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SUMMARY

Summary

IDENTIFICATION

Last updated on 6 October 2016

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Ammodytes spp.

SPECIES NAME(s)

Sandeels nei, Sandlances nei

The complete stock structure of North Sea sandeel is unclear, and although several reproductively isolated sub-populations have been identified, some exchange appears to take place between neighbouring populations in early life stages. From 2010 onwards ICES has presented advice for the North sea sandeel divided into 7 management areas, based on the assumption that this will better reflect the stock structure and enable improved management avoiding local depletion (ICES, 2010a). This profile represents the SA2 area: South Eastern North Sea. Since 2017, the name of this management area changed to Sandeel Area 2r because of a change in the statistical rectangles (divisions 4.b-c and Subdivision 20) included in management area (ICES, 2017).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Stock assessments are now conducted separately for each of the sandeel management areas in the North sea.
  • The combination of a new assessment model “SMS-effort” with the specific area based approach is considered to have improved the quality of the assessment. This stock was benchmarked in 2016 and revised biologic reference points were set.
  • 2016 year class is estimated to be one of the largest in the time-series which together with the advised catch is expected to lead an increase in the SSB to above MSY Bescapement by 2018.
  • Bycatch of other species is low.
  • There is a close monitoring of the stock status in place.
  • Managers follow scientific advice. 
Weaknesses
  • There are no fishing reference points defined and management plan is still in need of development.
  • Reproductive biomass has dropped below the biomass limit reference point (Blim) and it is considered "Below escapement level/Reduced reproductive capacity".
  • Possible effects of the fishery in PET species and over the seabed needs to be evaluated.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 8

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 8

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

4.6

Future Health:

10


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Press national fisheries administrations and the European Commission to develop an ecosystem-based, multi-annual management plan for North Sea pelagic fisheries.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • DFPO and DPPO North Sea, Skagerrak and Kattegat sandeel, sprat and Norway pout:

    MSC Certified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Central and Southern North Sea EU North Sea SA 2 Denmark Small mesh bottom trawls
Germany Small mesh bottom trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 12 April 2017

Strengths
  • Stock assessments are now conducted separately for each of the sandeel management areas in the North sea.
  • The combination of a new assessment model “SMS-effort” with the specific area based approach is considered to have improved the quality of the assessment. This stock was benchmarked in 2016 and revised biologic reference points were set.
  • 2016 year class is estimated to be one of the largest in the time-series which together with the advised catch is expected to lead an increase in the SSB to above MSY Bescapement by 2018.
  • Bycatch of other species is low.
  • There is a close monitoring of the stock status in place.
  • Managers follow scientific advice. 
Weaknesses
  • There are no fishing reference points defined and management plan is still in need of development.
  • Reproductive biomass has dropped below the biomass limit reference point (Blim) and it is considered "Below escapement level/Reduced reproductive capacity".
  • Possible effects of the fishery in PET species and over the seabed needs to be evaluated.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 25 May 2017

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Press national fisheries administrations and the European Commission to develop an ecosystem-based, multi-annual management plan for North Sea pelagic fisheries.
Denmark

Last updated on 25 May 2017

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Engage and support the MSC Client Group to ensure progress towards meeting the conditions attached to the Certification.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 12 April 2017

In 2017 the name of this sandeel management area was changed from Sandeel Area 1 to Sandeel Area 1r because of a change in the statistical rectangles included in the management area. Changes in stock area, assessment methodology, and input data cause a difference between the 2017 and historical results. A Seasonal age-based analytical model (SMS-effort), based on data from dredge surveys (since 2010) and total international cath and fishing effort, is used for the assessment. he dredge survey time-series in this area is still short (2010–2016) and the quality of the assessment will likely improve once a longer time-series becomes available (ICES 2017).

An ICES assessment benchmark was undertaken in November 2016 (ICES 2016).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 12 April 2017

ICES advice is based on the sandeel stock being at or above MSY Bescapement in the year after the fishery has taken place. This escapement strategy should retain a stock that is sufficient for successful recruitment and which can also provide an adequate resource for predators of sandeel (ICES, 2010d). Following the MSY approach, ICES advice for 2017 (175,941 tonnes) represents a strong increase in relation to the previous years. This will result in a fishing mortality (F) of 0.44 in 2017, corresponding to Fcap. According with ICES projections, due the 2016 recruitment (one of the highest of the time series) and the advised TAC, the stock spawning biomass (SSB) in 2018 is expected to increase well above MSY Bescapement (ICES 2017).

Reference Points

Last updated on 12 Apr 2017

The biologic reference points of this stock were revised in the stock assessment benchmark undertaken in November 2016 (ICES 2016). Reference points for fishing mortality have not been defined  for this stock. 

Biomass reference points:

Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) Approach: A MSY Bescapement has been defined at 84,000 tonnes (= Bpa). ICES introduced a ceiling on Fishing mortality (F) level on the escapement strategy  to ensure the ICES precautionary criterion (probability of Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB)  being below Blim is ≤ 5%) is met. This value was defined at Fcap=0.44.

Precautionary approach (PA): Lower limit threshold biological reference point, Blim, was defined at 56,000 tonnes, corresponding to the average of the two lowest SSB resulting in high recruitment. Bpa has been defined at 84,000 tonnes (ICES 2017).
 

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 12 April 2017

The stock is considered to be currently "below escapement level/ reduced reproductive capacity". The spawning stock biomass (SSB) has dropped (>43 thousand tonnes) and is below the limit biomass reference point (56 thousand tonnes). Recent fishing mortality levels do not show a clear trend but are below long term average. Due to TAC limitations, catches strong decreased in 2016. Recruitment in 2016 was strong after a long period of low estimates of recruitment (ICES 2017).

Trends

Last updated on 12 Apr 2017

Spawning stock biomass (SSB) trend has very variable before 2000 but decreased considerably since 2000, namely between 2004 and 2008 (the lowest historical period). Since then stock appears to be increasing back to above the limit biomass reference point but in the last 2 years SSB decreased again due low recruitment in recent years. In general, catches have been decreasing along the last years (2005-2016). Recruitment has been below average since 2000 but the 2016 year class is estimated to be one of the largest in the time-series. This recruitment level together with the advised catch is expected to lead an increase in the SSB to above MSY Bescapement by 2018.

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 5 August 2017

Managers have generally followed scientific advice (ICES, 2015). For 2016, the total TAC (5,000 tonnes) was set in line with the advised TAC. For 2017, European Commission (2017) set the TAC and quotas provisionally at zero until ICES scientific advice to be released. The Council regulation (EU) 2017/1398  set for 2017 a final TAC of 175,941 tonnes for both areas 2r and 3r together. Since the advice is separated by area is difficult to compare if the managers followed or not the advice but according with the current values available, there is a low risk of the set TAC overpass the advice.

Temporal closures, from January 1st – March 31st and from August 1st – December 31st,  shall be applied to all management areas for towed gears with a mesh size less than 16 mm (European Commission, 2017). There is no management plan in place for this fishery (ICES 2017).

As of 1 January 2015, the landing obligation applies also to fisheries for industrial purposes (e.g. fisheries for capelin, sandeel and Norwegian pout) (Article 15 of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013; Regulation (EU) No 2015/104).

Recovery Plans

In some years, the TAC has been set to zero and only a monitoring TAC has been allowed for the stock recovery. However, this has not prevented the stock size to decrease and, associated to the low recruitment level in recent years, a long-term management plan needs to be developed to avoid the sandeel stock in SA 2 to drop below the limit biomass reference point. 

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 12 April 2017

Prior to 2010 set TACs referred to the entire North Sea area (which encompasses the zone IIIa, EC waters of Division IIa and Subarea IV). In SA 2, catches overpassed the set TAC between 2012 and 2014. In 2016, landings in SA 2 (4,037 tonnes) no overpassed the total TAC (5,000 tonnes). With the reformulation of the management area into SA 2r,  the total catch estimate for this area in 2016 (9,238 tonnes) was much higher than the previous area.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 3 May 2017

In the North Sea ecosystem, sandeel is considered a very important prey species for a variety of predators, including fish, marine mammals and seabirds. In other areas of the North Sea, fishing on sandeel aggregations at a distance less than 100 km from seabird colonies has been found to affect some surface feeding bird species, especially kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla; IUCN, 2011: "Least Concern") and sandwich tern (Sterna sandvicensis; IUCN, 2011: "Least Concern") (ICES, 2010a; ICES, 2010d). Fish and mobile marine mammals’ populations are assumed to be less vulnerable to local sandeel depletion (ICES, 2010c). Bycatch of protected species occurs on a small scale (ICES, 2008a). Despite claims that sandeel fishing has harmed dependent predator populations, census data show that most seabirds and grey seals increased in numbers as the fishery grew and reached peak harvest (Furness, 2002).

Other studies suggest that concerns that this industrial fishery may indirectly impact predatory fishes by depriving them of food might have some basis (Engelhard et al., 2008; Cook et al., 2014). According to Daunt et al. (2008), years of bad recruitment in sandeels have led to poor breeding success in seabirds (e.g. little tern and black-legged kittiwakes) that feed mainly the 0-group cohorts.
 

Other Species

Last updated on 3 May 2017

The levels of bycatch in the sandeel fishery are considered to be very low, including of species for which a TAC has been set (ICES, 2010c; ICES, 2016a). In years with low abundance of sandeel, bycatches of sprat, herring, mackerel and whiting may occur, however in recent years, those species represented less than 1% of sandeel (Scheveningen Group, 2014). Sandeel catches include several Ammodytoidei species but consist largely of Ammodytes marinus. According to Furness (2002), changes in predatory fish abundances, especially mackerel and whiting, may influence sandeel stocks more than changes in industrial fishery, at least at the scale of the North Sea as a whole. As of January 2015 a landings and reporting obligation is in effect preventing the discarding of bycatch in this (and other) EU fisheries (EU, 2013). Heath et al. (2014), alerts for possible ecological effects of eliminating fishery discards. 

HABITAT

Last updated on 12 April 2017

Sandeels are the principal species targeted by the small fish bottom trawl fishery in which small meshed-gear is used (i.e. trawls with mesh sizes < 16 mm) (ICES, 2007b,c, 2008a). Bottom trawling can have significant impacts on benthic communities and habitats and this has been shown to have occurred effectively in several parts of the North Sea in the past (Hiddink et al., 2006; Callaway et al., 2007). Seabed habitats in the North Sea and the distribution of trawling activities have been mapped to some extent. However, specific research on the impact of the sandeel trawl fishery on bottom habitats is scarce.

Sandeel distribution is mainly influenced by the availability of suitable substrates for settlement and burrowing (Lancaster et al., 2014). The distribution of sandeels in the North Sea is very patchy and their most common habitat are the tidal sandbanks. There is limited exchange between even close fishing grounds during the fishing season (Leth et al., 2012). Tagging studies indicated that once settled on the seabed, sandeels remain settled within a small area which means that local aggregations may be easily depleted (JNCC, 2014). 

Besides fishery, there are other factors that influence the sandeels stocks . Eigaard et al (2014) mentioned cannibalism on sandeels larvaes: however, this behaviour may not only be a key factor in explaining recruitment fluctuations in North Sea sandeel stocks. A recent study of Deurs et al., (2015) suggested that changes in prey quality induced by climate change or other factors can have major implications for growth, survival, and reproduction of zooplanktivorous fish. This author mentioned that a shift from large energy-rich Calanus copepods to smaller non-diapausing copepod species will impact the specific growth potential of sandeels. Also, Wright et al. (2017)) suggests that the rising of sea water temperature could have impacts on the reproductive investment of this species. There is also spatial differences in the growth of the sandeels in the North Sea: mean length at age is higher in central/north eastern fishing grounds (Rindorf et al. 2016).

Several coastal areas and zones of known deep-water coral communities in the North Sea have been closed to fishing, in order to protect both benthic communities/habitats and juvenile demersal fish (OSPAR, 2009).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 12 Apr 2017

Closures of depleted areas and for certain periods is used as a management measure on a local scale.   Temporal closures, from January 1st – March 31st and from August 1st – December 31st 2011  will be applied to all management areas for towed gears with a mesh size less than 16 mm (EC 40/2013).

