Last updated on 22 November 2018

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Nemipterus japonicus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Japanese threadfin bream

COMMON NAMES

Threadfin bream

A comprehensive stock assessment of Japanese threadfin bream stock in Indian waters is lacking. Existing stock assessments in coastal states off Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Gujarat are patchy. Biomass estimates (or equivalent) are not publicly available or have not been estimated from stock assessments. Nevertheless, Threadfin breams (Nemipterus spp.) constitute one of the most important commercial demersal stocks targeted by trawlers in the Indian EEZ. They are abundant in 30-200 m depth range. Traditionally trawlers targeted this stock in the 50m depth range, but over the last two decades fishery has expanded and the stock has been exploited in deeper waters as deep as 150m along the west coast of India.


ANALYSIS

No related analysis

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

NOT YET SCORED

Managers Compliance:

NOT YET SCORED

Fishers Compliance:

< 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 6

Future Health:

NOT YET SCORED


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Start a fishery improvement project to address sustainability issues in this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.
2. Communicate to fishery managers that there are sustainability issues in this fishery that may be affecting the sale of products, and request that they comprehensively evaluate and address such issues.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Encourage your supply chain to start a fishery improvement project. For advice on starting a FIP see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.
2. Work with other suppliers and buyers on a pre-competitive basis to start a supplier roundtable to review improvement needs in this and other similar fisheries, catalyze fishery improvement projects, and monitor progress in improvement efforts.


FIPS

  • India threadfin bream - trawl:

    Stage 3, Progress Rating C

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Indian West Coast India Bottom trawls
Midwater trawls
Multiple bottom otter trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 28 July 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Start a fishery improvement project to address sustainability issues in this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.
2. Communicate to fishery managers that there are sustainability issues in this fishery that may be affecting the sale of products, and request that they comprehensively evaluate and address such issues.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Encourage your supply chain to start a fishery improvement project. For advice on starting a FIP see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.
2. Work with other suppliers and buyers on a pre-competitive basis to start a supplier roundtable to review improvement needs in this and other similar fisheries, catalyze fishery improvement projects, and monitor progress in improvement efforts.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 27 November 2018

Threadfin breams (Nemipterus spp.) constitute one of the most important commercial demersal stocks targeted by trawlers in the Indian EEZ. They are abundant in 30-200 m depth range. Traditionally trawlers targeted this stock in the 50 metre depth range, but over the last two decades fishery has expanded and the stock has been exploited in deeper waters as deep as 150 m along the west coast of India. Two species Nemipterus japonicus and Nemipterus mesoprion contribute 90% of the threadfin bream landings in Indian waters. They constitute a major fishery in Kerala during monsoon season, when upwelling triggers movement of threadfin breams into inshore waters (Murthy et al. 2003). There is a heavy demand for threadfin breams in the surimi production in Kerala, with processing plants in this state even importing threadfin breams from other coastal states such as Karnataka and Maharashtra, when there is shortage of catches in the post monsoon period.

Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI) has undertaken Stock Assessment of threadfin breams in all the coastal states along west coast of India (FAO Fishing Area 51). However, most of these studies are confined to providing information on length-weight relationships, size at first maturity, spawning season, etc. Some of the biological reference points calculated for Nemipterus spp. include fishing mortality, natural mortality, growth and length-weight parameters. However, most of the stock assessments are patchy at best and not conducted on a regular basis in all coastal states on a regular basis, to provide any credible information on state of exploitation or status of Japanese threadfin breams on west coast of India (Arabian Sea). Several studies have documented stock assessments conducted in coastal states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Gijarat (Devaraj et al. 1988; Krishnamoorthi 1971; Samuel 1991; Gopal and Vivekanadan 1991; Murthy et al. 1992&2003; Dineshbabu et al. 2009; Joshi 2010). An assessment of threadfin bream (M. japonicus) in Veraval waters was conducted in 2014 (Sen et al. 2014).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 27 November 2018

Although comprehensive studies are lacking on current exploitation status of threadfin breams, information from Vivekananadan (2001) and Murthy et al. (2003) indicate that current fishing pressure does not pose a problem for the stock and that the stock is optimally exploited in most of the coastal states in the Arabian Sea. An assessment in Veraval waters indicated the exploitation rate was 0.70, which would indicate overexploitation of the species. In addition, this assessment found a depletion in initial biomass (Sen et al. 2014).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 30 August 2016

Currently, there is no TAC or catch limits for threadfin breams in the Indian EEZ. A seasonal fishing ban is enforced on both East and West coasts of India for a 45 day period from April 15 to May 31 each year for mechanised vessels, but this conservation measure does not help as trawlers plunder the spawning aggregations and indiscriminately catch juveniles during the remainder of the year.

