Summary

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Crassostrea virginica

SPECIES NAME(S)

American cupped oyster, Eastern oyster, Atlantic oyster,Virginia oyster

COMMON NAMES

Eastern oyster, Virginian Oyster

Stock structure for American oyster is difficult to ascertain. It is likely that regions may have distinct population or sub-populations with limited mixing. But overall the degree of mixing is unknown between extremes in range, or adjacent regions. This species is intensively aquacultured, and restoration which involves the transplant of see to historical habitats is underway in many regions. This profile, however, covers the wild harvested American Oyster from Maine through the Gulf of Mexico.


ANALYSIS

Strengths

Status in some regions appears to be stable or increasing. Managers have undertaken restoration efforts in many regions. Because oysters are consumed raw, additional regulations that are designed to protect consumers also help to limit removals. Oysters are heavily aquacultured and so reintroduction is not problematic.

Weaknesses

Oysters have declined in many areas of it’s range. Some historical regions are now devoid of wild oysters (Mid-Atlantic and New England). Management is region and state-by-state. There is no concerted management plan. There is no formal stock status, reference points, or analytic assessment either in total or by region.

SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 8

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

< 6

Future Health:

< 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Start a fishery improvement project to address sustainability issues in this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.
2. Communicate to fishery managers that there are sustainability issues in this fishery that may be affecting the sale of products, and request that they comprehensively evaluate and address such issues.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Encourage your supply chain to start a fishery improvement project. For advice on starting a FIP see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.
2. Work with other suppliers and buyers on a pre-competitive basis to start a supplier roundtable to review improvement needs in this and other similar fisheries, catalyze fishery improvement projects, and monitor progress in improvement efforts.


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
US Atlantic United States Hand implements
Towed dredges

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Strengths

Status in some regions appears to be stable or increasing. Managers have undertaken restoration efforts in many regions. Because oysters are consumed raw, additional regulations that are designed to protect consumers also help to limit removals. Oysters are heavily aquacultured and so reintroduction is not problematic.

Weaknesses

Oysters have declined in many areas of it’s range. Some historical regions are now devoid of wild oysters (Mid-Atlantic and New England). Management is region and state-by-state. There is no concerted management plan. There is no formal stock status, reference points, or analytic assessment either in total or by region.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 5 August 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Start a fishery improvement project to address sustainability issues in this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.
2. Communicate to fishery managers that there are sustainability issues in this fishery that may be affecting the sale of products, and request that they comprehensively evaluate and address such issues.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Encourage your supply chain to start a fishery improvement project. For advice on starting a FIP see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.
2. Work with other suppliers and buyers on a pre-competitive basis to start a supplier roundtable to review improvement needs in this and other similar fisheries, catalyze fishery improvement projects, and monitor progress in improvement efforts.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on

A formal stock assessment is not conducted in most parts of the range. Stock is most often assessed by areal mapping of oyster reefs and by examination of oyster density and health in those reef systems (Beck, et al. 2011; Baggett, et al 2014; Campbell, 2012).
 

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on

Scientific advice is limited and region specific (Campbell, 2012). It usually consists of recommendations on min size, closed areas and seasons.
 

REFERENCE POINTS

Last updated on

Reference points are not used as there are no analytic assessments for this species through most of it’s range.
 

Last updated on 9 May 2015

Reference points are not used as there are no analyticassessments for this species through most of it’s range.

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on

Oysters are stable and increasing in the Gulf of Mexico due to regulation and restoration efforts (Campbell, 2012). In other portions of it’s range abundance is in decline (Beck, et al. 2011 & Baggett, et al 2014). Overall stock status is thought to be low: due to harvest, habitat loss, and disease. Oysters are extirpated in areas of the Mid-Atlantic and New England.
 

TRENDS

Last updated on

Gulf of Mexico oysters appear to be improving, while oysters on the Atlantic coast are in decline(Beck, et al. 2011; Baggett, et al 2014; Campbell, 2012). There is some improvement, however in the VA portion of the Chesapeake Bay (VIMS, 2008)

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGERS' DECISIONS

Last updated on

Managers generally follow scientific advice. Often managers use close areas, seasons, and minimum sizes to control effort. Because oysters are consumed raw, additional management measures are in place to prevent shellfish poisoning (Campbell, 2012). Managers also have been setting regulations to promote oyster reef restoration (Baggett, et al 2014).
 

RECOVERY PLANS

Last updated on

There are no formal recovery plans in effect, but state and federal government are working on oyster restoration in areas of the Mid-Atlantic and in the Gulf of Mexico (Baggett, 2014).
 

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on

Compliance by harvesters is high, particularly with regulations that reduce the prevalence and risk of illness from consumption (Campbell, 2012)
 

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

FishSource Scores

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

Different components of this unascertained score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

Different components of this unascertained score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

STOCK HEALTH:

Different components of this unascertained score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses for all fisheries operating within this stock or assessment unit. If there are more than on risk level noted, individual fisheries have different levels. Click on the "Select Scores" drop-down list for your fisheries of interest.

DATA NOTES

Last updated on 9 May 2015

  1. Landings as reported Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts from NMFS Statistics Office, but may include aquacultured product.

Download Source Data

Registered users can download the original data file for calculating the scores after logging in. If you wish, you can Register now.

Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. Baggett, L.P., S.P. Powers, R. Brumbaugh, L.D. Coen, B. DeAngelis, J. Greene, B. Hancock, and S. Morlock, 2014. Oyster habitat restoration monitoring and assessment handbook. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA, USA, 96pp.http://www.oyster-restoration.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Oyster-Habitat-Restoration-Monitoring-and-Assessment-Handbook.pdf
  2. Beck, M.W., R.D. Brumbaugh, L. Airoldi, A. Carranza, L.D. Coen, C. Crawford, O. Defeo, G.J. Edgar, B. Hancock., M.C. Kay, H.S. Lenihan, M.W. Luckenbach, C.L. Toropova, G. Zhang, and X. Guo, 2011. Oyster reefs at risk and recommendations for conservation, restoration and management. BioScience 61:107–116.http://bioscience.oxfordjournals.org/content/61/2/107.full
  3. Campbell, 2012. Sea Food Watch Report. Eastern Oyster Crassostrea virginica. 44p Monterey Bay Aquarium Monterey CA http://www.seafoodwatch.org/-/m/sfw/pdf/reports/mba_seafoodwatch_easternoysterreport.pdf
  4. Eastern Oyster Biological Review Team. 2007. Status review of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Report to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Northeast Regional Office. February 16, 2007. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS F/SPO-88, 105 p. http://spo.nwr.noaa.gov/tm/TMSPO88.pdf
  5. Marsh, J. , 2004. Seafood Watch Seafood Report Eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. Monterey Bay Aquarium http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/cr_seafoodwatch/content/media/MBA_SeafoodWatch_EasternOysterReport.pdf
  6. VIMS, 2008. Chesapeake Bay Oyster Population Estimation (CBOPE) - Virginia Basin. Virginia Institute of Marine Scienceshttp://www.vims.edu/research/units/labgroups/molluscan_ecology/monitoring/cbope/basin_estimates/virginia/vasentinel_basin.php
  7. Virginia Institute of Marine Science, 2012. Chesapeake Bay Oyster Population Estimate (CBOPE).http://www.vims.edu/research/units/labgroups/molluscan_ecology/monitoring/cbope/index.php
References

    Comments

    This tab will disappear in 5 seconds.

    Comments on:

    American cupped oyster - US Atlantic

    comments powered by Disqus
    ADD COMMENT