Last updated on 22 October 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Penaeus monodon

SPECIES NAME(s)

Giant tiger prawn

Giant tiger prawn Penaeus monodon is native from the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Is thought to be introduced in the Gulf of Guinea around 1992 and can be found in Nigerian coastal waters (Isebor, 2003; Anyanwy et al, 2011).


ANALYSIS

Strengths

Technical management measures are defined in law (e.g. minimum mesh size of the codend at 44mm, maximum power engine). A non-trawling zone is established within the 5 nautical miles of the continental shelf, trawling is also prohibited in waters shallower than 18m. Turtle Excluder Devices are used since 1996 to reduce the interaction with marine turtles and compliance improved in the last years. 75% of the bycatch portion needs to be landed by law.

Weaknesses

No stock assessment is conducted and data about the species and related fishery is not updated and publicly available. Harvest rules are not established for the fishery. There are signs of non-compliance with fishing regulations. Conflict between artisanal and industrial fisheries for the resources and fishing area. High proportion of bycatch in shrimp trawling fisheries – mainly finfish – but there is no current available data about the species, quantification and status. The effect of trawling on the seabed ecosystem and on Protected, Endangered and Threatened species is not documented.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

< 6

Managers Compliance:

< 6

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

NOT YET SCORED

Future Health:

NOT YET SCORED


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS
  • Evaluate impacts of this non-native tiger prawn on the ecosystem.
  • Establish a management plan for all shrimp species and monitor the impacts of the tiger prawn fishery.
  • Evaluate the status of other species retained in this fishery.
  • Improve compliance with gear and fishing area regulations.
RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Ask the Nigerian government to improve their monitoring of the non-native tiger prawn and management of the fishery that targets it.
  • Ask your suppliers to start a fishery improvement project to evaluate and improve the sustainability of this fishery. While the giant tiger prawn is non-native and intense harvest may be warranted, the secondary effects of that harvest on the ecosystem must be monitored and managed.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Nigeria Nigeria Twin bottom otter trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 22 October 2013

Strengths

Technical management measures are defined in law (e.g. minimum mesh size of the codend at 44mm, maximum power engine). A non-trawling zone is established within the 5 nautical miles of the continental shelf, trawling is also prohibited in waters shallower than 18m. Turtle Excluder Devices are used since 1996 to reduce the interaction with marine turtles and compliance improved in the last years. 75% of the bycatch portion needs to be landed by law.

Weaknesses

No stock assessment is conducted and data about the species and related fishery is not updated and publicly available. Harvest rules are not established for the fishery. There are signs of non-compliance with fishing regulations. Conflict between artisanal and industrial fisheries for the resources and fishing area. High proportion of bycatch in shrimp trawling fisheries – mainly finfish – but there is no current available data about the species, quantification and status. The effect of trawling on the seabed ecosystem and on Protected, Endangered and Threatened species is not documented.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 4 January 2017

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators
  • Evaluate impacts of this non-native tiger prawn on the ecosystem.
  • Establish a management plan for all shrimp species and monitor the impacts of the tiger prawn fishery.
  • Evaluate the status of other species retained in this fishery.
  • Improve compliance with gear and fishing area regulations.
Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Ask the Nigerian government to improve their monitoring of the non-native tiger prawn and management of the fishery that targets it.
  • Ask your suppliers to start a fishery improvement project to evaluate and improve the sustainability of this fishery. While the giant tiger prawn is non-native and intense harvest may be warranted, the secondary effects of that harvest on the ecosystem must be monitored and managed.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 22 October 2013

Giant tiger prawn was introduced around the 1990s in Nigeria from escapement of shrimp farms; is native of the Indian and Pacific oceans (Isebor, 2003).
The only available data for catches regard several species of shrimps and prawns in Nigeria, are not updated and are not species-specific (FAO, 2001). No stock assessment is conducted for Nigerian coastal shrimp species. A working group of the FAO-organized Fishery Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic (CECAF) convenes to assess and discuss demersal species in the CECAF south region but data is insufficient to allow an assessment or the identification of trends (CII, 2002; Gillett, 2008; FAO, 2011).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 22 October 2013

The Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research conducts studies about shrimp fisheries (Anyanwu et al, 2011). Zabbey (undated) and Vincent-Akpu (2013) refer the lack of data for effective management in Nigerian fisheries.

