Last updated on 28 October 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Melanogrammus aeglefinus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Haddock

COMMON NAMES

Haddock

There is an extensive research from demographic, recruitment, parasitic, genetic and tag-recaptures studies providing evidence for the identification of haddock stocks (Begg 1998). The major populations divisions occur between Nova Scotia, New England, and Newfoundland waters. Despite some uncertainty due to seasonal variations in the species´ spatial distribution, a number of discrete stocks are defined:

1) Grand Banks (Div.3LNO), 2) St. Pierre Bank (Div. 3Ps), 3) Eastern Scotian Shelf and Southern Gulf of St. Lawrence (Div. 4TVW), 4) Western Scotian Shelf (Div. 4X), 5) Georges Bank (Div. 5Zjm - Canada; Div. 5Z - USA), and 6) Gulf of Maine (Div. 5Y).


ANALYSIS

Strengths

Managers have used a quota system to manage the fishery since the 1970s and have followed conservative scientific advice closely since the 1990s. The assessment relies on a long time series of reliable data and a commonly used modeling technique. Since 2006, Fishing mortality estimates are below target reference point. Recruitment has been variable with large year classes in 2009 and 2010. Compliance is high. A marine reserve specifically designed to help haddock stocks rebuild has been in place since 1987. A new full assessment is planned for October 2014. Part of the fishery is covered since 2010 by a certification unit of the Marine Stewardship Council.

Weaknesses

High uncertainty in the assessment estimates and projections. Otter trawls, the main gear used to harvest haddock, interacts with protected species and can cause serious damage to bottom habitat. Cod rebuilding could be hampered by continued haddock fishing.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 8

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

7.5

Future Health:

9.4


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • Canada Scotia-Fundy Haddock:

    MSC Certified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
S Scotian Shelf and Bay of Fundy Canada 4X5Y Canada Bottom-set longlines
Bottom trawls
Gillnets and entangling nets
Handlines hand operated

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 24 July 2014

Strengths

Managers have used a quota system to manage the fishery since the 1970s and have followed conservative scientific advice closely since the 1990s. The assessment relies on a long time series of reliable data and a commonly used modeling technique. Since 2006, Fishing mortality estimates are below target reference point. Recruitment has been variable with large year classes in 2009 and 2010. Compliance is high. A marine reserve specifically designed to help haddock stocks rebuild has been in place since 1987. A new full assessment is planned for October 2014. Part of the fishery is covered since 2010 by a certification unit of the Marine Stewardship Council.

Weaknesses

High uncertainty in the assessment estimates and projections. Otter trawls, the main gear used to harvest haddock, interacts with protected species and can cause serious damage to bottom habitat. Cod rebuilding could be hampered by continued haddock fishing.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 24 July 2014

The Southern Scotian Shelf and Bay of Fundy (SSS/BOF) haddock stock is assessed and managed by Canada’s Department of Fisheries and Oceans. Full assessments are conducted every few years and supplemented with annual review of survey indices. A new assessment is planned for October 2014.

The most recent stock assessment available was completed in 2011 using a Sequential Population Analysis model (DFO, 2012a). Data inputs for the model have long time series and are generally reliable. Inputs include catch at age data, a summer groundfish trawl survey data since 1970, and joint DFO and industry survey (ITQ survey) data since 1995. As with previous assessments, strong retrospective patterns were observed in the model of the latest assessment, as well as poor model fit to the survey indices, which resulted in high uncertainty in the assessment estimates and projections. A framework review of the 4X5Y Haddock assessment was recommended (DFO, 2012a).

In recent years, DFO has conducted summer research surveys to provide information on trends in abundance for most groundfish species in the Maritimes Region, including haddock. However, a full assessment, including other sources of data, would be required to evaluate the impacts of management measures on population status (DFO, 2014a).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 24 July 2014

Scientists recommend a TAC indirectly as a function of the maximum harvest that can occur and still result in a fishing mortality below the threshold. They urge managers to use caution when setting the quota. It appears this strategy is working given overall low exploitation levels and increasing biomass in recent years. Given the strong retrospective pattern and poor model fit to survey results, that continued to be observed in the model from the latest assessment, scientists have recommended a framework review for 4X5Y Haddock (DFO, 2012a).

