SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Amphioctopus fangsiao

SPECIES NAME(s)

Gold-spot octopus

Studies of stock structure in Chinese waters are ongoing (Gao et al., 2013) but there are indications of separation of a stock in the East and South China Seas from another in the Yellow Sea (Lu et al., 2011). Nomenclature is unresolved but O. fangsiao (=Octopus ocellatus), referred to as shortarm octopus in Chinese literature, appears to be the same species (O. membraneceus) FAO names webfoot octopus (Roper et al., 1984). However, webfoot octopus is no longer accepted and is now considered as the Amphioctopus membranaceus species (gold-spot octopus) (MolluscaBase 2019).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Some technical management measures are in place.
  • MPAs are established to protect ETP species, some with fishing restrictions.
Weaknesses
  • No species-specific stock assessment is conducted. No scientific advice is known to exist.
  • There is little information available on stock assessment and environmental impacts but it is unclear if this is due it not existing or to it not being made public.
  • The effectiveness of the current management measures is unknown.
  • Illegal fishing is known to occur despite no available and official data.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

DATA DEFICIENT

Managers Compliance:

DATA DEFICIENT

Fishers Compliance:

DATA DEFICIENT

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

DATA DEFICIENT

Future Health:

DATA DEFICIENT


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Start a fishery improvement project (FIP) to address the lack of publicly available information on this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP's Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs and other resources at https://www.sustainablefish.org/Programs/Professional-Guidance/FIP-Toolkit-Resources
  • Encourage scientists to share their studies/publications with FishSource by commenting on the profile and uploading a hyperlink to the document.
  • Work with the government and scientists on the collection of data and make them accessible online.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
East and South China Seas China China Bottom trawls
Purse seines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 7 March 2019

Strengths
  • Some technical management measures are in place.
  • MPAs are established to protect ETP species, some with fishing restrictions.
Weaknesses
  • No species-specific stock assessment is conducted. No scientific advice is known to exist.
  • There is little information available on stock assessment and environmental impacts but it is unclear if this is due it not existing or to it not being made public.
  • The effectiveness of the current management measures is unknown.
  • Illegal fishing is known to occur despite no available and official data.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 16 December 2016

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Start a fishery improvement project (FIP) to address the lack of publicly available information on this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP's Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs and other resources at https://www.sustainablefish.org/Programs/Professional-Guidance/FIP-Toolkit-Resources
  • Encourage scientists to share their studies/publications with FishSource by commenting on the profile and uploading a hyperlink to the document.
  • Work with the government and scientists on the collection of data and make them accessible online.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 7 March 2019

The structure of the stock in Chinese coastal waters has not yet been determined but some progress has been made. No coast-wide stock assessment for the species is known to be conducted. Results of stock assessments for all octopus species in the South China Sea have been presented at regional workshops, with results from 2009 available (FAO, 2010) but it is unclear if they resulted from a yield per recruit model or expert judgment. 

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 7 March 2019

No formal scientific advice is made public. No reference points are known to be defined for assessment or management of the resource.

Recent changes to management for the South China Sea were assessed as an example of a data-limited ecosystem approach to fisheries management (Ye et al., 2011).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 7 March 2019

There are no specific studies of stock status but sampling in several coastal regions have recorded decreases in mean size and earlier sexual maturation (Li and Huang 2011)(Huang 2008). There are also reports of reductions due to intense fishing (Yang & Wang, 2009) and an assessment of Octopus spp. in the South China Sea noted that the resource was depleted overall, with decreasing short-term catch and survey index trends and the fishery was judged to be over capacity (FAO, 2010). Catch data for octopus not identified to species level in Chinese waters is limited, but an increasing trend may be occurring.

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 7 March 2019

Chinese fisheries are managed by the Bureau of Fisheries (Fisheries Management and Fishing Port Superintendence Bureau of the Popular Republic of China) under the Ministry of Agriculture, in coordination with the Bureau of Fishing Vessel Inspection, the National Fisheries Technical Extension Station and the China Academy of Fisheries Science; divisions at the province level are also responsible for law enforcement (FAO 2001) .

In the result of an overfishing situation, a system control on fishing licenses (general, special and temporary) was established in 1979. Fishing zone regulations control fishing gears restrictions in certain areas: prohibited fishing lines along the 50m depth contour for trawling, light purse seines and entangling nets. Fish bycatch limits are set (Kang 2006)(Mu et al. 2007); four summer fishing closures with different time periods and gear bans were established since 1995 in the East China Sea (and the Yellow Sea) and in the South China Sea since 1999 (Cheng et al. 2009)(Ou and Tseng 2010). The “Double Control” system limits the number and power of boats (Watson et al. 2001).