As general precautionary advice for the three spp of coastal shrimp in Nigeria – Penaeus notialis, P. monodon and Parapenaeopsis atlantica -, FAO recommends not providing more fishing licenses until more knowledge about their status is available (FAO, 2011). This advice does not specifically consider P.monodon’ status as an introduced species however, and any potential control of this species will be complicated by the likely mixed-species nature of the fishery. The impact of this introduced species should be analysed (Zabbey, undated; Gillett, 2008).

Under FAO’s guidance for introduced species and following ICES’s Code of Practice (FAO, 1996), a contingency plan should be in place, establishing “corrective or mitigating procedures” and monitoring should be undertaken to identify potential negative effects, such as “disease, changes in predator-prey relationships, changes in competition, mixing of bad (maladapted) genes, and habitat modification” (FAO, 1996).

Reference Points

Last updated on 22 Oct 2013

There are Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) estimates and Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE) references points but for other coastal shrimp species as a group and prior to the arrival of Giant tiger prawn to the Nigerian coast (Ogbonna, 2001). No reference points are known to be defined for this stock.

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 8 October 2013

No assessment is known to be conducted of Nigerian coastal shrimp species (FAO, 2011). Possibly outdated reports mention an increase in abundance of Giant tiger prawn (Zabbey, undated; Gillett, 2008) but the status of the stock is not currently known.

As an introduced species, Giant tiger prawn’s abundance should be tracked and potential impacts on native species and on the habitat monitored. Management of this species to reduce any potential negative impacts may be impeded by the context of a likely multi-species fishery.

Trends

Last updated on 08 Oct 2013

The only available data regard catches of different species of shrimps and prawns in Nigeria. Nominal catches have been progressively increasing until the late 1990s to more than 50,000 tons, decreased to around 25,000 t in 2000 and since then have been increasing (FAO, 2001).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 22 October 2013

Shrimp fishing grounds were closed on suspicion of over-exploitation (Sea Fisheries Decree No 30 of 1971); since 1992 fishing is permitted under license in result of recovery of the stocks (Sea Fisheries Decree No 71 of 1992) (Ogbonna, 2001). A Monitoring, Control and Surveillance Unit (MCSU) was established in 1991 to attain fisheries management goals and control operations, including onboard observers (Gillett, 2008).

Trawling is prohibited within the 5 nautical miles of the continental shelf to protect the nursery ground and also to reduce the conflict between artisanal and industrial fisheries; and in waters shallower than 18m. The fishing effort is controlled by a maximum power engine and overall vessels’ length; vessels are not allowed to possess both fish and shrimp trawl licenses. The codend should have more than 44mm of mesh size. All catches must be landed and Turtle Excluder Devices (TED) are mandatory since 1996 (Ogbonna, 2001; Hermes, 2009). 75% of the bycatch portion needs to be landed by law (Gillett, 2008).
Reported by Ogbonna (2001), multi-stakeholder meetings are held regularly with the fishing industry, authority and scientific entities. There is an effort to develop scientific research about the shrimp fisheries and stock status in Nigeria to support decisions and improve compliance (Ogbonna, 2001; CEHRD, 2007) but lack of data prevent an efficient management of the Nigerian fisheries (Zabbey, undated).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 22 October 2013

There are signs of non-compliance with fishing regulations: mesh size, “bycatch transaction” and conflict between industrial and artisanal shrimp fisheries in regard to the resources and fishing areas, considering that the industrial fleet does not always follow the regulation and that is only allowed to operate outside the 5nm area from shore (Ogbonna, 2001; CEHRD, 2007; Gillett, 2008; Zabbey, undated).

