Summary

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Ocyurus chrysurus

SPECIES NAME(S)

Yellowtail snapper, Gaiúba

COMMON NAMES

yellowtail

The species is found in the Western Central Atlantic region, from the US Atlantic coast, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, to Brazil. The stock structure is not clearly understood. Some studies mentioned that differences were not detected between Florida Keys and western Caribbe (including Belize, Yucatan Peninsula and Campeche Bank) (O’Hop et al., 2012) while others genetic analysis revealed occurrence of up to four groupings (stocks) of yellowtail snapper: one in the Florida Keys, one along the west coast of Puerto Rico, one that includes the east coast of Puerto Rico and St. Thomas and one offshore of St. Croix (Saillant et al., 2012). However it’s not known if differences exist between Gulf of Mexico and West Caribbe. The US South Atlantic and Northern Gulf of Mexico regions are combined for the stock assessment but are managed separately. This profile refers to the Northern Gulf of Mexico and Western Central Atlantic assessment unit.


ANALYSIS

Strengths

The most recent stock assessment (2012) indicated that the population is not overfished or experiencing overfishing. The population was estimated at three times the size that would produce the maximum sustainable yield. Managers have taken a precautionary approach and recently implemented an annual catch limit for the commercial and recreational portions of the fishery. The fishery is not believed to negatively affect any protected, endangered or threatened species, but does interact with sea turtles and smalltooth sawfish. Regulations are in place to minimize these interactions.

Weaknesses

The last formal stock assessment was undertaken in 2012, with data through 2010. No additional information on stock status is available for recent years. The genetic relationship between yellowtail snapper in US waters (southern Atlantic/eastern Gulf of Mexico) and Mexican waters (the western Gulf of Mexico) is unknown. Little information is available on bycatch and discards in this fishery, and the lack of size information for discards is a major data gap in conducting stock assessments in the southeast U.S. The observer program for the Gulf of Mexico reef fish fishery has very low coverage levels. It is unclear if the marine reserves in this region constitute a representative network of benthic protected areas.

SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 8

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 8 - 10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

10

Future Health:

10


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Commission a consultant to perform an analysis of all marine protected areas in the US southern Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico to determine if they provide a representative network of benthic protected areas.
  • Contact the Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute and encourage them to conduct genetic research on yellowtail snapper from the US and Mexican fisheries to determine if yellowtail snapper in US and Mexican waters are part of the same reproductive population.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Northern Gulf of Mexico and Western Central Atlantic US Gulf of Mexico United States Hooks and lines
US NW Atlantic United States Hooks and lines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 16 June 2015

Strengths

The most recent stock assessment (2012) indicated that the population is not overfished or experiencing overfishing. The population was estimated at three times the size that would produce the maximum sustainable yield. Managers have taken a precautionary approach and recently implemented an annual catch limit for the commercial and recreational portions of the fishery. The fishery is not believed to negatively affect any protected, endangered or threatened species, but does interact with sea turtles and smalltooth sawfish. Regulations are in place to minimize these interactions.

Weaknesses

The last formal stock assessment was undertaken in 2012, with data through 2010. No additional information on stock status is available for recent years. The genetic relationship between yellowtail snapper in US waters (southern Atlantic/eastern Gulf of Mexico) and Mexican waters (the western Gulf of Mexico) is unknown. Little information is available on bycatch and discards in this fishery, and the lack of size information for discards is a major data gap in conducting stock assessments in the southeast U.S. The observer program for the Gulf of Mexico reef fish fishery has very low coverage levels. It is unclear if the marine reserves in this region constitute a representative network of benthic protected areas.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 18 November 2016

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Commission a consultant to perform an analysis of all marine protected areas in the US southern Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico to determine if they provide a representative network of benthic protected areas.
  • Contact the Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute and encourage them to conduct genetic research on yellowtail snapper from the US and Mexican fisheries to determine if yellowtail snapper in US and Mexican waters are part of the same reproductive population.