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 30 Aug 2016

Recovery plans are not in place for threadfin bream stocks in Indian fisheries due to the open access nature of commercial fisheries. No TAC or catch limits are currently in place for threadfin bream stocks.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 30 August 2016

There is no TAC or catch limit set for this fishery in Indian Ocean. Therefore, the compliance cannot be measured. There is significant discarding of juvenile threadfin breams in the trawl fisheries, with this proportion being significant especially during the post-monsoon months from Sept to Dec.

Moreover, IUU fishing in the Indian waters has been a major issue, which includes a range of illicit activities: fishing without permission or out of season; using outlawed types of fishing gear; non-reporting or underreporting of catch, etc. (Pramod 2010).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 30 August 2016

Marine mammals encountered in Indian waters include the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin, Spinner dolphins, Long-beaked common dolphin, Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin and sperm whale. Vivekananadan et al. (2010) state that incidental kills of marine mammals are not monitored in Indian waters, especially for cetaceans which have been the most affected by proliferation of trawling over the last 5 decades.

Interactions between marine mammals and fishing gear in Indian waters reveal a disturbing trend of high strandings and mortalities throughout the year. Silas et al. (1984) reported that around 1% of total landings at Cochin were dolphins. Kumaran (2002) recorded 1452 strandings in Indian coastline over the last 200 years. Yousuf et al. (2009) report that around 9000-10,000 dolphins are caught and killed in gillnets every year along the Indian coast. Pelagic gillnets (varying in size from 0.5 to 2 km) targeting tuna and seer fish were the most destructive gear with 68.9% of dolphins caught in these gears (Species caught included spinner dolphin Stenella longirostris, bottlenose dolphin Tursiops aduncus, Risso’s dolphin Grampus griseus, long-beaked common dolphin Delphinus capensis and Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin Sousa chinensis). Vivekanadan et al. (2010) also report large incidental catch of finless porpoise Neophocaena phocaenoides in the purse seine fishery off Mangalore.

Other Species

Last updated on 30 August 2016

Trawl fisheries has been reported to catch turtles and marine mammals off the Indian coast. Recruitment overfishing of threadfin breams has also been reported (Gopakumar 1998; Dineshbabu and Radhakrishnan 2009; Dineshbabu et al. 2010) due to decline in mesh size over the years from 25-30 mm in nineties to as low as 15-20 mm in recent years (Indian fisheries laws require a minimum cod-end mesh size of 35 mm), but it is seldom enforced – Pramod (2010).

Discards of juvenile threadfin breams also poses a problem to sustainable management of this stock in Indian waters (Kurup et al. 2003 – Kerala waters; Zacharia et al. 2006 and Srinath et al. 2005 – Karnataka waters). Off Karnataka coast, a study by Dineshbabu et al. 2009, showed that of the total commercial catch of Nemipterus mesoprion, only 30% of the catch was landed with the remaining 70% discarded at sea.

HABITAT

Last updated on 30 August 2016

The impact of this fishery on the habitat is very high as trawlers are reported to trawl in inshore waters during the monsoon and post-monsoon season damaging spawning areas in inshore beds. Among the gears trawls are likely to have the most impact on Indian threadfin bream stocks as they indiscriminately catch juveniles and mature individuals coming inshore for spawning.

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 30 Aug 2016

At present, a 45 day closed season is implemented from April to May for trawlers and mechanized vessels on both the coasts of India. Cod-end mesh size needs to be increased from 15 mm to the legal size of 35 mm as stipulated in Indian fisheries laws. A minimum size of 45 mm should be stipulated for Indian squids exported through processors and supply chain to foreign markets. In India, currently minimum legal size (MLS) rule is only implemented for export of rock lobsters and similar rule should be enforced for threadfin bream fisheries.

FishSource Scores

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

Different components of this unascertained score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

STOCK HEALTH:

Different components of this unascertained score differently at the fishery level. Please look at the individual fisheries using the selection drop down above.