Despite the low proportion of exportation to the American markets, following the United States of America (USA) decision to ban the import of shrimp products with impacts on the ecosystem, the Nigerian Government decided to strengthen the use of Turtle Excluder Devices (TED) by shrimp trawls. Training sessions and awareness actions were developed, compliance improved and is considered to be high since 2006 (FAO, 2007; Gillett, 2008).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 22 October 2013

Several marine turtles nest and inhabit Nigerian coastal waters: Loggerhead Caretta caretta (Endangered; 1996 IUCN Red list), Olive riddley Lepidochelys olivacea (Vulnerable; 2008 IUCN Redlist), Hawksbill turtle Eretmochelys imbricate (Critically endangered; 2008 IUCN Redlist) and Leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea (Critically endangered; 2000 IUCN Redlist) (Isebor, 2004).
TEDs are used to reduce the interaction with marine turtles (Udolisa et al, 1999) and are mandatory in shrimp trawl nets since 1996. Compliance improved since 2006 (FAO, 2007; Gillett, 2008).
Bycatch Reduction devices (BRDs) are recommended (Ogbonna, 2001). The impact of the fishery on Protected, Endangered and Threatened (PET) species is not documented.

Other Species

Last updated on 22 October 2013

75% of the bycatch portion needs to be landed by law. Trawlers retained bycatch of shrimp Nigerian fisheries comprise different species of finfish such as West African croakers nei Pseudotolithus spp., Threadfins – Lesser African threadfin Galeoides decadactylus, Giant African threadfin Polydactylus quadrifilis and Royal threadfin Pentanemus quinquarius-, Tonguesole nei Cynoglossus spp. and Sompat grunt Pomadasys jubelini; and also crustaceans, cephalopods and juveniles. A low proportion is discarded since most of bycatches, which are high, are traded (Gillett, 2008). There is no current available data about the fishery or quantification.

The improvement of the knowledge about the shrimp species and related fisheries should precede the implementation of new tools to minimize the interaction with non-target species, such as Bycatch Reduction Devices or Closed Areas. A “Plan of action for the Development of Environmentally friendly techniques and practices for shrimp exploitation” is recommended by Ogbonna (2001).

HABITAT

Last updated on 22 October 2013

The effects of trawling on the seabed ecosystem are not known but are expected to occur (Ogbonna, 2001; Gillett, 2008).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 22 Oct 2013

A non-trawling area of 7 900 km2 is established to protect the nursery grounds and small-scale fisheries, within the 5nm area from the shore (Ogbonna, 2001; Gillett, 2008).

FishSource Scores

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2011 data.

The score is < 6.

There is no management strategy in place, no reference points are defined and the status of the stock is not known. Fishing controls are limited (Zabbey, undated; Ogbonna, 2001; Gillett, 2008; FAO, 2011).

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is < 6.

No stock assessment has been conducted; there is no reliable data available. There are reports of multi-stakeholder meetings (Ogbonna, 2001) but to our knowledge there is no scientific advice (Vincent-Akpu, 2013; FAO, 2011).

As calculated for 2012 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Estimated catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Estimated catch is 13.8 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 2010 ('000 t) .

The underlying Estimated catch/Set TAC for this index is 0.684%.

STOCK HEALTH:

No data available for biomass
No data available for biomass
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for stock status
No data available for stock status

No related analysis

Download Source Data

Registered users can download the original data file for calculating the scores after logging in. If you wish, you can Register now.

Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

Anyanwu, P.E., Ayinla, O.A., Ebonwu, B.I., Ayaobu-Cookey, I.K., Hamzat, M.B., Ihimekpen, A.F., Matanmi, M.A., Afolabi, E.S., Ajijo, M.R., Olaluwoye, B.L. 2011. Culture Possibilities of Penaeus monodon in Nigeria, Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 6: 499-505 http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=jfas.2011.499.505&org=10

Center for Environment, Human Rights and Development (CEHRD), 2007. Small scale shrimp fisheries in Nigeria, 17 pp. Report of a field based investigation conducted by the conservation program of Center for Environment, Human Rights and Development (CEHRD) with support from The World Conservation Union (IUCN), The Netherlands, 17 pp. www.cehrd.org/files/PROJECT_OBJECTIVES_NENIBARINI_3.doc