Last updated on 9 December 2016

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Contact the NOAA Observer Program and ask them to perform an evaluation of the Gulf of Mexico reef fish observer program to determine statistically robust coverage levels, and then increase observer coverage to those levels.

Last updated on 18 October 2016

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Contact the National Observer Program and request that they expand the Gulf of Mexico reef fish observer program to provide coverage to the Atlantic snapper and grouper fishery as well.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 16 June 2015

The most recent benchmark stock assessment was conducted by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute in 2012, and considered yellowtail snapper in the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (SAFMC) and Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (GMFMC) jurisdictions as a single stock for assessment purposes (O’Hop et al. 2012). Mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite DNA from this yellowtail snapper were collected in seven locations in southern Florida and Puerto Rico analyzed by Hoffman et al. (2003). They found little evidence of population structuring between the Florida Keys, southeast Florida, and Puerto Rico. However, there was evidence of isolation by distance between southern Florida and Puerto Rico specimens. More recently, Saillant et al. (2012) examined yellowtail snapper collected from the Florida Keys, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands (USVI). Their findings also suggest there is a single stock of yellowtail snapper off of southern Florida with restricted gene flow to or from eastern Caribbean populations. Unfortunately, there has been no research on or comparison of the genetics of yellowtail snapper specimens from the western Caribbean [e.g., Belize, Yucatan Peninsula and the Campeche Banks] with those in US Florida Keys (O’Hop et al. 2012).

The 2012 assessment used a statistical catch-at-age model (ASAP2) with data through 2010. Fishery-dependent data included commercial logbooks, Marine Recreational Fishery Statistics Survey (MRFSS), and the headboat survey. Fishery-independent data were from the NMFS/University of Miami Reef Visual Census. This assessment used lower release mortality than the previous assessment (2003). The results of the 2012 assessment indicate that, as of 2010, the yellowtail snapper stock is neither overfished nor experiencing overfishing (O’Hop et al. 2012).

Overall model fits were reasonable but there were inadequate information on discard rates, sizes in the discards, and release mortality rates for the fleets. The lack of size information for discards is a major data gap in conducting stock assessments in the southeast U.S. (O’Hop et al. 2012).

No formal stock assessment was undertaken since 2012.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 16 June 2015

The SAFMC and GMFMC are each advised by a Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC). The SSCs review stock assessment results and set the overfishing level (OFL) and allowable biological catch (ABC). Because yellowtail snapper is assessed as one stock, the SAFMC and GMFMC SSCs worked together to determine scientific advice. The combined SSCs set the OFL equal to the annual yield at equilibrium maximum sustainable yield (MSY), which is a long-term average value that does not change (as opposed to annual MSY) and was a more risk neutral approach. The equilibrium MSY yield (thus the OFL) is 2,091 metric tons (4.61 million pounds) total removals (landings plus dead discards), or 2,046 mt (4.51 mp) in landings (GMFMC 2013).

Additionally the SSCs agreed to use a P* (probability of overfishing) of 0.40 to determine the ABC. When this P* was applied to a probability distribution function prepared by FWRI, the resulting ABC was 1,873 mt (4.13 mp) total removals, or 1,837 mt (4.05 mp) in landings. The yellowtail snapper ABC is then split with 75% of the ABC assigned to the South Atlantic jurisdiction and 25% to the Gulf of Mexico jurisdiction, thus the resulting regional ABCs recommended by the joint SSC in terms of landed catch were 1,378 mt (3.0375 mp) for the South Atlantic and 459 mt (1.0125 mp) Gulf of Mexico (GMFMC 2013).

The Councils are considering other criteria in addition to landings data, such as social and economic considerations, for determining allocations in the future (GMFMC, 2015a,b).

