Summary

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Opisthonema libertate

SPECIES NAME(S)

Pacific thread herring, arenque

Pacific thread herring has an Eastern Pacific distribution from Mexico to Peru, but no studies on its stock structure could be located. This profile describes the Panamanian fishery.

The main species captured in the small pelagic fishery in Panama are Pacific thread herring, Pacific anchoveta and Pacific bumper.


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • A Fishery Improvement Project is underway.
  • Protected areas are in place including ‘fisheries areas’.
  • Inspections are conducted to ensure no shrimp is caught during its closed season.
  • Onboard scientific observers are now available during the whole fishing year.
  • The minimum landing size is defined at 16cm.
  • A fisheries monitoring program for small pelagics resources started in May 2013.
Weaknesses
  • There are no reference points in place.
  • Specific management measures are not known to exist.
  • Impacts on bycatch, protected, endangered and threatened (PET) species and benthic ecosystems are not known but interactions with sharks and seabirds are known to occur.

SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

NO SCORE

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 6

Future Health:

≥ 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Perform a stock assessment as soon as enough data are available from historic catch and effort data and the new fishery monitoring program.
2. Establish a management plan, including reference points and a harvest strategy that account for the extreme ecological importance of these fish in the food web.
3. Conduct research to better describe this fishery’s impact on the ecosystem with respect to bycatch and gear impacts on the seafloor.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Contact (and/or ask your supply chain to contact) the Panama Aquatic Resources Authority (ARAP) to thank them for implementing the new fishery monitoring program. Encourage them to continue to expand their research and monitoring capabilities to allow them to establish a management plan that includes reference points and a harvest strategy that account for the extreme ecological importance of these fish in the food web.
2. Engage and support the existing Fishery Improvement Project.


FIPS

  • Panama small pelagics:

    Stage 4, Progress Rating A

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Panama Panama Cast nets
Purse seines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Strengths
  • A Fishery Improvement Project is underway.
  • Protected areas are in place including ‘fisheries areas’.
  • Inspections are conducted to ensure no shrimp is caught during its closed season.
  • Onboard scientific observers are now available during the whole fishing year.
  • The minimum landing size is defined at 16cm.
  • A fisheries monitoring program for small pelagics resources started in May 2013.
Weaknesses
  • There are no reference points in place.
  • Specific management measures are not known to exist.
  • Impacts on bycatch, protected, endangered and threatened (PET) species and benthic ecosystems are not known but interactions with sharks and seabirds are known to occur.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 28 July 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Perform a stock assessment as soon as enough data are available from historic catch and effort data and the new fishery monitoring program.
2. Establish a management plan, including reference points and a harvest strategy that account for the extreme ecological importance of these fish in the food web.
3. Conduct research to better describe this fishery’s impact on the ecosystem with respect to bycatch and gear impacts on the seafloor.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Contact (and/or ask your supply chain to contact) the Panama Aquatic Resources Authority (ARAP) to thank them for implementing the new fishery monitoring program. Encourage them to continue to expand their research and monitoring capabilities to allow them to establish a management plan that includes reference points and a harvest strategy that account for the extreme ecological importance of these fish in the food web.
2. Engage and support the existing Fishery Improvement Project.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 19 November 2011

No assessment of the stock is conducted. Catch and effort data is collected and regular sampling is conducted in the processing plants to ascertain size structure and reproductive state, used to declare the opening or closure off the fishing season (CeDePesca, 2010a).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 19 November 2011

Scientific advice is limited to recommending the opening and closure of the fishing season, usually at the request of the only fishmeal and fish oil processing plant (CeDePesca, 2010a).

REFERENCE POINTS

Last updated on 19 November 2011

No reference points are in place for the stock.

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 19 November 2011

The Panamanian small pelagics appear to be, at the least, fully exploited considering the recent stable landing and effort levels and an increase in fishing effort for thread herring is to be avoided (CeDePesca, 2010a). Abundance is highly correlated with environmental factors, particularly upwelling and rainy seasons.

TRENDS

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGERS' DECISIONS

Last updated on 9 March 2014

A license is required and several technical measures regulate the small pelagics fishery in Panama (República de Panamá, 1977; 1979) but no Total Allowable Catch (TAC) is set and no formal management plan is yet in force. No official fishing season is defined but managers and industry operate an approximate April-October season, based on surveyed mean minimum size and gonadal state.
The minimum landing size is defined at 16 cm. A fisheries monitoring program for small pelagics started in May 2013 (ARAP, 2013).

RECOVERY PLANS

Last updated on 19 November 2011

Not applicable.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 8 March 2014

Industrial vessels must be equipped with Vessel Monitoring System (VMS)and inspections are conducted during the prawn closures to ensure no bycatch is occurring. No issues related to compliance with regulations are known.

