Last updated on 16 December 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Octopus fangsiao

SPECIES NAME(s)

Webfoot octopus, shortarm octopus

Studies of stock structure in Chinese waters are ongoing (Gao et al., 2013) but there are indications of separation of a stock in the East and South China Seas from another in the Yellow Sea (Lu et al., 2011). Nomenclature is unresolved but O. fangsiao (=Octopus ocellatus), referred to as shortarm octopus in Chinese literature, appears to be the same species (O. membraneceus) FAO names webfoot octopus (Roper et al., 1984).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  1. Management measures are in place.
  2. MPAs are established to protect PET species, some with fishing restrictions.
Weaknesses
  1. No species-specific stock assessment is conducted.
  2. There is little information available on stock assessment and environmental impacts but it is unclear if this is due it not existing or to it not being made public.
  3. IUU fishing is known to occur despite no available and official data.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

NOT YET SCORED

Managers Compliance:

NOT YET SCORED

Fishers Compliance:

NOT YET SCORED

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

NOT YET SCORED

Future Health:

NOT YET SCORED


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS
  • Review the FishSource profile and publish or share online relevant missing information in your possession or those accessible to you.
  • Encourage scientists to share their studies/publications with FishSource by commenting on the profile and uploading a hyperlink to the document.
  • Work with scientists on the collection of data and make them accessible online.
  • Encourage the institutionalization of data collection and publication.
RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Advise your suppliers that currently the FishSource profile reflects that there is not enough information publicly available on this fishery and you are unable to make an accurate determination of the sustainability status. Request that they advise the relevant authorities of the situation and that efforts need to be made to collect and publish data and disclose data sources to FishSource to better inform buying decisions.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
East and South China Seas China China Bottom trawls
Purse seines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 22 May 2013

Strengths
  1. Management measures are in place.
  2. MPAs are established to protect PET species, some with fishing restrictions.
Weaknesses
  1. No species-specific stock assessment is conducted.
  2. There is little information available on stock assessment and environmental impacts but it is unclear if this is due it not existing or to it not being made public.
  3. IUU fishing is known to occur despite no available and official data.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators
  • Review the FishSource profile and publish or share online relevant missing information in your possession or those accessible to you.
  • Encourage scientists to share their studies/publications with FishSource by commenting on the profile and uploading a hyperlink to the document.
  • Work with scientists on the collection of data and make them accessible online.
  • Encourage the institutionalization of data collection and publication.
Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Advise your suppliers that currently the FishSource profile reflects that there is not enough information publicly available on this fishery and you are unable to make an accurate determination of the sustainability status. Request that they advise the relevant authorities of the situation and that efforts need to be made to collect and publish data and disclose data sources to FishSource to better inform buying decisions.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 10 April 2013

The structure of the stock in Chinese coastal waters has not yet been determined but some progress has been made. No coast-wide stock assessment for the species is known to be conducted. Results of stock assessments for all octopus species in the South China Sea have been presented at regional workshops, with results from 2009 available (FAO, 2010) but it is unclear if they resulted from a yield per recruit model or expert judgment.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 10 April 2013

No formal scientific advice is made public.

Recent changes to management for the South China Sea were assessed as an example of a data-limited ecosystem approach to fisheries management (Ye et al., 2011).

Reference Points

Last updated on 10 Apr 2013

No reference points are known to be defined for assessment or management of the resource.

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 10 April 2013

There are no specific studies of stock status but sampling in several coastal regions have recorded decreases in mean size and earlier sexual maturation (Li & Huang, 2011; Huang, 2008). There are also reports of reductions due to intense fishing (Yang & Wang, 2009) and an assessment of Octopus spp. in the South China Sea noted that the resource was depleted overall, with decreasing short-term catch and survey index trends and the fishery was judged to be over capacity (FAO, 2010).

Trends

Last updated on 10 Apr 2013

Catch data for octopus not identified to species level in Chinese waters is limited, but an increasing trend may be occurring.

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 10 April 2013

Chinese fisheries are managed by the Bureau of Fisheries (Fisheries Management and Fishing Port Superintendence Bureau of the Popular Republic of China) under the Ministry of Agriculture, in coordination with the Bureau of Fishing Vessel Inspection, the National Fisheries Technical Extension Station and the China Academy of Fisheries Science; divisions at the province level are also responsible for the law enforcement (FAO, 2001).

In result of an overfishing situation, a system control on fishing licenses (general, special and temporary) was established in 1979. Fishing zone regulations control fishing gears restrictions in certain areas: prohibited fishing lines along the 50m depth contour for trawling, light purse seines and entangling nets. Fish bycatch limits are set (Kan, 2006; Yongtong et al, 2007); four summer fishing closures with different time periods and gear bans were established since 1995 in the East China Sea (and the Yellow Sea) and in the South China Sea since 1999 (Cheng et al, 2007; Ou and Tseng, 2010). The “Double Control” system limits the number and power of boats (Watson et al, 2001).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 10 Apr 2013

None known to be in place.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 10 April 2013

Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing is known to occur but no official data is available for the fishery. Guifang (2005) refers the important role of national and regional Chinese regulations and institutions to improve control and compliance. Zhangyuanyuan (undated) considers the “Double Control” system as an invalid management measure.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 10 April 2013

Species identified as protected, endangered or threatened (PET) in the region include Indo-Pacific hump-backed dolphin Sousa chinensis, classified on the IUCN Red List as Near threatened and decreasing (Reeves et al., 2008), finless porpoise Neophocaena phocaenoides, classified as Vulnerable and also decreasing in trend, and for which bycatch in trawl and seines is in general reported as being intense (Wang & Reeves, 2012). False killer whale Pseudorca crassidens is reported as bycatch in Chinese coastal fisheries but its status on the IUCN Red List is Data Deficient (Taylor et al., 2008); the western subpopulation of Gray whale Eschrichtius robustus is classified as Critically Endangered but is reportedly increasing in size (Reilly et al., 2000); Hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricate (Mortimer & Donnelly, 2008) and Leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea (Sarti Martinez, 2000) are both Critically endangered and decreasing, and green turtle Chelonia mydas is classified as Endangered and also globally decreasing (Seminoff, 2004). A Red List of endangered Chinese species is published and the horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus and Chinese spiny lobster Panulirus stimpsoni are considered to be endangered due to overexploitation (Liu, 2013). No data on either direct or indirect impacts on PET species due to the fishery could be located.

Other Species

Last updated on 23 May 2013

No information on bycatch species or rates could be located, but trawling may result in high bycatch rates (Rathjen, 1991). Non-target species need to be unconditionally released (MofA, 1993).

China
China
Purse seines

Last updated on 23 May 2013

No information on bycatch species or rates could be located. Non-target species need to be unconditionally released (MofA, 1993).

HABITAT

Last updated on 10 April 2013

No studies of impacts due to the trawl fishery could be located but adverse impacts on benthic habitats are generally produced by bottom trawling (Rathjen, 1991). Knowledge of habitat types has been expanded considerably in recent years (Cheng et al., 2007; Liu, 2013).

Ecosystem modeling has been conducted and concluded that overfishing has led to significant shifts in the East China Sea ecosystem (Cheng et al., 2009; Li et al., 2009; Li & Zhang, 2011).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 10 Apr 2013

Artificial reef installation has been a management strategy employed for several decades in Chinese coastal areas and potential benefits to octopus are under study (Tang et al., 2009).

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are established both at national and regional level, with 15 of the former and 26 of the latter currently in place. In many cases, MPAs are constituted of different zones, with fishing outlawed in the “core” zone. One of the intended purposes is to protect vulnerable species’ habitats. Fishery protected areas have been established in the East China Sea to protect important commercial species’ habitats and additionally, trawl, light purse seine and entangling net fisheries are not permitted at depths shallower than 50 m (Cheng et al., 2007). Closed seasons are defined by gear type in both the South and East China Seas (Cheng et al., 2007; Guo et al., 2008).

China
China
Purse seines

Last updated on 22 May 2013

No studies of impacts due to the seining fishery could be located. Knowledge of habitat types has been expanded considerably in recent years (Cheng et al., 2007; Liu, 2013).

Ecosystem modeling has been conducted and concluded that overfishing has led to significant shifts in the East China Sea ecosystem (Cheng et al., 2009; Li et al., 2009; Li & Zhang, 2011).

FishSource Scores

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

STOCK HEALTH:

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses within this fishery.

No data available for biomass
No data available for biomass
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
No data available for management quality
No data available for management quality
No data available for stock status
No data available for stock status
DATA NOTES
  1. No data apart from catch data is available so no scores can be determined.
  2. Landings are for all unidentified octopuses caught by China in the Pacific and values for 2003-2006 are FAO estimates (data from FAO, 2010-2013).

Download Source Data

Registered users can download the original data file for calculating the scores after logging in. If you wish, you can Register now.

Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. Cheng, H.-Q., Jiang, H., Xu, H., Wu, J., Ding, H., Le Quesne, W L., Arreguín-Sánchez, F. Spatial resources and fishery management framework in the East China Sea. In Le Quesne W.J.F., Arreguín-Sánchez, F., Heymans, S.J.J. INCOFISH Ecosystem Models: Transiting from Ecopath to Ecospace, Fisheries Centre Research Reports, Volume 15 Number 6, University of British Columbiaftp://ftp.fisheries.ubc.ca/FCRR%2015(6)/FCRR%2015(6)%20PDF%20final%201.pdf
  2. Cheng J., W.W.L. Cheung, T.J. Pitcher, 2009. Mass-balance ecosystem model of the East China Sea. Progress in Natural Science 19: 1271-1280.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1002007109001695
  3. FAO, 2001. Information on fisheries management in the People’s Republic of China. [Accessed on 08th April 2013]http://www.fao.org/fi/oldsite/FCP/en/CHN/body.htm
  4. FAO, 2010-2013. Fisheries Global Information System (FAO-FIGIS) - Web site. Fisheries Global Information System (FIGIS). FI Institutional Websites. In: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department [online]. Rome. Updated. [Cited 6 April 2013]. http://www.fao.org/fishery/figis/en
  5. FAO, 2010. Report of the second Workshop on the Assessment of Fishery Stock Status in South and Southeast Asia. Bangkok, 5–9 October 2009. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Report. No. 940. Rome, FAO. 2010. 54p.http://www.boblme.org/documentRepository/2009-10%20Report%20of%20the%20second%20Workshop%20on%20the%20Assessment%20of%20Fishery%20Stock%20Status%20in%20South%20and%20Southeast%20Asia.%20Bangkok,%205-9%20October%202009.pdf
  6. Gao, X., X. Zheng, Q. Li, 2013. Development and characterization of twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci in the cephalopod Amphioctopus fangsiao (d’Orbigny, 1839–1841). Conservation Genetics Resources Published online 03 February 2013.http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12686-013-9864-1#page-2
  7. Guifang, X. 2005. China and International Fisheries Law and Policy, Publications on Ocean Development, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 326 pp.http://books.google.pt/books
  8. Guo Z., Xie Y., Zhang X., Wang Y., Zhang D., Shunji, S., 2008. Review of Fishery Information and Data Collection Systems in China. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 1029.ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/010//i0111e/i0111e00.pdf
  9. Huang, Z., 2008. Species composition and resources density of Cephalopoda in the continental shelf of northern South China Sea. South China Fisheries Science 2008, 4(5) 1-7.http://www.schinafish.cn/EN/abstract/abstract8678.shtml
  10. Kang, J.-S. 2006. Analysis on the development trends of capture fisheries in North-East Asia and the policy and management implications for regional co-operation, Ocean & Coastal Management 49 (1-2): 42-67http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569105001304
  11. Li L. & S. Huang, 2011. A study on management of stock enhancement in China. Journal of Shanghai Ocean University. 20(5), 765-772.http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-SSDB201105019.htm
  12. Liu, J.Y., 2013. Status of Marine Biodiversity of the China Seas. PLoS ONE 8(1): e50719. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050719.http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0050719
  13. Li, Y., Chen, Y., Olson, D, