Last updated on 11 October 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Engraulis japonicus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Japanese anchovy

COMMON NAMES

Cape anchovy

Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) is a schooling fish of the family Engraulidae. It is common in the Pacific Western Ocean south from the Sea of Okhotsk, widespread in the Sea of Japan, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea, and near the coasts of Japan. They live up to 2–3 years, similar to European anchovy and occurs in large schools near the surface, mainly in coastal waters but as far out as over 1,000 km from the shore. Tends to move more northward and inshore in spring and summer and spawn from Taiwan to southern Sakhalin (Whitehead et al 1988).


ANALYSIS

No related analysis

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

8.9

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 6

Future Health:

7


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Please provide links to publicly available information on this fishery via the “Feedback” tab.
2. To apply to develop content for this profile register and log in and follow the links to “contribute to” / “edit this profile”. If you need more information, please use the “Contact Us” button above, and reference the full name of this profile.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. This profile is not currently at the top of our priority list for development, and we can’t at this time provide an accurate prediction of when it will be developed. To speed up an evaluation of the sustainability status of non-prioritized fisheries we have initiated a program whereby industry can directly contract SFP-approved analysts to develop a FishSource profile on a fishery. More information on this External Contributor Program is available at http://www.sustainablefish.org/fisheries-information.


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Japanese Pacific Japanese Pacific Japan Purse seines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 5 October 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Please provide links to publicly available information on this fishery via the “Feedback” tab.
2. To apply to develop content for this profile register and log in and follow the links to “contribute to” / “edit this profile”. If you need more information, please use the “Contact Us” button above, and reference the full name of this profile.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. This profile is not currently at the top of our priority list for development, and we can’t at this time provide an accurate prediction of when it will be developed. To speed up an evaluation of the sustainability status of non-prioritized fisheries we have initiated a program whereby industry can directly contract SFP-approved analysts to develop a FishSource profile on a fishery. More information on this External Contributor Program is available at http://www.sustainablefish.org/fisheries-information.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 11 October 2016

Japanese assessment of the stock uses both VPA (Virtual Population Analysis) based on catch-at-age and the Annual Egg Production Method (AEPM) to determine Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB). AEPM is used as validation as the Japanese fishery covers only a limited area of the stock’s broad distribution area. Estimates of SSB from both methods show similar trends and close values, although variability from AEPM is greater, particularly after 1998, when it was extended to offshore areas (FAJ, 2009). VPA results are thus adopted to determine acceptable catch levels (Oozeki et al., 2005b) but contain a degree of uncertainty due to the restricted area covered (FAJ, 2009).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 11 October 2016

At current fishing mortality (1.31), catches are expected to remain stable, between 252,000 tonnes in 2009 and 251,000 tonnes in 2013 and SSB to not change greatly, from 562,000 tonnes to 561,000 tonnes in the same period (FAJ, 2009). As Flim (=Fsus) is almost identical to present fishing mortality, a similar catch trend is expected at Flim, with constant catches of 252,000 tonnes along with a slight increase in SSB to 563,000 tonnes by 2013 (FAJ, 2009). The adverse effects of the present fishing mortality are thus considered to be low (FAJ, 2009). However, the Acceptable Biological Catch (ABC) for 2009 was advised, according to Ftarget=Flimit x 0.8, to be set at 225,000 tonnes, corresponding to a fishing mortality of 1.04 andcatches 3% lower than in 2008 (231,000 tonnes).

Reference Points

Last updated on 11 Oct 2016

The level of spawning stock below which recruitment would be significantly reduced, Blim, was defined as 120,000 tonnes in 1987.

Fsus is defined as the fishing mortality allowing the lowest SSB of the past five years to be maintained for the following five years. When Flim = Fsus, catches are at the maximum acceptable biological catch ABClim. The target ABC had been set at the yearly ABClim in recent years but for 2009 was set at a lower level, corresponding to 0.8xFsus (FAJ, 2009).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 11 October 2016

The spawning stock was at a high level for a number of years but since 2005 has been at a lower level, with SSB for 2007 estimated at 563,000 tonnes by VPA (and 1.010 thousand tonnes by AEPM), having dropped in 2005 and 2006 from a previous peak of 904,000 tonnes in 2004. It remains well above the biomass limit of 120,000 tonnes, below which recruitment would be significantly reduced (FAJ, 2009).

Catches in 2007 were at the fairly high level of 239,000 tonnes, but also down from the levels seen a few years previously. Weaker recruitment in 2004, 2006 and 2007 has had a significant impact on the stock, which is dominated by and strongly dependent upon larval and juvenile stages, landed as shirasu.

Trends

Last updated on 11 Oct 2016

The stock biomass increased over six-fold from the early 1980s to a peak of 1.5 million tonnes in 2003 whereas the biomass exploitation rate has decreased slightly but remains variable, between 20 and 35% (Oozeki et al., 2005b). Total biomass in 2007 was an estimated 830,000 tonnes (FAJ, 2009). Spawning biomass determined by VPA also peaked in 2003 at 900,000 tonnes. Landings from the northeastern coast of Japan have increased since the 1990s contributing to the general trend towards increased landings although landings in the periods 1993-1995 and 2000-2001 contradicted that trend (Oozeki et al., 2005b). Landings also decreased in 2005 (250,000 tonnes) relative to the three previous years (average 350,000 tonnes) and rose slightly in 2006 (300,000 tonnes) but decreased again in 2007 to 240,000 tonnes, contributing to a generally decreasing trend over the past 5 years (FAJ, 2009). Age-0 were the main target of fisheries until 1988, when older age-groups became more significant in catches (Oozeki et al., 2005b). Recruitment has approximately doubled, on average, since the 1980s (Oozeki et al., 2005b) but the 2004, 2006 and 2007 classes were not particularly strong in terms of recent trends.

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 11 October 2016

Japanese fisheries generally operate through the active participation of fisheries cooperatives through a self-regulatory scheme and rarely use catch-quota systems (Nagasaki & Chikuni, 1989). Most vessels are locally licensed but medium-sized purse-seine are controlled by limits set on a national basis (Nagasaki & Chikuni, 1989). The shirasu fishery for larvae and juveniles is strictly defined and subject to additional regulations (Nagasaki & Chikuni, 1989). The setnet fishery is also subject to further regulation (Nagasaki & Chikuni, 1989).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 11 Oct 2016

Not applicable.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 11 October 2016

No information is currently available on fishers’ compliance.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 11 October 2016

Anchovy is a major prey species for three of the species of whales found in Japanese waters: Minke, Bryde’s and Sei (ICR, undated). Sei whale is classified as endangered on IUCN’s Red List, as are blue and fin whale, north Pacific right whale and Steller sea lion (IUCN, 2009). The northern fur seal, finless porpoise, sperm whale and dugong are classified as vulnerable and beluga as near threatened. Several species of turtles are also endangered in the region, including loggerhead and green turtle and both trunkback and hawksbill are critically so (IUCN, 2009). Among seabirds of the region black-footed albatross and Cook’s petrel are endangered and many more are vulnerable. No information on bycatch in the anchovy fishery could be located, but large cetacean bycatch does not appear to be an issue for the gears used in the fishery (Miyashita et al., 2009).

Other Species

Last updated on 11 October 2016

Fishers are not legally required to select a target species, although fisheries cooperatives will require them to (Nagasaki & Chikuni, 1989). Anchovy is mostly taken by purse seine, which have low bycatch rates. Fluctuations in anchovy catches are usually inversely correlated with fluctuations in sardine catches (FAO, undated).

HABITAT

Last updated on 11 October 2016

The complex oceanographic features of the region contribute to the productivity of the fishing grounds but the variable environmental conditions may also contribute to the large stock fluctuations (Nagasaki & Chikuni, 1989). Anchovy is a eurybath, inhabiting all depths of the water column and as such is a prey species for both pelagic and benthic predators (Nagasaki & Chikuni, 1989).

Japanese anchovy is mainly targeted by pelagic gears,and the distribution of the fishery is small, so impacts on the ecosystem are thought to be minimal (FAJ, 2009).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 11 Oct 2016

Fifty-three marine protected areas are defined on Japan’s Pacific coast, including Shiro, Takeno, Toyooka, Kashinishi, Nichinan and Kesennuma – marine parks and Torinoumi – a prefectural wildlife protection area, besides coastal MPAs (Wood, 2007).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 20 January 2017

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2011 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Japanese fisheries generally operate through the active participation of fisheries cooperatives through a self-regulatory scheme and rarely use catch-quota systems (Nagasaki & Chikuni, 1989). Most vessels are locally licensed but medium-sized purse-seine are controlled by limits set on a national basis (Nagasaki & Chikuni, 1989).

As calculated for 2009 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 225 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 225 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 100%.

As calculated for 2009 data.

The score is 8.9.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 241 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 225 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 107%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2011 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

No biomass target reference point has been defined thus score 4 cannot be devised numerically but the stock is well above its lower limit – Blim.

As calculated for 2009 data.

The score is 7.0.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 1.30 (age-averaged). The F management target is 1.04 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 125%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES

Last updated on 11 October 2016

Note: there is neither an anticipated fishing mortality to be set should the stock fall below Blim, nor a biomass target reference point in place for this fishery. Therefore, scores 1 and 4 cannot be calculated numerically; we’re providing qualitative (partial) scores based on the information publicly available.

Download Source Data

Registered users can download the original data file for calculating the scores after logging in. If you wish, you can Register now.

Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. FAJ, 2009. 2008 Pacific anchovy resource evaluation. Fisheries Agency Japan.http://abchan.job.affrc.go.jp/digests20/details/2024.pdf

  2. FAO, undated. Species Fact Sheets: Engraulis japonicus.http://www.fao.org/fishery/species/2915

  3. Hiroshi Kubota, Hideo Osaka area, Suga Takagi, Kawabata Makoto, Akamine Tatsuo, Akio Shimizu (2010) Anchovy stock assessment of Pacific Ocean system group FY2010 (Pp 725-752). Available at: http://abchan.job.affrc.go.jp/digests22/details/2224.pdfhttp://abchan.job.affrc.go.jp/digests22/details/2224.pdf

  4. Hiroshi Kubota, Hideo Osaka area, Suga Takagi, Kawabata Makoto, Akamine Tatsuo, Akio Shimizu (2010) The 2010 stock assessment sheet (digest version). Available at: http://abchan.job.affrc.go.jp/digests22/html/2224.html http://abchan.job.affrc.go.jp/digests22/html/2224.html

  5. ICR, undated. JARPN II The second phase of Japan’s whale research program in the Western North Pacific.http://www.icrwhale.org/Pamphlets-3.pdf

  6. IUCN, 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1 [Downloaded on 08 October 2009].http://www.iucnredlist.org

  7. Miyashita T, Pastene LA, Kato H, 2009. Japan Progress Report on Cetacean Research, April 2008 to March 2009, with statistical data for the calendar year 2008 or the season 2008/09. SC/61/ProgREp. Japan.http://www.iwcoffice.org/_documents/sci_com/2009progreports/SC-61-ProgRep%20Japan%20revised.pdf

  8. Nagasaki F, Chikuni S, 1989. Management of multi-species resources and multi-gear fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Papers – T305.http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/T0179E/T0179E00.htm#TOC

  9. Oozeki Y, Kubota H, Takasuka A, Akamine T, 2005a. Population fluctuation of the Northwestern Pacific stock of Japanese anchovy. Abstracts of the CalCOFI Conference 2005.http://nrifs.fra.affrc.go.jp/letters/letter03-/200601/images/012.%20CalCOFI_2005c_ab.pdf

  10. Oozeki Y, Kubota H, Takasuka A, Akamine T, 2005b. Population fluctuation of the Northwestern Pacific stock of Japanese anchovy. Poster presented at the CalCOFI Conference 2005.http://cse.fra.affrc.go.jp/takasuka/Research%20introduction/Publications/Presentations_e/012.%20CalCOFI_2005c_po.pdf

  11. Wood L J , 2007. MPA Global: A database of the world's marine protected areas. Sea Around Us Project, UNEP-WCMC & WWF.http://www.mpaglobal.org

  12. Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO.

References

    Comments

    This tab will disappear in 5 seconds.

    Comments on:

    Japanese anchovy - Japanese Pacific

    comments powered by Disqus