Reference Points

Last updated on 24 Jul 2014

Reference points consistent with the precautionary approach were recently calculated and proposed for the haddock 4X5Y stock. Maximum sustainable yield (MSY) was estimated at 14,700 tons and Spawning stock biomass at MSY (SSB msy) was calculated at 52,000 tons. Biomass reference points of 40% (20,800 tons) and 80% (41,600 tons) of (SSB msy) were suggested as the limit reference point (LRP) and upper stock reference (USR). A target removal reference of 0.25 was also suggested for this stock, but requires further review (DFO, 2012a,b).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 24 July 2014

Results from the latest assessment (2011), suggest that reproductive biomass has remained relatively stable during the last two decades. Taking into account the uncertainties in the assessment, stock biomass is likely to be in the “cautious zone”, i.e. between the upper and lower reference points. The model results also suggest that fishing mortality remains below the target removal reference of 0.25 (DFO, 2012a).

However, the 2013’s biomass index (36,580 tons) was below the short (2007-2011: 50,470 tons), medium (1997-2011: 54,999 tons), and long-term (since 1970: 57,123 tons) averages (DFO, 2014a).

Trends

Last updated on 24 Jul 2014

Adult population (age 4+) biomass levels are estimated to have remained stable and between the upper and lower level reference points over the last two decades (DFO, 2012a).

Total catches of SSS/BOF haddock peaked in 1981 at 31,475 tons. In the ten years prior to 1981, catch averaged about 19,500 tons per year.Since 2004, catch has been fluctuating between 3 and 6 thousand tons. Fishing mortality was highest in the time series in the early 1980s (Hurley et al., 2003) and there has been a gradual decline since then, being currently around the lowest levels (DFO, 2012a).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 25 July 2014

The SSS/BOF haddock fishery is managed mainly through quotas and gear restrictions. Managers do not set TACs above the levels recommended by scientists. For example, in the 2005 assessment, scientists calculated that if catches in 2006 remained within 8,000 tons, fishing mortality would remain below F0.1. Managers set a TAC of 7,000 tons for the 2006 fishing season. In 2012, the assessment was considered insufficient to provide reliable projections of SSB for the following years, but after adjustments to take into account possible overestimates in biomass, stock was assumed to be likely within the “cautious zone”, i.e. between the upper and lower reference points. As a result, managers have reduced the TAC to 5,100 tons for the 2012/2013 fishing season (Vincent and Dunne, 2012; DFO, 2013). For 2013/2014, TAC is maintained at the same level (DFO, 2014b).

Reference points consistent with the precautionary approach were recently reviewed and proposed, following a request made by managers (DFO, 2012a).

Some mitigation measures to reduce and discourage bycatch and discards have been put in place (e.g. gear restrictions, increase monitoring and control of bycatch, at-sea observer coverage, limits on allowable incidental catches per trip, logbooks, Vessel Monitoring System, area and season closures) (DFO, 2014b). In 2012, the 4X5Y Atlantic Haddock Integrated Fishery Management Plan for the Scotia-Fundy Sector Maritimes Region 2012 was presented and that document includes a section that outlines objectives, strategies and tactics (Harvest Control Rules). Sustainable Fisheries Framework (SFF) review for Haddock occured by the first time in 2013 and will take place in March annually for the prior year’s fishing season (Morgan and DeAlteris, 2014).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 24 July 2014

Quota management requires close monitoring of catch. While issues of discarding small haddock and misreporting have been a problem in the past, a recent increase in monitoring at-sea and on shore indicates high-grading small haddock is not occurring (DFO 2003, DFO 2006). The quota was exceeded several times in both the 1970s and 1990s but is accomplished since 1994. In 2012/2013, a total 3,327 tons were landed, representing only 65% of the set quota of 5,100 tons (DFO, 2013).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 25 July 2014

The SSS/BOF haddock fishery occurs in waters where Leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea (IUCN red list: “Critically Endangered”) and marine mammals such as right whales Eubalaena glacialis (IUCN red list: “Endangered”), grey whale Eschrichtius robustus (“Extirpated”),Sowery’s beaked whale Mesoplodon bidens (“Special Concern”) and harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena (IUCN red list: “Least Concern”) are found. Roseway Basin and the Grand Manan Basin areas have been designated as a conservation area for right whales.

Two other species known to interact with this fishery are the Atlantic striped wolfish Anarhichas lupus, which is listed as a species of special concern by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, and cusk Brosme brosme, which is listed as threatened (COSEWIC, 2012). Both species are captured by the most common groundfish gears, otter trawl and groundfish longline (FRCC, 2004; Cox et al., 2010).

