Profile updated on 9 August 2019

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Gadus morhua

SPECIES NAME(s)

Atlantic cod

Population substructure is apparent with North Sea Atlantic cod (González-Irusta and Wright 2016)(ICES 2019)(Jorde et al. 2018). Numerous sub-populations both inshore and offshore mix throughout the range of this meta-stock. Until 2010, ICES provided advice on these sub-populations. In recent years, however, ICES has only provided advice for the overall meta-population given the uncertainty in mixing among the components by area and season. While the current iCES approach is reasonable given the uncertainty, different sub-populations are experiencing declines in biomass at different rates (ICES 2019)(ICES 2019).

This profile is for cod in North Sea, eastern English Channel, and Skagerrak (Subarea 4 Division 7.d and subdivision 20).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Managers have followed the scientific advice except for 2019.
  • Area quotas are in effect which aim to limit exploitation on more vulnerable sub-components.
  • Harvesters have complied with the discard ban and reporting requirements.
  • Harvesters have generally complied with set quotas.
  • Managers have initiated a management strategy evaluation process.
Weaknesses
  • Model used to provide advice has a severe retrospective pattern that overestimates stock size and underestimates fishing morality relative to the terminal year.
  • Because of the retrospective pattern, projections are likely optimistic
  • Stock is at a low level of abundance, having only briefly been above Blim since 1996.
  • Fishing mortality has not been below FPA or FMSY since 1963 and has recently been trending up.
  • Recruitment has been low since the late 1990s.
  • Managers have not agreed on a management plan for this stock.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

1.9

Managers Compliance:

9.3

Fishers Compliance:

8

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

4.6

Future Health:

3.9


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Request that the European Union and Norway urgently reduce fishing mortality and develop and implement a North Sea Cod Recovery Plan.
  • Engage with the North Sea Advisory Council and its members, including by participating in relevant meetings.
  • Support the fishery and other stakeholders to identify and rectify issues that led to the MSC Certification suspension.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • Norway North Sea demersal:

    MSC Recertified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
North Sea European Union Denmark Bottom trawls
Danish seines
Set gillnets (anchored)
United Kingdom Bottom pair trawls
Bottom trawls
Danish seines
Scottish seines
Norway Norway Bottom trawls
Danish seines
Gillnets and entangling nets
Hooks and lines
Pots
Purse seines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 9 August 2019

Strengths
  • Managers have followed the scientific advice except for 2019.
  • Area quotas are in effect which aim to limit exploitation on more vulnerable sub-components.
  • Harvesters have complied with the discard ban and reporting requirements.
  • Harvesters have generally complied with set quotas.
  • Managers have initiated a management strategy evaluation process.
Weaknesses
  • Model used to provide advice has a severe retrospective pattern that overestimates stock size and underestimates fishing morality relative to the terminal year.
  • Because of the retrospective pattern, projections are likely optimistic
  • Stock is at a low level of abundance, having only briefly been above Blim since 1996.
  • Fishing mortality has not been below FPA or FMSY since 1963 and has recently been trending up.
  • Recruitment has been low since the late 1990s.
  • Managers have not agreed on a management plan for this stock.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 30 September 2019

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Request that the European Union and Norway urgently reduce fishing mortality and develop and implement a North Sea Cod Recovery Plan.
  • Engage with the North Sea Advisory Council and its members, including by participating in relevant meetings.
  • Support the fishery and other stakeholders to identify and rectify issues that led to the MSC Certification suspension.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 9 August 2019

The current advice is based on an age-structured State-space Assessment Model (SAM) in use since 2011 (ICES 2019)(ICES 2019). It utilizes two abundance indices: the international bottom-trawl survey in the first and third quarters (IBTS–Q1 and IBTS–Q3, respectively). Natural mortality is derived from a multispecies model that incorporates seal predation and was last updated in 2017 (ICES 2019).

The model suffers from a severe retrospective pattern of over-estimating biomass and under-estimating fishing mortality relative to the terminal year (ICES 2019)(ICES 2019). This is in part due to the conflicts between survey and catch data within the model. This pattern has a large impact on the stock status when an additional year of data is added (ICES 2019).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 9 August 2019

Because the EU multiannual management plan (MAP) has not been adopted by Norway, reference points and advice are based on the MSY and Precautionary approaches (ICES 2019). These reference points include MSY Btrigger =150 kt, Blim = 107 kt, FMSY = 0.31 (based on simulations), and Flim =0.39 (ICES 2019)(ICES 2019).

Projections were run at various TAC scenarios assuming catch in 2019 was at the agreed TAC. These projections also assumed the recruitment pattern from 1999 to 2017 would hold true over the short term. Results from the projections are considered overly optimistic given the models recurring retrospective pattern which tends to overestimate biomass and underestimate F relative to the terminal year (ICES 2019)(ICES 2019).

Current scientific advice is for a catch of less than 10,457 tonnes, a -63% change in the advice for 2019. Even at this level of harvest, the stock is only expected to reach Blim by 2021. At zero catch the stock is projected to increase 45% to 118,230 and is unlikely to reach the MSY Btrigger by 2021 (ICES 2019)(ICES 2019). ICES notes that given the retrospective pattern and the poor recruitment for this stock, these projections are likely optimistic (ICES 2019)(ICES 2019). There is some indication that ICES will start providing advice in the Autumn of 2019 after the quarter 3 survey is completed (ICES 2019).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 9 August 2019

Cod in the North Sea are currently depleted. Biomass has declined from the early 1970s and, except for 2015 and 2016, has been below Blim since 1996 (ICES 2019)(ICES 2019). This stock was last above MSY Btrigger in the early 1980s (ICES 2019)(ICES 2019). Fishing mortality had been in decline since 2000 but has recently increased since 2015. Fishing mortality has not been below FMSY or FPA over the time series (ICES 2019)(ICES 2019). This stock has been experiencing low recruitment since the late 1990s. The lowest recruitment over the time series was seen in 2017 (ICES 2019)(ICES 2019).

Explanations for low productivity for this stock are numerous and include possible environmental, climate, and ecological causes (ICES 2019)(ICES 2019). The changes, however, in the stock's status and advice over the last few years can mostly be attributed to the retrospective pattern. The retrospective pattern and its implications cannot be overstated for this stock. While increases in biomass were seen from 2004 to 2015 the steepness of rebuilding was less than first estimated. As shown in the latest ICES advice (ICES 2019) in their figure 2, stock rebuilding from below Blim to above MSY Btrigger was a model artifact, in part due to the retrospective pattern, rather than a real event.

It should be noted that not all stock components are experiencing declines to the same degree as the overall stock (ICES 2019)(ICES 2019). Some components, particularly in the southern area, are at lower levels compared with other components. All components, however, have experienced recent dramatic declines in their indices of abundance(ICES 2019)(ICES 2019).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 9 August 2019

North Sea cod are a shared resource between EU countries and Norway. It is managed by agreement for setting TACs and other management measures (Acoura Marine 2019)(ICES 2019). Currently quotas are sub-divide by areas including; 20 (Skagerrak), 2.a + 4, and 7.d (ICES 2019). Most of the quota (>80%) is allotted to the of 2.a + 4 area.

Prior to 2008 a Cod Recovery Plan was in place but was found “not precautionary” because the plan didn’t close the fishery when stock abundance was low (ICES 2019)(ICES 2019). In 2008 this plan was replaced with a more precautionary one (ICES 2019). Given changes in the reference points and removal of the “Days at Sea” program, the EU agreed to a new multiannual management plan (MAP) in 2018. This plan, however, was not adopted by Norway. As such the MAP is not used for providing advice by ICES (Acoura Marine 2019)(ICES 2019). Despite this, managers have undertaken a formal Management Strategy Evaluation for this stock. The goal of this process is to evaluate long-term management strategy for several shared North Sea stocks including herring, haddock, cod, and whiting (ICES 2019).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 9 August 2019

The EU discard ban is currently in place for EU vessels. Onboard cameras are thought to have contributed to a reduction in cod mortality due to discarding (ICES 2019). Overall compliance with the ban seems to be good. Additionally, both Marine Scotland-Compliance and Danish Fisheries Directorate indicate that there is no indication of IUU fishing or under-reporting of catch (ICES 2019). Catches have generally been near set TACs, but have averaged 15% higher than set over the last two years.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Of the Protected, Endangered and Threatened (PET) species distributed in the North Sea, harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena (IUCN Red List: “Least Concern”; Hammond et al., 2008) and grey seals Halichoerus grypus (IUCN Red List: “Least Concern”; Thompson and Härkönen, 2008) directly interact with the fishery. Cod is part of the diet of both species, comprising about 9% and 14% of their diet composition, respectively (ICES, 2012c). Recent cod recruitment low values are probably a result of an increasing predation pressure by these cetaceans: grey seals prey on ages 3-6 cod and harbour porpoises on cod up to age 3. (ICES, 2014c).

The latest abundance estimates for the population of Harbour porpoise in the North Sea and adjacent waters was at 215,600 individuals (ICES, 2013c). A conservation plan for the species in place since 2009 aims “to maintain the species at a favorable conservation status”; bycatch reduction is transversal to five of the twelve actions defined. The gillnet fishery is primarily conducted by Denmark, Norway, and the UK. In 2001, the total bycatch in the cod fishery was around 2,000 porpoises; since then effort reductions in this fishery have likely led to a decrease (ICES, 2014c) and mitigation measures, such as pingers (e.g. Larsen 2004, Pinn et al, 2009, Camphuysen and Siemensma, 2011) and others, have been introduced to reduce porpoise bycatch at a regional level (ICES, 2008h). In 2011, the porpoise estimated bycatch in these management areas was around 140 individuals (ICES, 2013c).

Other Species

Cod is fished in a mixed demersal fishery that also targets haddock, whiting, Nephrops, plaice and sole with towed gears and also in directed fisheries employing fixed gears (ICES, 2014c).

Large-scale discarding is known to occur in the mixed demersal trawl fisheries in the North Sea. Discards are mainly composed of small and juvenile fish below or close to the minimum landing size and of larger individuals of species without a reliable market. In recent years discards have been decreasing and in 2013 were estimated at around 28% (12,939 tons) of the total removals (ICES, 2014c).

HABITAT

Bottom trawling modifies the biomass, production, size structure, and diversity of benthic communities, with the intensity and patchiness of bottom trawling disturbance determining the aggregate impacts. The effect on the benthic invertebrate community in the northern North Sea from all otter trawling is estimated to represent an annual mortality of approximately 25% of the standing-crop biomass (ICES, 2010a) but the effort declined since 1999. Beam trawling removes 39% of standing-crop biomass (ICES, 2008h). In areas where bottom trawl activity occurs, the benthic biomass and productivity were estimated to be reduced by 56% and 21%, respectively, comparing to unfished areas (Hiddink et al., 2006).

Grey gurnards, herring, whiting and seabirds are important predators of 0-group cod (ICES, 2014d). Nicolas et al. (2014) found recently that, besides fishing pressure, the Sea Surface Temperature (SST), which has been increasing in the last years, and availability of preys such as copepods, are intimately related with cod recruitment reduction.

Marine Reserves

A number of measures for temporary closures have been or are being employed, in order to reduce fishing pressure on cod. No information has yet been found on areas permanently closed to fishing. Until 2010, 185 closure areas have been established in a total of 225 square nautical miles (ICES, 2012a).

Numerous coastal Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have been designated along the coasts of the countries bordering the North Sea, with varying conservation statuses and management measures (Wood, 2007). EU Member States are presently implementing a network of marine protected sites under the Natura 2000 initiative in order to protect vulnerable and endangered habitats and species. Fisheries management and control measures will be defined for sites on a case-to-case basis by Member States and offshore sites are also planned (EC, 2007).

MPAs on their own have not been found to produce benefits for the ecosystem in the North Sea but instead fishing effort displacement towards non-protected areas (Greenstreet et al., 2009).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 9 August 2019

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is 1.9.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F=Fmsy.

The F is 0.630 (age-averaged). The F=Fmsy is 0.310 .

The underlying F/F=Fmsy for this index is 203%.

As calculated for 2019 data.

The score is 9.3.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 29.4 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 28.2 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 104%.

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is 8.0.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 48.5 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 43.2 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 112%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2019 data.

The score is 4.6.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the Blim.

The SSB is 81.2 ('000 t). The Blim is 107 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/Blim for this index is 75.9%.

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is 3.9.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F=Fmsy.

The F is 0.630 (age-averaged). The F=Fmsy is 0.310 .

The underlying F/F=Fmsy for this index is 203%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
  • Prior to 2016 advice was in terms of landings, not catch. Only advice from 2016 to the present is used.
  • Prior to 2016 set quota was as a Total Allowable Landings (TAL) rather than the currently used TAC (Total Allowable Catch). Only set TAC from 2016 to the present is used.
  • The catch is the sum of both landings and discards from the ICES workgroup draft report (ICES 2019) and includes both Norwegian fjords and unwanted catch (including BMS landings since 2016).
  • Fishing mortality is as average F, ages 2-4.
  • There are no management set reference points, where applicable, scientifically advised limits were used.
  • Ecosystem impact scores and narratives were not updated in 2019.  

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

Norway North Sea demersal

STATUS

MSC Recertified on 14 June 2008

SCORES

In November 2017: "the Norway North Sea saithe fishery name will change to “Norway North Sea Demersal fisheries” with targeted species saithe, cod, haddock and hake."

Principle Level Scores:

DS - Danish seine; DT - Demersal trawl; HL - Hooks and Lines; PS - Purse seine; GN - Gillnets ; PO - Pots

 

Saithe

Cod

Haddock Hake
Principle

DS

DT

HL PS GN PO DS DT HL PS GN PO DS DT HL PS GN PO DS DT HL PS GN PO
Principle 1 - Target Species

98.8

89.5 95.6 95.6

Principle 2 - Ecosystem

86.0 87.0 90.0 92.7 89.7 90.0 86.3 85.3 90.3 92.7 90.0 85.70 86.3 85.3 90.3 92.7 90.0 90.0 86.0 85.3 90.0

92.7

89.7 90.0
Principle 3 - Management System 95.4

Cod component of this fishery suspended from 24th October 2019.

Certification Type: Silver

Sources

Credits

EU, Norway, 2014. Agreed Record of Fisheries Consultations between the European Union and Norway for 2014. London, 12 March 2014. 36 pp.http://www.regjeringen.no/pages/38649625/2014_Bilateral_EU_No_March.pdf

Greenstreet, S. P. R., Fraser, H. M., Piet, G. J. 2009. Using MPAs to address regional-scale ecological objectives in the North Sea: modelling the effects of fishing effort displacement, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 66: 90–100http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/content/66/1/90.full

Hammond, P.S., Bearzi, G., Bjørge, A., Forney, K., Karczmarski, L., Kasuya, T., Perrin, W.F., Scott, M.D., Wang, J.Y., Wells, R.S., Wilson, B. 2008. Phocoena phocoena. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1 [Accessed 16 July 2014]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/17027/0

Hiddink, J. G., Jennings, S., Kaiser, M. J., Queirós, M. J., Duplisea, D. E., and Piet, G. J. 2006. Cumulative impacts of seabed trawl disturbance on benthic biomass, production, and species richness in different habitats. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 63: 721–736http://www.researchgate.net/publication/40107263_Cumulative_impacts_of_seabed_trawl_disturbance_on_benthic_biomass_production_and_species_richness_in_different_habitats?ev=prf_cit