REFERENCE POINTS

Last updated on 16 June 2015

GMFMC uses F30%SPR as their overfishing limit (formerly called the Maximum Fishing Mortality Threshold). Using F30%SPR in lieu of FMSY has the advantage of being a per-recruit measure and does not depend upon the stock-recruit relationship. By not depending upon the stock-recruitment relationship, F30%SPR is more consistent than FMSY across different model configurations, which, in turn, aids managers (O’Hop et al. 2012).

Reference points for the yellowtail snapper fishery are as follows (O’Hop et al. 2012 and GMFMC 2013):

F30%SPR=0.295 per year
SSBF30%SPR (proxy for SSBMSY)=3,072 mt
MSST (mt)=2,488 mt

In January 2015, the GMFMC propose an amendment with several alternatives to set the Minimum Stock Size Threshold (MSST) for reef fish stocks with low natural mortality to reduce the likelihood of the stock entering an overfished status due to normal year-to-year fluctuations in biomass levels (GMFMC, 2015d).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 16 June 2015

Results from the 2012 assessment indicate that, as of 2010, the yellowtail snapper stock is neither overfished nor experiencing overfishing. The spawning stock biomass (SSB) in 2010 was greater than three times more than the SSB that would produce Maximum Sustainable Yield (SSBMSY). 2010 fishing mortality was well below (less than 20% of) the threshold F30%SPR (GMFMC 2013).

According to O’Hop et al. (2012):
F2010=0.0454 per year
SSB2010=10,311 mt

No additional information on stock status is available for recent years. Landings in recent years have been variable, but 2014 landings were 36% lower than the previous year.

TRENDS

Last updated on 29 August 2014

U.S. commercial landings for the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic regions combined (but excluding Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands) average 625 metric tons (1.378 million pounds) – about 15% of the total Western Atlantic commercial landings (O’Hop et al. 2012). Yellowtail snapper is one of the three snapper species targeted by fishermen within the Gulf of Mexico reef fish fishery, along with red and vermilion snappers. Virtually all Gulf of Mexico yellowtail snapper are landed in Florida (>99% in Monroe County), where yellowtail snapper is most commonly harvested snapper (GMFMC 2013). Commercial harvest constitutes approximately 80% of the landings (O’Hop et al. 2012).

The yellowtail snapper stock, in both biomass and number, exhibited stability from the early 1980s through mid 1990s to early 2000s then began increasing in size. Recruitment has been variable but with some increase overall since the early 1980s. A relatively large recruitment occurred in 2009. Additionally, the number of fish in the age-12 and older group was higher during the 2000s than it was during the 1980s and 1990. Fishing mortality (including both directed and discard) on age-5 fish (fully recruited) has declined since the early 1990s (O’Hop et al. 2012).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGERS' DECISIONS

Last updated on 16 June 2015

The yellowtail snapper stock is managed by the SAFMC and GMFMC as separate fisheries with the boundary essentially being U.S. Highway 1 in the Florida Keys west to the Dry Tortugas. Additionally, the State of Florida participates in the management of this species in state waters. Other states in the SAFMC and GMFMC jurisdictions defer to the federal management regulations (O’Hop et al. 2012).

Last updated on

Management regulations for yellowtail snapper in the US Gulf of Mexico include size limits (12 inches total length), recreational bag limits, annual catch limits, gear prohibitions and limitations, area closures, and a commercial limited access system (GMFMC 2015c). Yellowtail snapper not allocated between commercial and recreational sectors in the Gulf of Mexico; both sectors are managed under one ACL (GMFMC 2013).

The GMFMC set ACL=0.89ABC, an 11% buffer, based on a control rule that takes into account several potential sources of management uncertainty when calculating the recommended buffer. Sources of uncertainty for yellowtail snapper include uncertainty in precision of landings data, especially recreational landings, and lack of in season accountability measures. The resulting ACL is 409 mt (901,125 lbs) (GMFMC 2013).

Currently, modifications to Gulf Reef Fish and South Atlantic Snapper Grouper Fishery Management Plans have been in discussion (GMFMC 2015a,b).