China
China
Bottom trawls

Last updated on 7 March 2019

In order to control the fishing intensity and protect juveniles, since 2004, a minimum mesh size of the bottom trawl codend was set at 39mm for both South China Sea and the Eastern Guangdong-Taiwan Bank and at 54mm for the East China Sea (Ministry of Agriculture (MofA) 2007).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 7 March 2019

(Nordquist 2008) mentions the important role of national and regional Chinese regulations and institutions to improve control and compliance. Zhangyuanyuan (undated) considers the “Double Control” system as an invalid management measure.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 10 April 2013

Species identified as endangered, threatened or protected (ETP) in the region include Indo-Pacific hump-backed dolphin Sousa chinensis, classified on the IUCN Red List as Near threatened and decreasing (Reeves et al., 2008), finless porpoise Neophocaena phocaenoides, classified as Vulnerable and also decreasing in trend, and for which bycatch in trawl and seines is in general reported as being intense (Wang & Reeves, 2012). False killer whale Pseudorca crassidens is reported as bycatch in Chinese coastal fisheries but its status on the IUCN Red List is Data Deficient (Taylor et al., 2008); the western subpopulation of Gray whale Eschrichtius robustus is classified as Critically Endangered but is reportedly increasing in size (Reilly et al., 2000); Hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricate (Mortimer & Donnelly, 2008) and Leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea (Sarti Martinez, 2000) are both Critically endangered and decreasing, and green turtle Chelonia mydas is classified as Endangered and also globally decreasing (Seminoff, 2004). A Red List of endangered Chinese species is published and the horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus and Chinese spiny lobster Panulirus stimpsoni are considered to be endangered due to overexploitation (Liu, 2013). No data on either direct or indirect impacts on PET species due to the fishery could be located.

Other Species

Last updated on 23 May 2013

No information on bycatch species or rates could be located, but trawling may result in high bycatch rates (Rathjen 1991).

HABITAT

Last updated on 10 April 2013

No studies of impacts due to the trawl fishery could be located but adverse impacts on benthic habitats are generally produced by bottom trawling (Rathjen 1991). Knowledge of habitat types has been expanded considerably in recent years (Cheng et al., 2007; (Liu 2013).

Artificial reef installation has been a management strategy employed for several decades in Chinese coastal areas and potential benefits to octopus are under study (Tang et al. 2009).

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are established both at the national and regional level, with 15 of the former and 26 of the latter currently in place. In many cases, MPAs are constituted of different zones, with fishing outlawed in the “core” zone. One of the intended purposes is to protect vulnerable species’ habitats. Fishery protected areas have been established in the East China Sea to protect important commercial species’ habitats and additionally, trawl, light purse seine and entangling net fisheries are not permitted at depths shallower than 50 m (Cheng et al. 2009). Closed seasons are defined by gear type in both the South and East China Seas (Cheng et al. 2009)(Guo et al. 2008).

ECOSYSTEM

Ecosystem modeling has been conducted and concluded that overfishing has led to significant shifts in the East China Sea ecosystem (Cheng et al. 2009)(Li and Huang 2011)(Li and Zhang 2012).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 7 March 2019

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As determined for 2019.

In the result of an overfishing situation, a system control on fishing licenses (general, special and temporary) was established in 1979. Fishing zone regulations control fishing gears restrictions in certain areas: prohibited fishing lines along the 50m depth contour for trawling, light purse seines and entangling nets. Fish bycatch limits are set (Kang 2006)(Mu et al. 2007) and four fishing closures are in place. A “Double Control” system limits the number and power of boats (Watson et al. 2001). However, the status of the stock is unknown thus the effectiveness of the management measures is unknown.

As determined for 2019.

No formal scientific advice is made public. No reference points are known to be defined for assessment or management of the resource.

As determined for 2019.

There is no available official data about compliance by fishermen on the management measures in place.

STOCK HEALTH:

As determined for 2019.

The status of the stock is unknown. No formal assessment is known to be conducted.

As determined for 2019.

The status of the stock is unknown. No formal assessment is known to be conducted.

No data available for biomass
No data available for biomass
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
No data available for management quality
No data available for management quality
No data available for stock status
No data available for stock status
DATA NOTES
  • No data apart from catch data is available so no scores can be determined, being all determined as Data Deficient.
  • Landings are for all unidentified octopuses caught by China in the Northwest Pacific (FAO major area 61) and values for 2003-2006 are FAO estimates (data from FAO, 2003-2016) (FAO 2019).