Chemonics International Incorporated (CII), 2002. Subsector assessment of the Nigerian shrimp and prawn industry. Chemonics International Inc., Agricultural Development Assistance in Nigeria. Washington, DC, United States, United States Agency for International Development, 85 pp. http://www.hubrural.org/IMG/pdf/nigeria_shrimp_and_prawns_subsector_assessment.pdf

FAO, 1996. Precautionary approach to capture fisheries and species introductions. Elaborated by the Technical Consultation on the Precautionary Approach to Capture Fisheries (Including Species Introductions). Lysekil, Sweden, 6-13 June 1995. FAO Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries. No. 2. Rome, FAO, 54p. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/003/W3592e/W3592e00.pdf

FAO, 2001. Review of the state of world marine fishery resources, FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 569. Rome, 334 pp. http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/i2389e/i2389e.pdf

FAO, 2007. Nigeria: fishery country profile, FID/CP/NIR, Rome, 24 pp. ftp://ftp.fao.org/fi/document/fcp/en/FI_CP_NG.pdf

FAO, 2011. Report of the Sixth Session of the Scientific Sub-Committee, The Fishery Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic, FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Report No. 985, 79 pp. RAFI/R985 (Bi) http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/i2443b/i2443b.pdf

Gillett, R. 2008. Global study of shrimp fisheries, FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 475, 359 pp. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/011/i0300e/i0300e.pdf%20

Hermes, R. 2009. Terminal Evaluation of the UNEP/GEF Project, Reduction of Environmental Impact from Tropical Shrimp Trawling through the Introduction of Bycatch Reduction Technologies and Change of Management, Project Number UNEP GF/2731-02-4469 & GF/4030-02-04, FAO EP/GLO/201/GEF, United Nations Environment Programme, 60 pp. http://www.unep.org/eou/Portals/52/Reports/Shrimp%20Trawling%20Terminal%20Evaluation%20Final.pdf

Isebor, C. E. 2003. The invasive and exotic species in the Nigerian coastal zone, Proceedings of the 13th Biennial Coastal Zone Conference, 4 pp. http://www.csc.noaa.gov/cz2003/proceedings/pdf_files/posters/isebor.pdf

Isebor, C. E. 2004. National Report, Marine biodiversity in Nigeria – the known and the unknown, Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research, 63 pp. http://www.oceandocs.org/bitstream/1834/359/1/MB4663.pdf

Ogbonna, J.C. 2001. Reducing the impact of Tropical shrimp trawling fisheries on the living marine resources through the adoption of environmental friendly techniques and practices in Nigeria FAO, 2001 In Tropical shrimp fisheries and their impact on living resources, FAO Fisheries Circular No. 974 FIIT/C974 http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/y2859e/y2859e07.htm#1

Udolisa, R.E.K, Solarin, B., Ambrose, E.E., Aniebona, F., Opurum, S. 1999. Development of excluder devices for use in shrimp trawlnets in Nigeria, Annual report of the Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research, 78 pp. http://www.oceandocs.org/bitstream/1834/2482/1/1999%20annual%20report.pdf

Vincent-Akpu, I. 2013. Sustainable development in fisheries of Nigeria, Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the International Association for Impact Assessment, Impact Assessment – The Next Generation, Canada, 13-16 May 2013, 6 pp. http://www.iaia.org/conferences/iaia13/proceedings/Final%20papers%20review%20process%2013/Sustainable%20development%20in%20fisheries%20of%20Nigeria.pdf?AspxAutoDetectCookieSupport=1

Zabbey, N. undated. The challenges of Sustainable shrimp fisheries in Nigeria, Center for Environment, Human Rights and Development, 12 pp. https://www.google.pt/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CC8QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cehrd.org%2Ffiles%2FSUSTAINABLE_SHRIMP_FISHERIES_IN_NIGERIA.doc&ei=aGxlUrisI8aXhQfdx4CwAw&usg=AFQjCNEP0QQK1pBBmoL2L9lVn7m_WGrKfg&sig2=pgOeg04UnbSqkvyeN0AecQ&bvm=bv.54934254,d.ZGU

Appended content

References

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    Giant tiger prawn - Nigeria

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