Last updated on

Management regulations for yellowtail snapper in the US Atlantic jurisdiction include size limits, recreational bag limits, commercial quotas, gear prohibitions and limitations, area closures, and a commercial limited access system (SAFMC 2013).

In the Atlantic yellowtail snapper fishery, the ACL is allocated between commercial and recreational fisheries with 52.56% for commercial and 47.44% to recreational (SAFMC 2013). The SAFMC set ACL = ABC, giving a commercial ACL of 724 mt (1,596,510 lbs) and a recreational ACL of 654 mt (1,440,990 lbs). In addition, the SAFMC set a lower recreational annual catch target (ACT) of 569 mt (1,253,661 lbs) to provide a buffer for recreational management uncertainty due to imprecise harvest monitoring methods. Commercial management uncertainty is accounted for with in-season accountability measures (AMs) that require in-season closure of the fishery when the ACL is projected to be exceeded, and if it is exceeded the harvest overage is deducted from the next year’s ACL (SAFMC 2013).

The SAFMC intends to use both the MFMT (FMSY) and OFL to determine overfishing status. MFMT will be used in years when the stock is assessed, and OFL will be used in years when a current estimate of fishing mortality is not available (SAFMC 2013).

RECOVERY PLANS

Last updated on 29 August 2014

None required.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 16 June 2015

Harvest in 2011 did exceed the ACL set at the end of that year, but no other documented incidences of non-compliance were found. In 2014, landings (231 mt) were about half of the set ACL (409 mt) (NMFS 2015a).

Landings indicate that the yellowtail snapper fishery has historically been dominated by the commercial fishery (GMFMC, 2015b).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP SPECIES

Last updated on

There are 28 different species of marine mammals that may occur in the Gulf of Mexico. All of these species are protected under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and six are also listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) (i.e., sperm, sei, fin, blue, humpback and North Atlantic right whales). Dolphins are only marine mammal known to interact with reef fish fishery, as they prey on the bait, catch, and/or released discards of fish from the reef fish fishery. The MMPA considers vertical line gear to be a Category III gear, meaning there is a remote likelihood of or no known serious injuries or mortalities in this fishery (GMFMC 2013).

There are five species of sea turtle that may occur in the Gulf of Mexico and all are protected under the ESA: Kemp’s Ridley, loggerhead, green, leatherback, and hawksbill sea turtles. Incidental captures are relatively infrequent, but do occur. Captured sea turtles can be released alive or can be found dead upon retrieval of the gear as a result of forced submergence. Sea turtles released alive may later succumb to injuries sustained at the time of capture or from exacerbated trauma from fishing hooks or lines that were ingested, entangled, or otherwise still attached when they were released. Sea turtle release gear and handling protocols are required in the commercial and for- hire reef fish fisheries to minimize post-release mortality (GMFMC 2013).

Gulf sturgeon and smalltooth sawfish are also found in the Gulf of Mexico and are protected under the ESA. Small tooth sawfish interactions rarely occur in the reef fish fishery (estimated to be eight annually, with no mortality) but fishermen are required to follow smalltooth sawfish safe handling guidelines. Gulf sturgeon are unlikely to be affected by the reef fish fishery (GMFMC 2013).

Two species of Acropora corals are protected under the ESA – elkhorn coral and staghorn coral. Because of protections including closed areas, continued authorization of the Gulf of Mexico reef fish fishery is not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of Acropora corals (GMFMC 2013).

Last updated on

There are 31 different species of marine mammals that may occur off the southern Atlantic coast of the US. All of these species are protected under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and six are also listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) (i.e., sperm, sei, fin, blue, humpback and North Atlantic right whales). The MMPA considers the vertical line gear to be a Category III gear, meaning there is a remote likelihood of or no known serious injuries or mortalities in this fishery. There have been no documented interactions between vertical hook and line gear and marine mammals. Additionally, an ESA biological opinion completed by the federal government in 2006 concluded that the continued authorization of the South Atlantic snapper grouper fishery was not likely to adversely affect ESA-listed marine mammals (SAFMC 2013).