No data available
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DATA NOTES

Last updated on 30 August 2016

A comprehensive stock assessment of Japanese threadfin bream stock is lacking. Existing stock assessments in coastal states off Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Gujarat are patchy. Biomass estimates (or equivalent) are not publicly available or have not been estimated from stock assessments. Hence qualitative scores have been assigned for questions 1 to 5.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

SELECT FIP

Access FIP Public Report

Progress Rating: C
Evaluation Start Date: 5 Sep 2017
Type: Basic

Comments:

FIP remains C with stage 3 activities underway. 

1.
FIP Development
Nov 18
2.
FIP Launch
Nov 18
Nov 18
3.
FIP Implementation
Aug 17
4.
Improvements in Fishing Practices and Fishery Management
Verifiable improvement in policy/management and fishing practices
5.
Improvements on the Water
Verifiable improvement on the water
6.
MSC certification (optional)
MSC certificate made public

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. Murty, V Sriramachandra and Joshi, K K and Rekha, J Nair (2003) Threadfin Breams. In: Status of Exploited Marine Fishery Resources of India. Mohan Joseph, M and Jayaprakash, A A,(eds.) CMFRI, Cochin, pp. 120-126. http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/29/1/15.pdf

  2. Vivekanandan, E. 2003. Marine fisheries and fish biodiversity in India: Madras Research Centre of CMFRI.

  3. Pramod, G., 2010. Illegal. Unreported and Unregulated Marine Fish Catches in the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone, Field Report, Policy and Ecosystem Restoration in Fisheries, Fisheries Centre, Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia. http://iuuriskintelligence.com/admin/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/IUU_India-Report-MRAG-2010.pdf

  4. Devaraj, M. and Smita, P., 1988. Economic performance of mechanised trawlers in the State of Kerala, India. Fisheries research, 6(3), pp.271-286.

  5. Krishnamoorthi, B., 1971. Biology of the threadfin bream, Nemipterus japonicus (Block). Indian Journal of Fisheries, 18(1&2), pp.1-21.

  6. Gopal, C. and Vivekanandan, E., 1991. Threadfin bream fishery and biology of Nemipterus japonicus off Veraval. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 38(2), pp.97-102.

  7. Murty, V.S., Rao, T.A., Srinath, M., Vivekanandan, E., Nair, K.V., Chakraborty, S.K., Raje, S.G. and Zacharia, P.U., 1992. Stock assessment of threadfin breams (Nemipterus spp.) of India. Indian Journal of Fisheries,39(1&2), pp.9-41.

  8. Dineshbabu, A.P. and Radhakrishnan, E.V., 2009. Trawl Fishery of juvenile fishes along Mangalore-Malpe coast of Karnataka and its impact on fish Stock. Asian Fisheries Science, 22(2), pp.491-500.

  9. Joshi, K.K., 2010. Population dynamics of Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch) in the trawling grounds off Cochin. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 57(1), pp.7-12.

  10. Silas, E.G. and Rajagopalan, M., 1984. Recovery programme for olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz, 1829) along Madras Coast. CMFRI Bulletin, 35, pp.9-21.

  11. Kumaran, P.L., 2002. Marine mammal research in India-a review and critique of the methods. CURRENT SCIENCE-BANGALORE-, 83(10), pp.1210-1220.

  12. Yousuf, K. S. S. M., et al. "Observations on incidental catch of cetaceans in three landing centres along the Indian coast." Marine Biodiversity Records 2 (2009): e64.

  13. Gopakumar, K., 1998. Utilization of bycatches and low-value fish in India.RAP Publication (FAO).

  14. Dineshbabu, A.P., Thomas, S. and Radhakrishnan, E.V., 2010. Bycatch from trawlers with special reference to its impact on commercial fishery, off Mangalore.

  15. Kurup et al., 2003 B.M. Kurup, P. Premlal, J.V. Thomas, V. Anand Bottom trawl discards along Kerala coast: a case study J. Mar. Biol. Ass. India, 45 (2003), pp. 99–107.

  16. Zacharia, P.U., Krishnakumar, P.K., Durgekar, N.R., Anoop, A.K. and Muthiah, C., 2006. Assessment of bycatch and discards associated with bottom trawling along Karnataka coast, India.

  17. Srinath, M., Kuriakose, S., Ammini, P.L., Prasad, C.J., Ramani, K. and Beena, M.R., 2006. Marine Fish Landings in India 1985-2004. CMFRI Special Publication, 89, pp.1-161.

References

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    Japanese threadfin bream - Western Indian Ocean

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