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. Cheng, H.-Q., Jiang, H., Xu, H., Wu, J., Ding, H., Le Quesne, W L., Arreguín-Sánchez, F. Spatial resources and fishery management framework in the East China Sea. In Le Quesne W.J.F., Arreguín-Sánchez, F., Heymans, S.J.J. INCOFISH Ecosystem Models: Transiting from Ecopath to Ecospace, Fisheries Centre Research Reports, Volume 15 Number 6, University of British Columbiaftp://ftp.fisheries.ubc.ca/FCRR%2015(6)/FCRR%2015(6)%20PDF%20final%201.pdf
  2. FAO, 2010-2013. Fisheries Global Information System (FAO-FIGIS) - Web site. Fisheries Global Information System (FIGIS). FI Institutional Websites. In: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department [online]. Rome. Updated. [Cited 6 April 2013]. http://www.fao.org/fishery/figis/en
  3. FAO, 2010. Report of the second Workshop on the Assessment of Fishery Stock Status in South and Southeast Asia. Bangkok, 5–9 October 2009. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Report. No. 940. Rome, FAO. 2010. 54p.http://www.boblme.org/documentRepository/2009-10%20Report%20of%20the%20second%20Workshop%20on%20the%20Assessment%20of%20Fishery%20Stock%20Status%20in%20South%20and%20Southeast%20Asia.%20Bangkok,%205-9%20October%202009.pdf
  4. Gao, X., X. Zheng, Q. Li, 2013. Development and characterization of twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci in the cephalopod Amphioctopus fangsiao (d’Orbigny, 1839–1841). Conservation Genetics Resources Published online 03 February 2013.http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12686-013-9864-1#page-2
  5. Li, Y., Chen, Y., Olson, D, Yu, N., Chen, L. 2009. Evaluating ecosystem structure and functioning of the East China Sea Shelf ecosystem, China, Hydrobiologia 636:331–351http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10750-009-9964-9?LI=true
  6. Ministry of Agriculture (MofA), 1993. Aquatic Wildlife Conservation Implementation Regulations, Government of the People's Republic of China. [Assessed 23 May 2013; Translated by Google]http://www.gov.cn/flfg/2005-08/06/content_20939.htm
  7. Mortimer, J.A & M. Donnelly (IUCN SSC Marine Turtle Specialist Group), 2008. Eretmochelys imbricata. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. [Downloaded on 09 April 2013].http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/8005/0
  8. Reeves, R.R., M. L. Dalebout, T.A. Jefferson, L. Karczmarski, K. Laidre, G. O’Corry-Crowe, L. Rojas-Bracho, E.R. Secchi, E. Slooten, B.D. Smith, J.Y. Wang & K. Zhou, 2008. Sousa chinensis. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2 [Downloaded on 07 April 2013].http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/20424/0
  9. Reilly, S.B., J.L. Bannister, P.B. Best, M. Brown, R.L. Brownell Jr., D.S. Butterworth, P.J. Clapham, J. Cooke, G.P. Donovan, J. Urbán & A.N. Zerbini, 2000. Eschrichtius robustus (western subpopulation). In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. [Downloaded on 09 April 2013].http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/8099/0
  10. Roper, C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney & C.E. Nauen, 1984. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 3. Cephalopods of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of species of interest to fisheries. FAO Fisheries Synopsis, (125)Vol. 3:277p.ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/009/ac479e/AC479E00.pdf
  11. Sarti Martinez, A.L. (Marine Turtle Specialist Group), 2000. Dermochelys coriacea. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. [Downloaded on 09 April 2013].http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/6494/0
  12. Seminoff, J.A. (Southwest Fisheries Science Center, U.S.), 2004. Chelonia mydas. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. [Downloaded on 09 April 2013].http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/4615/0
  13. Taylor, B.L., R. Baird, J. Barlow, S.M. Dawson, J. Ford, J.G. Mead, G. Notarbartolo di Sciara, P. Wade, & R.L. Pitman, 2008. Pseudorca crassidens. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2 [Downloaded on 07 April 2013].http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/18596/0
  14. UniProt Consortium, 2002-2013. Species: Amphioctopus fangsiao (Ocellated octopus) (Octopus ocellatus).http://www.uniprot.org/taxonomy/515817
  15. Wang, J.Y. & Reeves, R. 2012. Neophocaena phocaenoides. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2 [Downloaded on 07 April 2013].http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/198920/0
  16. Yang, J. & Wang W., 2009. Studies on Reproduction and Population Genetic Diversity of Octopus ocellatus. Shandong Marine Fisheries Research Institute, China, P.R.http://www.yslme.org/doc/2rmc/CD/Wednesday%20pm/Yang%20Jianmin%20Studies%20on%20Reproduction%20and%20Population%20Genetic%20Diversity%20of%20Octopus%20ocellatus.pdf
  17. Ye Y., K. Cochrane, Qui Y., 2011. Using ecological indicators in the context of an ecosystem approach to fisheries for data-limited fisheries. Fisheries Research 112 (3):108–116.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165783611002219
  18. Zhangyuanyuan, D. (undated). The design and the hypothesized effect of the strategic fishery policy - Chinese strategic fishery policies and effects, University of Tromso, Norway 2002-2008, 20 pp.http://triton.nfh.uit.no:86/China%20Symposium08%20For%20webpubl/Dai_%20the%20effect%20of%20Chinese%20strategic%20fishery%20policy.pdf
References

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    Gold-spot octopus - East and South China Seas, China, China, Bottom trawls

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