Other Species

Last updated on 25 July 2014

The Atlantic haddock fishery is primarily conducted with mobile (trawl) and fixed gear (bottom longline) gear. In 2007, 68% of the commercial catch was caught by trawl and
32% was caught by longline (Baum et al., 2014). Because of the mixed nature of groundfish species, the haddock fishery often catches other species including cod, hakes, redfish, flounder, and pollock (Cox et al., 2010). The bycatch of cod is of particular concern because the haddock fishery could hamper rebuilding (FRCC, 2004). However, distribution of the fishery has changed in recent years to areas where haddock can be targeted with minimal bycatch of cod (DFO, 2006). Most species retained were found to be within biologically based limits or where outside the limits, appropriate recovery measures are in place, e.g. cod and white hake (Morgan and DeAlteris, 2014)

Discards are comprised by several species including skates, dogfish, sharks, lobster and Atlantic Halibut. Skates (several species) and spiny dogfish comprise the majority of discards, with the majority of skate discards being recorded in the longline fishery [specifically of Barndoor skate Dipturus laevis ; IUCN red list “Endangered” (IUCN, 2012)]. The utilization of separator panels in otter trawls is considered to have reduced the capture of skates; no gear modification or strategy to reduce skate bycatch is known to be in place for the longline fishery (Cox et al., 2010). Since 2013, all thorny skate bycatch should be release (Morgan and DeAlteris, 2014). Currently, the population consequences for bycatch species remain unknown in the trawl and longline fisheries, but management is addressing the issue of catch of species of special concern (Baum et al., 2011).

HABITAT

Last updated on 25 July 2014

The primary gear used in the SSS/BOF haddock fishery is otter trawl. It is widely recognized that bottom operating gears such as otter trawl can change the physical structure and impact negatively the biological structure of bottom habitats (NRC, 2002), particularly in sensitive habitats such as coral and sponge gardens. Some areas of sensitive habitats have already been identified in the Scotia-Fundy region and research is currently underway to better evaluate the effects of the haddock trawl fishery in the bottom habitats (Vincent and Dunne, 2012).

Log-books information on fishing locations and frequency in which an area is impacted is compiled to indicate impacts on sensitive areas . DFO’s Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (ERAF) for Coldwater Corals and Sponge Dominated Communities came into effect in 2013 (Morgan and DeAlteris, 2014).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 25 Jul 2014

Since 1987, mobile gear has been prohibited in an area called the ‘haddock box’ on the Scotian Shelf. About 4,000 square nautical miles in size, this marine reserve was established to protect juvenile haddock and rebuild the stock. It is believe that the closure has contributed to the rebuilding of haddock and other groundfish stocks. However, data is unavailable to confidently confirm this.There are also several closed areas the region, in order to protect important habitats (e.g. Lophelia Coral Conservation Area and Gully Marine Protected Area) (Cox et al., 2010). A regulated spawning closure on Browns Bank occurs yearly from March 1 to May 31, but has been extended to include the period from February 1 to June 15 (Morgan and DeAlteris, 2014). .

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 20 January 2017

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

Managers have a series of rules in place to manage removals based on the status of the stock. TACs are reviewed in an annual basis in light of the most recent indicators of the stock status (DFO, 2012a; Vincent and Dunne, 2012).

As calculated for 2007 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 7.00 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 9.60 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 72.9%.

As calculated for 2012 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 3.33 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 5.10 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 65.2%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 7.5.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the URL.

The SSB is 36.6 ('000 t). The URL is 41.6 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/URL for this index is 87.9%.

As calculated for 2010 data.

The score is 9.4.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 0.160 (age-averaged). The F management target is 0.250 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 64.0%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
  1. Upper and Lower reference points (Urp, Lrp) were proposed as 80% and 40% of the BMSY estimate, respectively.
  2. Since 2000, landings and TAC refer to the fishing year, from April 1st of the current year to March 31st of the following year. Actual catch within 1975-1985 do not include 5Y landings.
  3. Biomass estimates 1970-2010 are based on the results from the most recent assessment [Sequential Population Analysis (SPA) model] (Showell et al., 2013). Biomass estimates for 2011-2013 are the summer research vessel survey biomass index (DFO, 2014a).
  4. Fishing mortality (F) estimates are the averaged F for ages 6-9, estimated from the latest SPA model (Showell et al., 2013).
  5. Reference points and stock assessment will be revised at the next framework, as the current model was considered insufficient to provide reliable advice (DFO, 2012a).
  6. Landings for 2012 are from Quota Reports. Total Allowable Catch (TAC) information for groundfish in the Maritimes Region can be found here.

