice. No TAC is set for Division IIIa (ICES, 2011a,b).

Options

Specific management objectives, with adequate reference points, should be developed. The TAC for this stock should include all areas in which North Sea horse mackerel are fished (Divisions IIIa, IVb, IVc and VIId). Independent data (e.g. egg surveys) should start to be collected, covering the spawning area of horse mackerel. Biological sampling programmes should be improved (ICES, 2011a,b).

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

NOT YET SCORED

Managers Compliance:

0

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

NOT YET SCORED

Future Health:

NOT YET SCORED


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
North Sea EU Denmark Bottom trawls
France Bottom trawls
Purse seines
Germany Bottom trawls
Netherlands Bottom trawls
United Kingdom Bottom trawls
Norway Norway Purse seines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 2 December 2011

Strengths

Landings have in general been below the Set TACs. Discarding is considered negligible (ICES, 2011a).

Weaknesses

Available information on the stock is considered inadequate to assess the stock; the stock status is unknown. No management objectives are known, and reference points have not been defined yet. Scientific advice and Set TAC areas do not correspond; TACs have generally surpassed scientific advice. No TAC is set for Division IIIa (ICES, 2011a,b).

Options

Specific management objectives, with adequate reference points, should be developed. The TAC for this stock should include all areas in which North Sea horse mackerel are fished (Divisions IIIa, IVb, IVc and VIId). Independent data (e.g. egg surveys) should start to be collected, covering the spawning area of horse mackerel. Biological sampling programmes should be improved (ICES, 2011a,b).

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 25 November 2011

No analytical assessment is conducted due to insufficient information. Egg surveys were conducted from 1988-1991, and SSB estimates are available historically. However, the lack of coverage from the egg surveys and the fact that horse mackerel is now considered an indeterminate spawner, prevents SSB to be estimated reliably. Catch at age is also available, but is incomplete and only covers part of the fleet (ICES, 2011a,b).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 25 November 2011

The available information is insufficient to evaluate exploitation status and to provide reliable information on stock trends. Therefore, advice for 2012, in line with ICES’ MSY framework for stocks with unknown stock trend and exploitation status (ICES, 2010c), is to reduce catch until more information is available (ICES, 2011a).

Currently, no TAC is set for Division IIIa. The TAC for this stock should include all areas in which North sea horse mackerel are fished: Divisions IIIa, IVb,c, and VIId (ICES, 2011b).

Reference Points

Last updated on 25 Nov 2011

No reference points have been defined for this stock (ICES, 2011a).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 25 November 2011

There is insufficient information to evaluate stock trends and exploitation status. Therefore, the current stock status is unknown (ICES, 2011a).

Trends

Last updated on 25 Nov 2011

Annual catches from 1982–2010 have oscillated between 4000 t (1982) and 48 000 t (2000). During the period of 1982-1997, catches were relatively low with an average of 18,000 tonnes.year-1. Since 1998 catches have been substantially higher than in the previous period (ICES, 2011a,b). There is no available information on biomass or exploitation rates.

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 25 November 2011

This fishery encompasses jurisdiction areas of the United Kingdom, Russia, European Union, Faroe Islands and Norway. TAC is presently set by area and does not cover this stock’s entire range while encompassing some catches from the Western stock. No TAC is set for Division IIIa. From 2002-2010, ICES has advised that catches should not exceed the 1982-1997 average of 18,000 tons. However, set TACs have always exceeded ICES’ advised TACs (ICES, 2011a,b).

No specific management objectives are known for this stock.

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 25 Nov 2011

Not applicable.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 5 December 2011

Historically, fishers’ compliance with set TACs has been strong. With the exception of 2009, catches have never exceeded set TACs. However, catches have always been higher than the advised TACs for the stock. Discards are considered negligible (ICES, 2011a).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 2 December 2011

Several species of seabirds and marine mammals can be found in the north Sea. Dominant species of cetaceans are minke whales, harbour porpoises, and whitebeaked dolphins. Bycatch of harbour porpoise in gillnet fisheries has been an issue in some areas of the North Sea (ICES, 2008). There are no records of interactions between the north sea horse mackerel fishery and PET species, but information is scarce.

Other Species

Last updated on 2 December 2011

In previous years, horse mackerel was mainly caught as bycatch in the small-mesh industrial fisheries; but in recent year a larger portion of catches has been taken in a directed horse mackerel fishery (ICES, 2011a,b). There is bycatch of other species, but quantities are not available (ICES, 2008). Discards are, however,considered negligible (ICES, 2011a). ICES advice for fisheries with small-meshed gears in the North sea: 1) bycatch of cod and other fish used for human consumption should be minimized; 2) fisheries should be conducted taking into account the single-stock exploitation limits for all other stocks (ICES, 2008).

