Profile updated on 10 November 2020





Cephalopholis boenak


Chocolate hind


Kerapu karang (Indonesian common name), chocolate hind, blue lined seabass

This profile refers to Cephalopholis boenak (chocolate hind or blue lined seabass) and is known in the fisheries trade in Indonesia as kerapu karang (kerapu = grouper, karang = reef, rock). Chocolate hind is caught in multi-species fisheries targeting snappers nei, groupers nei and other reef fishes.

In terms of the Fisheries Management Area, this profile refers to FMA-713 assessment unit that covers Makassar Strait, Bone Bay, Bali Sea, and Flores Sea (under the jurisdiction of 10 provinces). However, in short, we refer it to “Makassar Strait – Flores Sea”.

Although it is considered as an endemic species in Indonesia (Heemstra and Randall 1993), the existence of chocolate hind in the grouper fishery in Indonesia may sometimes be mistaken for some other species of groupers, particularly given the common name, kerapu karang, that sounds too generic. Several opportunistic survey-based studies on snappers and groupers fisheries in Indonesia (e.g.Nuraini 2017), do not cite Cephalopholis boenak in their findings. Meanwhile, some business executive of grouper fishery in Indonesia has also noticed that this fish is rarely seen in the holding facility (Heru Purnomo, UD Pulau Mas, pers. comm., 24 January 2018). Nevertheless, chocolate hind is one of the 5 grouper species reported to FAO, representing almost 50% of the total catches of groupers reported for Indonesia (FAO 2020). Also, according to data provided by the FIP, this species is not included in the top 20 species caught in Indonesia (Banks 2020). This report mentions that the most common species of groupers caught in WPP-713 is areolate grouper (Epinephelus areolatus). Official national statistics do not provide catch at the species level (BPS- Statistics Indonesia 2019). In the interim harvest control rule, the three priority grouper species identified in the FMA 713 are orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), areolate grouper (Epinephelus areolatus), white-edged lyretail (Variola albimarginata), and leopard coralgrouper (Plectropomus leopardus) (MMAF, 2020). Clarification of the species target by the fishery is needed. This profile may undergo restructuring in the future as new information comes to light.


  • An interim Harvest control rule for grouper fishery in FMA-713 was developed in 2020.


Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

< 6

Fishers Compliance:

< 6