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

Canada Scotia-Fundy Haddock

STATUS

MSC Certified on 22 October 2010

SCORES

Principle Level Scores:

Principle Score
Principle 1 – Target Species: Area 4X5Y 91.9
Principle 1 – Target Species: Area 5Zjm 97.5
Principle 2 – Ecosystem: Trawl 4X5Y 83.3
Principle 2 – Ecosystem: Trawl 5Zjm 83.7
Principle 2 – Ecosystem: Longline 4X5Y 80.0
Principle 2 – Ecosystem: Longline 5Zjm 83.7
Principle 2 - Ecosystem: Gillnets 4X5Y/5Zjm 80.3
Principle 2 - Ecosystem: Handlines 4X5Y/5Zjm 80.3
Principle 3 – Management System 88.5

Certification Type: Silver

Sources

Credits
  1. Baum, J.K., Ford, J.,Norden, W., 2011. Haddock . Atlanti Canada. Seafood Watch Report. 36pp http://search.mbayaq.org/cr/cr_seafoodwatch/content/media/MBA_SeafoodWatch_CanadianHaddockReport.pdf
  2. COSEWIC, 2012. Canadian Wildlife Species at Risk. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 98 pp. [Last updated 02 December 2012].http://www.cosewic.gc.ca/eng/sct0/rpt/csar_e_2012.pdf
  3. Cox, Sean, Huntington, Tim, Knapman, Paul and Scott, Ian, 2010. Public Certification Report for the Canada Scotia - Fundy Fishery for Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) in NAFO Sea Areas 5Zjm, 4X5Y. Moody Marine Ltd. October 2010. 241 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-west-atlantic/canadian_scotia_fundy_haddock/assessment-downloads-1/15.10.2010-scotia-fundy-haddock-pcr-V5.pdf
  4. Department of Fisheries and Oceans – Canada (DFO), 2011. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Groundfish (including Cod) - NAFO Divisions 4VWX+5. Assessed at 22th August 2011 http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/decisions/fm-2010-gp/atl-008-eng.htm
  5. DFO, 2014a. Maritimes Research Vessel Summer Survey trends. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Science Response 2014/017. 54pphttp://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas-sccs/publications/scr-rs/2014/2014_017-eng.pdf
  6. DFO, 2014b. Groundfish - Mixed (including cod) Maritimes Region. Assessed online 22nd July 2014.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/decisions/fm-2014-gp/atl-004-eng.htm
  7. Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), 2003. Haddock on the Southern Scotian Shelf and in the Bay of Fundy (Div 4X/5Y). DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2003/051. 11 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/Csas/status/2003/SSR2003_051_e.pdf
  8. Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), 2006. Haddock on the Southern Scotian Shelf and in the Bay of Fundy (Div 4X/5Y). DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2006/047. 8 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/Csas/status/2006/SAR-AS2006_047_E.pdf
  9. Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), 2010. Assessment of the Status of Division 4X5Y Haddock in 2009. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2010/005. 13 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/CSAS/Csas/Publications/SAR-AS/2010/2010_005_E.pdf
  10. Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), 2012a. Assessment of the Status of 4X5Y Haddock in 2011. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2012/023, 14 p.http://www2.mar.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/science/rap/internet/SAR_2012_023_E.pdf
  11. Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), 2012b. Reference points consistent with the precautionary approach for a variety of stocks in the Maritimes Region. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2012/035. 35 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas-sccs/Publications/SAR-AS/2012/2012_035-eng.pdf
  12. Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), 2013. Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), 2013. Commercial Fisheries, Quota reports for Haddock. [last accessed 18 February 2013]http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/stats/commercial/yrlist-eng.htm
  13. Fisheries Resource Conservation Council (FRCC), 2004. 2004/2005 conservation requirements for groundfish stocks on the Scotian Shelf and in the Bay of Fundy (4vwx5yz). FRCC.2004.R.2. 40 pp.http://www.frcc.ca/2004/SF2004.pdf
