Profile updated on 24 September 2020





Cephalopholis boenak


Chocolate hind


Kerapu karang

This profile refers to Cephalopholis boenak (chocolate hind or blue lined seabass) and is known in the fisheries trade in Indonesia as kerapu karang (kerapu = grouper, karang = reef, rock). Chocolate hind is caught in multi-species fisheries targeting snappers nei, groupers nei and other reef fishes. Although it is considered as an endemic species in Indonesia (Heemstra and Randall 1993), the existence of chocolate hind in the grouper fishery in Indonesia may sometimes be mistaken for some other species of groupers, particularly given the common name, kerapu karang, that sounds too generic. Several opportunistic survey-based studies on snappers and groupers fisheries in Indonesia, including in FMA 712 (Banks 2020) (Nuraini 2017) do not cite Cephalopholis boenak in their findings. Meanwhile, some business executive of grouper fishery in Indonesia has also noticed that this fish is rarely seen in the holding facility (Heru Purnomo, UD Pulau Mas, pers. comm., 24 January 2018). Nevertheless, chocolate hind is one of the 5 grouper species reported to FAO, representing almost 50% of the total catches of groupers reported for Indonesia (FAO 2020). Also, according to data provided by the FIP, this species is not included in the top 20 species caught in Indonesia (Banks 2020). This report mentions that the most common species of groupers caught in WPP 712 are: areolate grouper (Epinephelus areolaus), orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coiodes) and Duskytail grouper (Epinephelus bleekeri). Official national statistics do not provide catch at the species level (BPS- Statistics Indonesia 2019). Clarification of the species target by the fishery is needed. This profile may undergo restructuring in the future as new information comes to light. In terms of the Fisheries Management Area, this profile refers to the FMA 712 assessment unit that covers the Java Sea.


  • Beginning 2004, official reported landing of groupers have been separated (from 1 lumped groupers group) into 5 individual groupers species that includes chocolate hind (C. boenak).


Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

< 6

Managers Compliance:

< 6

Fishers Compliance:

< 6