Onboard scientific observers are now available during the whole fishing year (CeDePesca, 2013).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP SPECIES

Last updated on 10 April 2014

Several Protected, Endangered and Threatened (PET) species inhabit or migrate through Panamanian waters, like Olive Ridley turtle Lepidochelys olivacea (Vulnerable; Abreu-Grobois and Plotkin, 2008), Green turtle Chelonia mydas (Endangered; Seminoff, 2004), Loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta (Endangered; MTSG, 1996) and Leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea (Vulnerable; Wallace et al, 2013), Hawksbill Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata (Critically Endangered; Mortimer and Donnelly, 2008), Sperm Whale Physeter macrocephalus (Vulnerable; Taylor et al, 2008), Whale Shark Rhincodon typus (Vulnerable; Norman, 2005); Rough-toothed Dolphin Steno bredanensis, Striped Dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba, Common Bottlenose Dolphin Tursiops truncatus, Pantropical Spotted Dolphin Stenella attenuata(all Least concern; Hammond et al, 2012). Corals like Porites lobata (Near threatened; Sheppard et al, 2008), Pocillopora eydouxi and P. elegans (both Near threatened; Hoeksema et al, 2008), and Psammocora stellate (Vulnerable; Cortés et al, 2008); Cauliflower Coral Pocillopora damicornis (Least concern; Hoeksema et al, 2008), Porites panamensis (Least concern; Guzmán and Cortés, 2008), Pavona gigantea (Least concern; Héctor et al, 2008); Pavona clavus, Pavona varians and Gardineroseris planulata (Least concern; Hoeksema et al, 2008) (Pinto and Yee, 2011).
Interactions with sharks and smooth-hounds Mustelus spp. occurs. Rays, turtles and dolphins are also caught and released. There are also reported interactions with Brown pelicans Pelecanus occidentalis and Neotropic cormorants Phalacrocorax brasilianus (both Least concern; BirdLife International 2012) although no systematic data are available on potential negative direct or indirect impacts on seabird abundance or other elements of the trophic chain (CeDePesca, 2010a).

OTHER TARGET AND BYCATCH SPECIES

Last updated on 19 November 2011

Pacific anchoveta and Pacific bumper are also part of the small pelagics fishery. There is retained bycatch of shrimp by the fishery, particularly when fishing near the coast, but this is forbidden during the several closures enforced during the year. Demersal fish, particularly juveniles, are also caught including weakfish, snappers, snooks, sierras, jacks, bobos as well as lobsters (CeDePesca, 2010a).

HABITAT

Last updated on 19 November 2011

The fishery is often conducted close to the coast where the gear contacts the seafloor – generally over sandy-muddy sediment adjacent to mangroves (CeDePasca, 2010a). The impacts on the seafloor and benthic communities have not been studied.

MARINE RESERVES

Last updated on 8 March 2014

In Panama, different levels of protection are defined by law, including ‘fisheries areas’ that are established to promote sustainable exploitation of fishing resources in a certain area, to define nursery or spawning areas and for the protection of some species (Wood, 2007; Pinto and Yee, 2011).

Industrial seining is forbidden within the Las Perlas archipelago special management zone (República de Panamá, 2007) and, to protect shrimp fisheries, in a part of the Gulf of San Miguel, among other areas. Four other zones of the Gulf of Panama are closed to larger vessels to protect nursery areas near mangroves. It is unclear if these closures are observed by fishers (CeDePesca, 2010a).

FishSource Scores

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

Different components of this unascertained score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

STOCK HEALTH:

Different components of this unascertained score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses for all fisheries operating within this stock or assessment unit. If there are more than on risk level noted, individual fisheries have different levels. Click on the "Select Scores" drop-down list for your fisheries of interest.

DATA NOTES

Last updated on 9 March 2014

No scores can be quantitatively calculated as the 2015 stock assessment conducted by CeDePesca (2015) shows preliminary results, and no reference points are defined and no catch limits (TAC) are set. A partial score has been determined for score #1 however, based on available information. Scientific advice is limited so score #2 is not determined. For Score #3 no TAC is set but it is recommended to maintain catches at its recent average (around 35,000 tonnes) and never above 38,000 tonnes. Landings have been lower than 35,000 tonnes for the last 4 years (2011-2014). Score #4 cannot be allocated quantitavely as no assessment of stock biomass or abundance is conducted. However, a partial score has been determined for score #5. Preliminary values for fishing mortality are given in CeDePesca (2015). F at age 1 equals 0.255 and is low relative to natural mortality. F at age 2 equal 0.967 and is indicative of catches at a level close to MSY. The fishing mortality levels are considered sustainable, but there is no room for an increase in fishing effort. Last available data on landings are from 1967-2013 (Contraloría de la República de Panamá, 2013) and 2014 preliminar landings reported by CeDePesca (2015) were computed.