  14. Hurley, P.C.F., Black, G.A.P., Simon, J.E., Mohn, R.K. and Comeau, P.A., 2003. Assessment of the Status of Division 4X5Y Haddock in 2003. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2003/104. 71 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/Csas/publications/ResDocs-DocRech/2003/2003_104_e.htm
  15. IUCN, 2012. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. Downloaded on 18 February 2012.http://www.iucnredlist.org
  16. Mohn, R.K., M.K. Trzcinski, G.A.P. Black, S. Armsworthy, G.A. Young, P.A. Comeau, and C.E. den Heyer. 2010. Assessment of the Status of Division 4X5Y Haddock in 2009. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2010/085: vi + 61 p.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/CSAS/Csas/publications/resdocs-docrech/2010/2010_085_e.pdf
  17. Morgan, S. and DeAlteris, J., 2014. Canada Scotia‐Fundy Haddock Fishery. 2013http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-west-atlantic/canadian_scotia_fundy_haddock/assessment-downloads-1/20140403_SR_HAD28.pdf
  18. Northeast Fishery Science Center (NEFSC), 2007. 2007 Annual Incidental Take Report. NEFSC. http://www.nefsc.noaa.gov/fsb/
  19. Showell, M.A., Themelis, D., Mohn, R.K., and Comeau, P.A. 2013. Haddock on the Southern Scotian Shelf and Bay of Fundy in 2011 (NAFO Division 4X5Y). DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2013/101. v + 57 p. http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Csas-sccs/publications/resdocs-docrech/2013/2013_101-eng.pdf
  20. Vincent, A. and Dunne, E., 2012. Scotia-Fundy Haddock Fishery: 2012 MSC Surveillance Visit Report. SCS Global Services. December 2012. 46 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-west-atlantic/canadian_scotia_fundy_haddock/assessment-downloads-1/20130103_SR_HAD28.pdf
  21. Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), 2012a. Assessment of the Status of 4X5Y Haddock in 2011. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2012/023, 14 pp.http://www2.mar.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/science/rap/internet/SAR_2012_023_E.pdf
  22. Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), 2012. Reference points consistent with the precautionary approach for a variety of stocks in the Maritimes Region. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2012/035. 35 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas-sccs/Publications/SAR-AS/2012/2012_035-eng.pdf
  23. Mateo, I., Allain, R.J., 2014. MSC Surveillance Report for the Canada Scotia-Fundy Haddock Fishery. SAI Global Assurance Services, December 2014. 82pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-west-atlantic/canadian_scotia_fundy_haddock/assessment-downloads-1/20141218_SR_HAD028.pdf
  24. Morgan, S., DeAlteris, J., 2014. Canada Scotia Fundy Haddock Fishery.2013 Third Annual MSC Surveillance Visit Report. February 2014. 93pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-west-atlantic/canadian_scotia_fundy_haddock/assessment-downloads-1/20140403_SR_HAD28.pdf
  25. Transboundary Resources Assessment Committee (TRAC), 2012a. Eastern Georges Bank Haddock. TRAC Status Report 2012/03. 6 pp.http://www2.mar.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/science/trac/TSRs/TSR_2012_03_E.pdf
  26. Transboundary Resources Assessment Committee (TRAC), 2012b. Guidance Document 2012/01 on shared fish stocks. 14 pp.http://www.nefmc.org/nemulti/cte_mtg_docs/120919/5_Groundfish_5Z_12_TMGC%20Guidance_Final.pdf
  27. Vincent, A. and Dunne, E., 2011. Scotia-Fundy Haddock Fishery. 2011 MSC Surveillance Visit Report. Scientific Certification Systems. November 2011. 34 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-west-atlantic/canadian_scotia_fundy_haddock/assessment-downloads-1/20111108_S-F_Haddock_Surveillance1_SS-F_RPT.pdf
  28. Wang, Y., and Van Eeckhaute, L., 2012. Canadian Biomass Reference Points for Eastern Georges Bank (5Zjm) Haddock. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2012/029: ii + 7 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Csas-sccs/publications/resdocs-docrech/2012/2012_029-eng.pdf
  29. National Research Council (NRC), 2002. Effects of Trawling and Dredging on Seafloor Habitat. Committee on Ecosystem Effects of Fishing. Phase 1—Effects of Bottom Trawling on Seafloor Habitats. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. 136 pp.

References

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