Hutchinson, W. F., Carvalho, G. R., Rogers, S. I. 2001. Marked genetic structuring in localised spawning populations of cod Gadus morhua in the North Sea and adjoining waters, as revealed by microsatellites, Marine Ecology Progress Series 223: 251-260http://www.int-res.com/articles/meps/223/m223p251.pdf

ICES, 2006. Report of the Working Group on Ecosystem Effects of Fishing Activities (WGECO). 5-12 April 2006, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen (ACE:05).http://www.ices.dk/products/CMdocs/2006/ACE/WGECO06.pdf

ICES, 2008. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment and Advisory Committee on Ecosystems. Book 6: The North Sea. 6.1 Ecosystem overview.http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2008/2008/6.1-6.2%20North%20Sea%20ecosystem%20overview.pdf

ICES, 2010a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.4.2 Cod in Subarea IV (North Sea) and Divisions VIId (Eastern Channel) and IIIa West (Skagerrak). Advice summary for 2011. 20 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2010/2010/cod-347.pdf

ICES, 2010b. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak (WGNSSK). 5-11 May 2010, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen, (ICES CM 2010/ACOM:13).http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2010/WGNSSK/WGNSSK%202010.pdf

ICES. 2010b. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak (WGNSSK), 5 -11 May 2010, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2010/ACOM:13. 1058 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2010/WGNSSK/WGNSSK%202010.pdf

ICES, 2011a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.4.2 Cod in Subarea IV (North Sea) and Divisions VIId (Eastern Channel) and IIIa West (Skagerrak). Advice summary for 2012. 18 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2011/2011/cod-347.pdf

ICES, 2011b. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak (WGNSSK), 4 - 10 May 2011, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2011/ACOM:13. 1214 p.http://www.ices.dk/reports/ACOM/2011/WGNSSK/Sec%2014%20Cod.pdf

ICES, 2012a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.4.2 Cod in Subarea IV (North Sea) and Divisions VIId (Eastern Channel) and IIIa West (Skagerrak). Advice summary for 2013. 19 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2012/2012/cod-347.pdf

ICES. 2012b. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak (WGNSSK), 27 April - 3 May 2012, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2012/ACOM:13.1204 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2012/WGNSSK/WGNSSK%202012.pdf

ICES, 2013a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.4.3 Cod in Subarea IV (North Sea) and Divisions VIId (Eastern Channel) and IIIa West (Skagerrak). Advice summary for 2014. 20 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2013/2013/cod-347.pdf

ICES, 2013b. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.3.2 Mixed-fisheries advice for Subarea IV (North Sea) and Divisions IIIa North (Skagerrak) and VIId (Eastern Channel). Scenarios for 2014. 10 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2013/2013/mix-nsea.pdf

ICES, 2013c. Report of the Working Group on Bycatch of Protected Species (WGBYC), 4–8 February, Copenhagen, Denmark. ICES CM 2013/ACOM:27. 73 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2013/WGBYC/wgbyc_2013.pdf

ICES, 2013d. Joint EU-Norway request on TAC setting options for cod in the North Sea and Skagerrak. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.3.5.5 Special request, Advice October 2013. 7 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2013/Special%20requests/EU-Norway%20TAC%20setting%20options%20for%20cod.pdf

ICES, 2014a. EU–Norway request to ICES on the 2014 TAC for cod in the North Sea. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.3.5.1 Special request, Advice February 2014. 2 pp.http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2014/Special%20Requests/EU_Norway_2014_TAC_%20for_NS_cod.pdf

ICES, 2014b. EU–Norway request to ICES on increasing the 2014 TAC for cod in the North Sea – Additional reply to part of the original request. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.3.5.2 Special request, Advice March 2014. 2 pp.http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2014/Special%20Requests/EU_Norway_2014_TAC_for_NS_cod_March.pdf

ICES, 2014c. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee. Book 6: North Sea. 6.3.3 Cod in Subarea IV (North Sea) and Divisions VIId (Eastern Channel) and IIIa West (Skagerrak). Advice summary for 2015, 19 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2014/2014/cod-347d.pdf