There are five species of sea turtles that may occur off the southern Atlantic coast of the US and all are protected under the ESA: Kemp’s Ridley, loggerhead, green, leatherback, and hawksbill sea turtles. The South Atlantic snapper grouper fishery is expected to adversely affect sea turtles, but not to jeopardize their continued existence. An incidental take statement has been issued, specifying reasonable and prudent measures to minimize the impact of the incidental take. All snapper grouper commercial and charter/headboat vessels are required to possess literature and release gear to aid in the safe release of incidentally caught sea turtles, which is expected to reduce mortality (SAFMC 2013).

Smalltooth sawfish are also found off the southern Atlantic coast and are protected under the ESA. The South Atlantic snapper grouper fishery is expected to adversely affect smalltooth sawfish, but not to jeopardize their continued existence. An incidental take statement has been issued, specifying reasonable and prudent measures to minimize the impact of the incidental take. All snapper grouper commercial and charter/headboat vessels are required to possess literature and release gear to aid in the safe release of incidentally caught smalltooth sawfish, which is expected to reduce mortality (SAFMC 2013).

Five distinct populations segments of Atlantic sturgeon are also listed under the ESA but the South Atlantic snapper-grouper fishery is not likely to adversely affect the Atlantic sturgeon (SAFMC 2013).

Two species of Acropora corals are protected under the ESA – elkhorn coral and staghorn coral. The South Atlantic snapper grouper fishery is not likely to adversely affect Acropora species or their critical habitat (SAFMC 2013).

OTHER TARGET AND BYCATCH SPECIES

Last updated on 29 August 2014

Bycatch is not believed to be a major problem in the snapper grouper fishery (many species that are caught are retained) but discard data are inadequate. Currently, the only available bycatch data are from the Southeast Fishery Science Center’s coastal logbook program, under which 20% of the vessels are randomly selected to fill out discard logbooks each year. There is no mechanism to independently verify the accuracy of the logbooks, and fishermen can submit report of “no discards” and a number do so exclusively. Truly having no discards is highly unlikely because regulations such as size limits and harvest quotas compel discarding. Additionally, the logbook program does not collect information on species targeted during each trip, so data are fishery-wide. There is no observer program for the snapper grouper fishery (NMFS 2011).

Fishermen are quite adept at targeting yellowtail snapper when desired (targeted differently than other snapper grouper species) and have become more so over the past five years. Revenue from yellowtail snapper contributed approximately 74% of the total revenue from all species harvested on trips that caught South Atlantic yellowtail snapper. Other species harvested on yellowtail snapper trips include shallow water groupers (gag, black, scamp), other shallow water snappers (gray, mutton), mid-shelf snappers (vermilion), jacks, and king mackerel (SAFMC 2013). These species are all managed under the snapper grouper fishery management plan, with the exception of king mackerel, which is managed under the Coastal Migratory Pelagics fishery management plan.

Last updated on

In 2008, the Gulf Council implemented regulations to reduce discard mortality by the commercial and recreational sectors of the reef fish fishery with a requirement for the use of non-stainless steel circle hooks when using natural baits, and requirements for the possession and use of venting tools and dehooking devices. In 2013 the requirement for venting tools was removed because scientific research has concluded that venting can be an appropriate action under the right circumstances, but it is not always necessary or beneficial (GMFMC 2013).

Last updated on 24 May 2011

In 2009, SAFMC implemented regulations that required the use of dehooking devices, which can help reduce bycatch mortality. Dehooking devices can allow fishermen to remove hooks with greater ease and more quickly, and also without removing the fish from the water (SAFMC 2013).