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

SELECT FIP

Access FIP Public Report

Progress Rating: A
Evaluation Start Date: 1 Mar 2013
Type: Fip

Comments:

Current progress rating of A. FIP is comprehensive and has achieved stage 4/5 results during past 12 months. 

1.
FIP Development
Jul 13
2.
FIP Launch
Apr 17
Jan 16
3.
FIP Implementation
May 17
4.
Improvements in Fishing Practices and Fishery Management
Jun 17
5.
Improvements on the Water
Verifiable improvement on the water
6.
MSC certification (optional)
MSC certificate made public

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. Abreu-Grobois, A, and Plotkin, P. (IUCN SSC Marine Turtle Specialist Group), 2008. Lepidochelys olivacea. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2 [Accessed 08 March 2014]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/11534/0
  2. Autoridad de los Recursos Acuáticos de Panamá (ARAP), 2013. Avances de programas y proyectos, Dirección General de Investigación y Desarrollo, Julio. 25 pp.http://www.arap.gob.pa/transparencia/I+DProgramasJulio2013.pdf
  3. BirdLife International, 2012. Pelecanus occidentalis, Phalacrocorax brasilianus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2 [Accessed 08 March 2014]http://www.iucnredlist.org
  4. CeDePesca, 2015. Small Pelagic Fishery in Panama, Stock Assessment and Recommendations for a Management Plan.http://cedepesca.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/The%20Panama%20small%20pelagics%20fishery.pdf
  5. Centro Desarrollo y Pesca Sostenible (CeDePesca), 2013. Panamá: Vuelven los observadores a la flota cerquera [Accessed 07 March 2014]http://cedepesca.net/panama-vuelven-los-observadores-a-la-flota-cerquera/
  6. Centro Desarrollo y Pesca Sustentable (CeDePesca), 2010a. Pequeños Pelágicos de Panamá: Cetengraulis mysticetus, Opisthonema libertate, Chloroscombrus orqueta - Ficha Técnica de la Pesquería - actualizada en Octubre de 2010.http://www.cedepesca.net/cedepesca_pesquerias/PDFs/pequenos_pelagicos_de_Panama_Informe_CeDePesca_Octubre%202010.pdf
  7. Centro Desarrollo y Pesca Sustentable (CeDePesca), 2010b. Panamanian small Pelagics – Fishery Situation - October 2010.http://sfpcms.sustainablefish.org.s3.amazonaws.com/2011/04/27/Panamanian%20small%20pelagics_Whitepaper_October%202010-873ad464.pdf
  8. Centro Desarrollo y Pesca Sustentable (CeDePesca), 2013. Performance study against the Marine Stewardship Council standard for sustainable fisheries. Small pelagics fishery conducted with the purse seine nets in the Gulf of Panama. July 2013. 70pphttp://cedepesca.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/small-pelagics-PANAMA_Performance-Study-02b27831.pdf
  9. Contraloría General de la República, 2013. CANTIDAD Y VALOR DEL DESEMBARQUE DE LA PESCA INDUSTRIAL Y ARTESANAL EN LA REPÚBLICA, SEGÚN VARIEDAD DE PECES: AÑOS 2009-13, No cadro 314-02.https://www.contraloria.gob.pa/inec/Publicaciones/Publicaciones.aspx?ID_SUBCATEGORIA=15&ID_PUBLICACION=634&ID_IDIOMA=1&ID_CATEGORIA=4
  10. Contraloría General de la República de Panamá, 2012. Panamá en Cifras: Cantidad y valor del desembarque de la pesca industrial y artesanal en la República, según variedad de peces: años 2007-11 (Cuadro 314-02). http://www.contraloria.gob.pa/inec/archivos/P4961314_02.pdf
  11. Cortés, J., Edgar, G., Chiriboga, A., Sheppard, C., Turak, E. and Wood, E. 2008. Psammocora stellata. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2 [Accessed 08 March 2014]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/132860/0
  12. FAO, 2012. FishStatJ – software for fishery statistical time series. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. Release 2.0.0http://www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/software/fishstatj/en#6
  13. Guzmán, H. and Cortés, J. 2008. Porites panamensis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2 [Accessed 08 March 2014]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/133549/0
  14. Hammond, P.S., Bearzi, G., Bjørge, A., Forney, K.A., Karkzmarski, L., Kasuya, T., Perrin, W.F., Scott, M.D., Wang, J.Y., Wells, R.S., Wilson, B. 2012. Steno bredanensis, Stenella coeruleoalba, Tursiops truncates, Stenella attenuata. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2 [Accessed 08 March 2014]http://www.iucnredlist.org