ICES. 2014d. Report of the Working Group for the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak (WGNSSK), 30 April–7 May 2014, ICES HQ, Copenhagen, Denmark. ICES CM 2014/ACOM:13. 1493 pphttp://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2013/2013/mult-NS.pdf

ICES, undated. ICES-Fish Map: Cod, Gadus morhua, 14 pp.http://www.ices.dk/explore-us/projects/EU-RFP/EU%20Repository/ICES%20FIshMap/ICES%20FishMap%20species%20factsheet-cod.pdf

IUCN, 2013. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. Downloaded on 17 July 2013.http://www.iucnredlist.org

Ministry of the Environment (MoE), 2009. Report No. 37 to the Storting (2008-2009): Integrated Management of the Marine Environment of the Norwegian Sea. http://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/md/documents-and-publications/government-propositions-and-reports-/Reports-to-the-Storting-white-papers-2/2008-2009/report-no-37-2008-2009-to-the-storting.html?id=577875

Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs (MFCA), 2013. Press release No. 01/2013,18.01.13. Norway and the EU agree on fishing quotas for 2013.http://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/fkd/press-centre/Press-releases/2013/norway-and-the-eu-agree-on-fishing-quota.html?id=712303

Neuenfeldt, S., Righton , D., Neat, F., Wright, P.J., Svedäng, H., Michalsen, K., Subbey, S., Steingrund, P., Thorsteinsson, V., Pampoulie, C., Andersen, K.H., Pedersen, M.W., Metcalfe, J. 2013. Analysing migrations of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in the north-east Atlantic Ocean: then, now and the future. J Fish Biol. 82(3):741-63http://www.hafro.is/Bokasafn/Greinar/j_fish_biol_82-741.pdf

Nicolas, D., Rochette, S., Llope, M., Licandro, P. 2014. Spatio-Temporal Variability of the North Sea Cod Recruitment in Relation to Temperature and Zooplankton. PLoS ONE 9(2): e88447http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0088447

Official Norwegian Site (ONS), undated. Ecosystems & stocks, Marine stocks & species, Fish stocks, Cod (Gadus morhua) [Accessed 18 July 2014]http://www.fisheries.no/ecosystems-and-stocks/marine_stocks/fish_stocks/cod/#.U8j3xZRdUeg

Regulation (EC) No 1342/2008 of 18 December 2008, establishing a long-term plan for cod stocks and the fisheries exploiting those stocks and repealing Regulation (EC) No 423/2004.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2008:348:0020:0033:EN:PDF

Regulation (EC) No 43/2009 of 16 January 2009, fixing for 2009 the fishing opportunities and associated conditions for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in Community waters and, for Community vessels, in waters where catch limitations are required.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2009:022:0001:0205:EN:PDF

Regulation (EU) No 40/2013 of 21 January 2013, fixing for 2013 the fishing opportunities available in EU waters and, to EU vessels, in certain non- EU waters for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks which are subject to international negotiations or agreements. Official Journal of the European Union 25.1.2013http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2013:023:0054:0153:EN:PDF

Regulation (EU) No 43/2014 of 20 January 2014 fixing for 2014 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in Union waters and, to Union vessels, in certain non-Union waters.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX:32014R0043

Regulation (EU) No 44/2012 of 17 January 2012, fixing for 2012 the fishing opportunities available in EU waters and, to EU vessels, in certain non- EU waters for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks which are subject to international negotiations or agreements.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2012:025:0055:0147:EN:PDF

Regulation (EU) No 57/2011 of 18 January 2011 fixing for 2011 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in EU waters and, for EU vessels, in certain non-EU waters.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:024:0001:0125:EN:PDF

Thompson, D. and Härkönen, T. (IUCN SSC Pinniped Specialist Group) 2008. Halichoerus grypus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1 [Accessed 16 July 2014]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/9660/0

References

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