HABITAT

Last updated on 29 August 2014

Yellowtail snapper are found in sandy areas near offshore reefs at depths of 32–230 feet. Hook-and-line gear is expected to have a very minor negative effect on hard bottom habitat but could break hard bottom structures through snagging or entanglement and abrasions to structures could result from lines or weights. Impacts to both soft and hard corals would be greater than impacts associated with hard-bottom areas for the reasons described above (GMFMC 2013).

Last updated on

SAFMC has implemented a Fishery Ecosystem Plan as a step towards ecosystem-based fishery management.

MARINE RESERVES

Last updated on 16 June 2015

The Tortugas North and South Marine Reserves (no-take marine reserves cooperatively totaling 185 square nautical miles) in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary is on the border between the SAFMC and GMFMC jurisdictions and likely affects both fisheries. A large spawning aggregation of yellowtail snapper is reported to form during May to July at Riley’s Hump in the Tortugas South Marine Reserve (GMFMC 2013).

In 2014, NMFS published a final rule (79 FR 39855) that designated 38 occupied marine areas within the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico as critical habitat for the Northwest Atlantic Ocean loggerhead sea turtle Distinct Population Segment and a final rule to list 22 coral species under the ESA (79 FR 53851). Five of the 22 species occur in the Gulf region.

Last updated on

A number of marine reserves and gear specific closures are in effect throughout the Gulf of Mexico, but the closed areas most likely to affect yellowtail snapper include the Tortugas North and South Marine Reserves (no-take marine reserves cooperatively totaling 185 square nautical miles) in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. A large spawning aggregation of yellowtail snapper is reported to form during May to July at Riley’s Hump in the Tortugas South Marine Reserve (GMFMC 2013).

Last updated on 24 May 2011

In 2007 SAFMC established eight Type II marine protected areas (MPAs) where fishing for and retention of snapper grouper species is prohibited, but trolling for pelagic species such as tuna, dolphin, and billfish is allowed. The intent was to provide a refuge for deepwater snapper grouper species and to protect known spawning areas of snapper grouper species (SAFMC 2013).

FishSource Scores

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

In US fishery management, the precautionary approach is applied by setting an allowable biological catch (ABC) less than the overfishing limit (OFL) (to account for scientific uncertainty) and by setting an annual catch limit (ACL) less than the allowable biological catch (ABC) (to account for management uncertainty, if needed). In addition, overfishing is not permitted and must be ended within one year of being discovered. For the US yellowtail snapper stock the total OFL was set at equilibrium MSY, at 4.61 mp total removals (landings plus dead discards), or 4.51 mp in landings, and the total ABC was set at 4.05 mp (an 11% buffer for scientific uncertainty). The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council chose to set ACL=ABC in their jurisdiction, but implemented in season accountability measures to close the fishery if the ACL is met (SAFMC 2013).

Different components of this assessment unit score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

Different components of this assessment unit score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2010 data.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the SSB=SSBmsy.

The SSB is 10.3 ('000 t). The SSB=SSBmsy is 3.07 .

The underlying SSB/SSB=SSBmsy for this index is 336%.

As calculated for 2010 data.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 0.0454 (age-averaged). The F management target is 0.295 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 15.4%.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses for all fisheries operating within this stock or assessment unit. If there are more than on risk level noted, individual fisheries have different levels. Click on the "Select Scores" drop-down list for your fisheries of interest.