  15. Héctor, M., Guzmán, A., Chiriboga, A., Hickman, C. and Edgar, G. 2008. Pavona gigantea. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2 [Accessed 08 March 2014]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/133168/0
  16. Hoeksema, B., Rogers, A. and Quibilan, M. 2008. Pocillopora eydouxi, Pocillopora elegans, Pocillopora damicornis, Pavona clavus, Pavona varians, Gardineroseris planulata. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2 [Accessed 08 March 2014]http://www.iucnredlist.org
  17. Marine Turtle Specialist Group (MTSG), 1996. Caretta caretta. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2 [Accessed 08 March 2014]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/3897/0
  18. Mortimer, J.A. and Donnelly, M. (IUCN SSC Marine Turtle Specialist Group), 2008. Eretmochelys imbricata. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2 [Accessed 08 March 2014]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/8005/0
  19. Norman, B. 2005. Rhincodon typus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2 [Accessed 08 March 2014]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/19488/0
  20. Pinto, I. and Yee, J. 2011. Diagnóstico de las áreas marinas protegidas y de las áreas marinas para la pesca responsable en el Pacífico panameño, Fundación Marviva, Panamá, 215 pp.http://www.marviva.net/Publicaciones/AMP_PANAMA.pdf
  21. República de Panamá, 1965. Decreto Ejecutivo N° 210 de 25 de octubre de 1965: Por el cual se reforma el Decreto N° 202 de 14 de octubre de 1965 (Reserva de Especies Marinas). Publicada en Gaceta Oficial N° 15488 del 28 de octubre de 1965. http://docs.panama.justia.com/federales/decretos-ejecutivos/210-de-1965-oct-28-1965.pdf
  22. República de Panamá, 1977. Decreto Ejecutivo N° 41 de 7 de octubre de 1977: Reglaméntase la expedición de Licencia de pesca de Anchovetas y Arenques. http://faolex.fao.org/docs/pdf/pan1375.pdf
  23. República de Panamá, 1979. Decreto Nº 35 - Licencia de pesca de anchovetas y arenques.http://faolex.fao.org/docs/pdf/pan1376.pdf
  24. República de Panamá, 1990. Decreto Ejecutivo N° 124 de 8 de noviembre de 1990: Por medio del cual se dictan disposiciones para regular la pesca de camarón. http://www.asamblea.gob.pa/APPS/LEGISPAN/PDF_NORMAS/1990/1990/1990_009_2549.PDF
  25. República de Panamá, 2005. Decreto Ejecutivo N° 83 de 5 de abril de 2005: Por medio del cual se establece la instalación de un Sistema de Monitoreo Satelital a las Embarcaciones de Pesca de Tipo Industrial de Servicio Interior de la República de Panamá.http://www.asamblea.gob.pa/APPS/LEGISPAN/PDF_GACETAS/2000/2005/25273_2005.PDF
  26. República de Panamá, 2006. Resolución AG-0491-2006: Que reglamenta los artículos 94 y 95 de la Ley 41 de 1998 General de Ambiente: aprovechamiento, manejo y conservación de los recursos costeros y marinos en las áreas protegidas de Panamá.http://faolex.fao.org/docs/pdf/pan66403.pdf
  27. República de Panamá, 2007. Ley Nº18 de 31 de mayo de 2007: Que declara Zona Especial de Manejo Marino-costera al Archipiélago de Las Perlas y dicta otras disposiciones.http://docs.panama.justia.com/federales/leyes/18-de-2007-jun-4-2007.pdf
  28. Seminoff, J.A. (Southwest Fisheries Science Center, U.S.), 2004. Chelonia mydas. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2 [Accessed 08 March 2014]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/4615/0
  29. Sheppard, A., Fenner, D., Edwards, A., Abrar, M. and Ochavillo, D. 2008. Porites lobata. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2 [Accessed 08 March 2014]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/133216/0
  30. Taylor, B.L., Baird, R., Barlow, J., Dawson, S.M., Ford, J., Mead, J.G., Notarbartolo di Sciara, G., Wade, P., Pitman, R.L. 2008. Physeter macrocephalus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2 [Accessed 08 March 2014]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/41755/0
  31. Wallace, B.P., Tiwari, M., Girondot, M. 2013. Dermochelys coriacea. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2 [Accessed 08 March 2014]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/6494/0
  32. Wood, L. J. 2007. MPA Global: A database of the world's marine protected areas. Sea Around Us Project, UNEP-WCMC & WWF [Accessed 07 March 2014]http://www.mpaglobal.org
References

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