HABITAT

Last updated on 5 December 2011

North sea horse mackerel is caught by small meshed gear, namely pelagic trawlers and purse seiners. Both pelagic trawling and purse seines operate are pelagic gears, hence impact on the seafloor is considered minimal. However, occasional contact is known to occur and can cause some damage to fragile ecosystems, particularly when targeting bentho-pelagic schooling species (Donaldson et al., 2010).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 05 Dec 2011

In 2003, a joint ministerial meeting of the Helsinki and OSPAR commission (JMM), agreed to establish a Network of Marine Protected Areas (MPA) in the Northeast Atlantic. Around 6.35% of the North sea area has been proposed for this OSPAR MPA Network (OSPAR Commission, 2011).

FishSource Scores

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2010 data.

The score is 0.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 47.5 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 18.0 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 264%.

As calculated for 2010 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 22.0 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 47.5 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 46.4%.

STOCK HEALTH:

No data available for biomass
No data available for biomass
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for stock status
No data available for stock status
DATA NOTES

1) No analytical assessment is conducted and biomass and fishing mortality are not determined so only the scores on management observation of scientific advice and fishers’ compliance can be calculated.2) Fishers’ compliance (score #3) is based on 2010 data. Since 2010 no quantitative value, in terms of advised catches, is provided. ICES advice for 2012 (based on precautionary considerations) is to reduce catches (ICES, 2011a). 3) The advice applies to all catches from the North Sea horse mackerel stock but the TAC is presently set by area and does not cover this stock’s entire range while encompassing some catches from the Western stock.

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. Donaldson, A., Gabriel, C., Harvey, BJ and Carolsfeld, J., 2010. Impacts of Fishing Gears other than Bottom Trawls, Dredges, Gillnets and Longlines on Aquatic Biodiversity and Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems. Research Document 2010/011. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat (CSAS). Victoria-BC, Canada. 84 pp.http://www.worldfish.org/2010_011_e.pdf
  2. ICES. 2008. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee 2008. ICES Advice, 2008. Book 6, 326 pp.http://www.ices.dk/products/icesadvice/2008/ICES%20ADVICE%202008%20Book%206.pdf
  3. ICES, 2009. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 6: The North Sea. 6.4.19 Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) in Divisions IIIa, IVb,c and VIId (North Sea stock).http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2009/2009/hom-nsea.pdf
  4. ICES, 2010a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 6: North Sea. 6.4.19 Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) in Divisions IIIa, IVb,c and VIId (North Sea stock).http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2010/2010/hom-nsea.pdf
  5. ICES, 2010b. Report of the Working Group on Widely Distributed Stocks (WGWIDE), 28 August - 3 September 2010, Vigo, Spain (ICES CM 2010/ACOM:15). 612 pp.http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2010/WGWIDE/WGWIDE%202010.pdf
  6. ICES, 2010c. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 1: Introduction, Overviews and Special Requests. 1.2 General context of ICES advice.http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2010/2010/Introduction%20for%20Advice.pdf
  7. ICES, 2011a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 6: North Sea. 6.4.19 Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) in Divisions IIIa, IVb,c and VIId (North Sea stock).http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2011/2011/hom-nsea.pdf
  8. ICES, 2011b. Report of the Working Group on Widely Distributed Stocks (WGWIDE), 23 - 29 August 2011, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen, Denmark (ICES CM 2011/ACOM:15). 642 pp.http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2011/WGWIDE/WGWIDE%20Report%202011.pdf
  9. ICES, 2014. Report of the Working Group on Widely Distributed Stocks (WGWIDE), 28 August–01 September 2014, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2014/ACOM:15. Annex 02B - Stock Annex: Western Horse Mackerelhttp://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2014/WGWIDE/15%20WGWIDE%20report%20-%20Annex%2002B-Stock%20Annex%20Western%20Horse%20Mackerel.pdf
  10. ICES Advice 2007, Book 6, 6.4.21 North Sea horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) (Division IIIa (Eastern part), Divisions IVb,c VIId)http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2007/oct/hom-nrtn.pdf
  11. OSPAR, 2011. 2010 Status Report on the OSPAR Network of Marine Protected Areas. Publ. no. 548/2011. OSPAR Commission: Biodiversity Series. 62 pp.http://www.ospar.org/documents/dbase/publications/p00548_Status%20report%20MPAs.pdf
References

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    Atlantic horse mackerel - North Sea

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