No data available for catch and tac
No data available for recruitment
DATA NOTES

Reference points Blrp, Btrp, Ftrp, and Fishing mortality (F) and Spawing Stock Biomass (SSB) values are from O’Hop et al. 2012 (F and SSB were estimated from figures using Plot Digitizer software). Catch values combine recreational and commercial harvest. Recent catches and Set TAC (ACL) is from NMFS data (NMFS, 2015a,b). Advised TAC (ABC) are from GMFMC 2013.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. GMFMC. 2013. Framework Action to Set the Annual Catch Limit and Bag Limit for Vermilion Snapper, Set Annual Catch Limit for Yellowtail Snapper, and Modify the Venting Tool Requirement. 171 pp. http://www.gulfcouncil.org/fishery_management_plans/reef_fish_management.php
  2. GMFMC, 2015a: Modifications to Gulf Reef Fish and South Atlantic Snapper Grouper Fishery Management Plans. Draft Joint Generic Amendment For the Joint Council Committee on South Florida Management Issues March 2015. Tab B, No. 11 (a) http://www.gulfcouncil.org/council_meetings/Briefing%20Materials/BB-03-2015/B-11(a)%20%20Joint%20Generic%20Gulf%20Reef%20Fish%20and%20S%20Atlantic%20Snapper-Grouper%20031915.pdf
  3. GMFMC, 2015b. Modifications to Gulf Reef Fish and South Atlantic Snapper Grouper Fishery Management Plans . Draft Joint Generic Amendment For the Joint Council Committee on South Florida Management Issues. Decision Document Joint SAFMC/GMFMC Meeting June 11, 2015 Key West, Florida. Tab B, Nº 4 (d)http://gulfcouncil.org/council_meetings/Briefing%20Materials/BB-06-2015/B-4(d)%20South%20Atlantic%20Council%20JtSFLDecisionDocument.pdf
  4. GMFMC, 2015c. Commercial Fishing Regulations for Gulf of Mexico Federal Waters. For Species Managed by the Gulf of Mexico. Fishery Management Council, January 2015. 34pp http://gulfcouncil.org/fishing_regulations/CommercialRegulations.pdf
  5. GMFMC, 2015d. Minimum Stock Size Threshold (MSST) for reef fish stocks with low natural mortality. Options Paper to the Fishery Management Plan for the Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico, January 2015. 19pphttp://www.gulfcouncil.org/council_meetings/Briefing%20Materials/BB-01-2015/B%20-%2013%20Options%20Paper%20-%20MSST%20for%20GOM%20Reef%20Fish.pdf
  6. Hoffman, E.M. T.M. Bert, and M.M. Wilson. 2003. Genetic stock structure assessment of yellowtail snapper (Ocyrurus chrysurus) in southern Florida, estimated by mtDNA D-loop sequencing. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. Florida Marine Research Institute. FWC-FMRI Rep. Number IHR2003-006. 14 p.
  7. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2011. U.S. National Bycatch Report [W. A. Karp, L. L. Desfosse, S. G. Brooke, Editors]. U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-F/SPO-117C, 508 p. http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/by_catch/BREP2011/2011_National_Bycatch_Report.pdf
  8. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), 2015a. Gulf of Mexico Stock Annual Catch Limits Landings. Available online at 16 June 2015, http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/sustainable_fisheries/acl_monitoring/stock_gulf/index.html
  9. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), 2015b. Historical Historical Gulf of Mexico Stock Landings. Available online at 16 June 2015. http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/sustainable_fisheries/acl_monitoring/stock_gulf/historical/index.html
  10. O’Hop, J., Murphy, M., and Chagaris, D. 2012. The 2012 Stock Assessment Report for Yellowtail Snapper in the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute. 63 pp. http://www.sefsc.noaa.gov/sedar/Sedar_Workshops.jsp?WorkshopNum=003
  11. SAFMC. 2013. Regulatory Amendment 15 to the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region: Yellowtail Snapper and Shallow Water Groupers. March 2013. 125 pp. http://www.safmc.net/resource-library/fishery-management-plans-amendments
  12. Saillant, E. A., Renshaw, M. A., Cummings, N. J., Gold, J. R. 2012. Conservation genetics and management of yellowtail snapper, Ocyurus chrysurus, in the US Caribbean and South Florida. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 19 (4): 301–312 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2400.2011.00840.x/abstract
References

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    Yellowtail snapper - Northern Gulf of Mexico and Western Central Atlantic

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