In 2003, a joint ministerial meeting of the Helsinki and OSPAR commission (JMM), agreed to establish a Network of Marine Protected Areas (MPA) in the Northeast Atlantic (OSPAR Commission, 2011). Several of the nominated OSPAR MPAs are inside the South Eastern North Sea area (OSPAR, 2010).
 

ECOSYSTEM

Ecosystem

In the North Sea ecosystem, sandeel is considered a very important prey species for a variety of predators, including fish, marine mammals and seabirds. In other areas of the North Sea, fishing on sandeel aggregations at a distance less than 100 km from seabird colonies has been found to affect some surface feeding bird species, especially black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) and sandwich tern (Sterna sandvicensis) both “Least Concern” on IUCN’s Red List but the former is decreasing in abundance worldwide (Birdlife International, 2012a; 2012b; ICES, 2012b). Fish and mobile marine mammals’ populations are assumed to be less vulnerable to local sandeel depletion (ICES, 2013). ICES recommended that management should avoid depleting sandeel aggregations in areas where predators are abundant, and management has in the past closed areas of the North Sea on this basis (ICES, 2012b).

Some studies suggest that concerns that this industrial fishery may indirectly impact predatory fishes by depriving them of food might have some basis (Engelhard et al., 2008; Cook et al., 2014). According to Daunt et al. (2008), years of bad recruitment in sandeels have led to poor breeding success in seabirds (e.g. little tern and black-legged kittiwakes) that feed mainly the 0-group cohorts. Mackinson and Daskalov (2007) formulated an ecopath/ecosim modeling approach which highlights the importance of sandeels to the North Sea.

To mitigate possible deletion of sandeel stocks that serve as forage, ICES adopted area management which distributes effort and catch among the areas. It also uses a Bescapement which is designed to allow for adequate biomass in the areas after fishing has taken place(ICES 2018), to serve as both forage and SSB. Additionally Norway and the EU both have time area closures in place to prevent depletion in sensitive areas and times, which are important for predators (ICES 2018)(ICES 2018)(IMR 2017).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 5 August 2017

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

In some years, only a monitoring TAC of 5,000 tonnes has been allowed for the stock recovering. There is no formal management plan in place, but in recent years EU and Norway have used real-time monitoring for setting TACs within the fishing year, explicitly taking in consideration closing areas known to be commercially depleted.

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

Since the advice is separated by area is difficult to compare if the managers followed or not the advice but according with the current values available, there is a low risk of the set TAC overpass the advice

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

2016 TAC was set for the previous area (SA2). The preliminar catch estimate for SA2 (4,037 tonnes) was below the TAC set; only ICES catches for SA2r area were above set TAC.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is 4.6.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the Blim.

The SSB is 42.6 ('000 t). The Blim is 56.0 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/Blim for this index is 76.0%.

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management limit.

The F is 0.159 (age-averaged). The F management limit is 0.440 .

The underlying F/F management limit for this index is 36.1%.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses for all fisheries operating within this stock or assessment unit. If there are more than on risk level noted, individual fisheries have different levels. Click on the "Select Scores" drop-down list for your fisheries of interest.

No data available for recruitment
To see data for recruitment, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES

1) From 2010 onwards ICES presented advice for the North Sea sandeel divided into 7 management areas, based on the assumption that this will better reflect the stock structure and enable improved management avoiding local depletions (ICES, 2010a). This profile refers to the central and southern North Sea (divisions 4.b-c and Subdivision 20) - SA2r.

2) ICES provides advice for SA 2r on the basis on the MSY approach; advised TAC for 2017 is 175,941 tonnes Before the release of the ICES advice the Council Regulation (EU) 2017/127 set a provisional TAC of zero tonnes. The Council regulation (EU) 2017/1398 set for 2017 a final TAC of 175,941 tonnes for both areas 2r and 3r together. Since the advice is separated by area is difficult to compare if the managers followed or not the advice but according with the current values available, there is a low risk of the set TAC overpass the advice.

3) The biologic reference points were revised in the stock assessment benchmark undertaken in 2016. Since there is no fishing mortality reference points score #1 was quantitatively estimated. However, ICES recommends a ceiling on Fishing mortality (F) level on the escapement strategy (Fcap = 0.44). This value was used to calculate score 5.

4) Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB) estimate for 2017 (42,569 tonnes) was calculated using mean weight-at-age from 2012 to 2016 (ICES 2017).

5) ICES recommends a ceiling on Fishing mortality (F) level on the escapement strategy (Fcap = 0.44).

6) Catches are represented as the ICES estimated catches for the SA 2r; 2016 catches are preliminary (ICES, 2016).

7) 2016 TAC was set for the previous area (SA 2). The preliminary catch estimate for SA 2 (4,037 tonnes) was below the TAC set (5,000 tonnes); only ICES catches for SA 2r area (9,238 tonnes) were above set TAC.

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

DFPO and DPPO North Sea, Skagerrak and Kattegat sandeel, sprat and Norway pout

STATUS

MSC Certified on 17 March 2017

SCORES

  Sandeel Sprat  Pout  
Principle Trawl   Trawl     Purse seines

Trawl

Principle 1 - Target Species 82.3 84.4 81.3
Principle 2 - Ecosystem 82.3 82.3 85.0 82.3
Principle 3 - Management System 87.5

Certification Type: Silver

Sources

Credits
  1. Callaway, R., Engelhard, G.H., Dann, J., Cotter, J. and Rumohr, H., 2007. A century of North Sea epibenthos and trawling: comparison between 1902-1912, 1982-1985 and 2000. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 346: 27-43. http://www.int-res.com/articles/meps_oa/m346p027.pdf
  2. Cook, Aonghais S.C.P., Dadam, D., Mitchell, I., Ross-Smith, V.H., Robinson, R.A., 2014. Indicators of seabird reproductive performance demonstrate the impact of commercial fisheries on seabird populations in the North Sea.Ecological Indicators 38:1-11 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X13003981
  3. Council Regulation (EU) No 2016/72 of 22 January 2016 fixing for 2016 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in Union waters and, for Union fishing vessels, in certain non-Union waters, and amending Regulation (EU) 2015/104. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32016R0072&from=EN
  4. Council Regulation (EU) No 297/2013 of 27 March 2013 amending Regulations (EU) No 44/2012, (EU) No 39/2013 and (EU) No 40/2013 as regards certain fishing opportunities. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2013:090:0010:0047:EN:PDF
  5. Daunt, F., Wanless, S., Greenstreet, S.P.R., Jensen, H., Hamer, K.C. & Harris, M.P., 2008. The impact of the sandeel fishery closure in the northwestern North Sea on seabird food consumption, distribution and productivity. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 65: 362-381 https://core.ac.uk/download/files/79/62542.pdf
  6. Deurs, M.,Jørgensen, C., Fiksen, Ø., 2015. Effects of copepod size on fish growth: a model based on data for North Sea sandeel. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 520: 235–243. http://www.int-res.com/articles/meps_oa/m520p235.pdf
  7. EC 40/2013. Council Regulation (EU) No 40/2013 of 21 January 2013 fixing for 2013 the fishing opportunities available in EU waters and, to EU vessels, in certain non- EU waters for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks which are subject to international negotiations or agreements. Official Journal of the European Union, 25.1.2013. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2013:023:0054:0153:EN:PDF
  8. EC, 2011a. Council Regulation (EC) No 57/2011 of 18 January 2009, fixing for 2011 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in EU waters and, for EU vessels, in certain non-EU waters. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:024:0001:0125:EN:PDF
  9. EC, 2011b. Council Regulation (EC) No 476/2011 of 17 May 2011, amending Council Regulation (EU) No 57/2011 as regards catch limits for the fisheries on sandeel in EU waters of ICES zones IIa, IIIa and IV. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:131:0012:0013:EN:PDF
  10. EC, 2012a. Council Regulation (EU) No 44/2012 of 17 January 2012, fixing for 2012 the fishing opportunities available in EU waters and, to EU vessels, in certain non- EU waters for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks which are subject to international negotiations or agreements. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2012:025:0055:0147:EN:PDF
  11. Eigaard, O.R., Deurs, M., Behrens, J.W., Bekkevold, D., Brander, K., Plambech, M., Plet-Hansen, K.S., Mosegaard, H., 2014. Prey or predator—expanding the food web role of sandeel Ammodytes marinus. Marine Ecology Progress Series 516:267-273 doi:10.3354/meps11064 http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/meps/v516/p267-273/
  12. Engelhard GH, van der Kooij J, Bell ED, Pinnegar JK, Blanchard JL, Mackinson S, Righton DA (2008) Fishing mortality versus natural predation on diurnally migrating sandeels Ammodytes marinus. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 369:213-227 http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/meps/v369/p213-227/
  13. EU, 2013. COUNCIL REGULATION (EU) 2015/104 on the Common Fisheries Policy, amending Council Regulations (EC) No 1954/2003 and (EC) No 1224/2009 and repealing Council Regulations (EC) No 2371/2002 and (EC) No 639/2004 and Council Decision 2004/585/EC http://faolex.fao.org/docs/pdf/eur130290.pdf
  14. European Commission (EC), 2012b. Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 368/2012 of 27 April 2012 amending Council Regulation (EU) No 44/2012 fixing for 2012 the fishing opportunities available in EU waters and, to EU vessels, in certain non-EU waters for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks which are subject to international negotiations or agreement. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2012:116:0017:0018:EN:PDF
  15. Furness, R. W. 2002. Management implications of interactions between fisheries and sandeel-dependent seabirds and seals in the North Sea. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 59: 261–269. http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/content/59/2/261.full.pdf
  16. Hiddink J.G, Kennings S., and Kaiser, M.J., 2006. Indicators of the ecological impact of bottom-trawl disturbance on seabed communities. Ecosystems, 9: 1190-1199. Hiddink_et_al._Ecosystems.pdf
  17. ICES, 2008a. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak – Combined Spring and Autumn (WGNSSK), 7–13 May 2008 (ICES CM 008/ACOM:09).http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2008/WGNSSK/WGNSSK08.pdf
  18. ICES, 2010a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.4.21 Sandeel in Division IIIa and Subarea IV.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2010/2010/san-34.pdf
  19. ICES, 2010b. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.3.3.1 EC request on in-year management advice for sandeel in the North Sea http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/ICES%20Advice/2010/ICES%20ADVICE%202010%20BOOK%206.pdf
  20. ICES, 2010c. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak (WGNSSK), 5 -11 May 2010, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen (ICES CM 2010/ACOM:13). 1058 pp http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2010/WGNSSK/WGNSSK%202010.pdf
  21. ICES, 2010c. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak (WGNSSK), 5 -11 May 2010, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen (ICES CM 2010/ACOM:13). 1058 pp. http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2010/WGNSSK/WGNSSK%202010.pdf
  22. ICES, 2010d. Report of the Benchmark Workshop on Sandeel (WKSAN), 6–10 September 2010, Copenhagen, Denmark (ICES CM 2010/ACOM:57). 201 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2010/WKSAN/wksan_2010.pdf
  23. ICES, 2011a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.4.21 Sandeel in Division IIIa and Subarea IV. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/ICES%20Advice/2011/ICES%20ADVICE%202011%20BOOK%206.pdf
  24. ICES, 2011b. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak (WGNSSK Feb. 2011); 4 – Sandeel in IV. 95 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2011/WGNSSK/Annex%2007%20Technical%20Minutes%20of%20the%20Sandeel%20Review%20Group.pdf
  25. ICES, 2013. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.4.21 Sandeel in Division IIIa and Subarea IV http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2013/2013/san-34.pdf
  26. ICES, 2014. North Sea Sandeel in Division IIIa and Subarea IV Feb 2014 http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2014/2014/san_34.pdf
  27. ICES, 2015. Sandeel (Ammodytes spp.) in Divisions IVb and IVc, SA 2 (Central and South North Sea). ICES Advice 2015, Book 6 http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2015/2015/san-ns2.pdf
  28. ICES, 2016. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch and effort Greater North Sea Ecoregion. 6.3.42 Sandeel (Ammodytes spp.) in Divisions 4b and 4c, SA 2 (Central and South North Sea) http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2016/2016/san-ns2.pdf
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References

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    Sandeels nei - Central and Southern North Sea

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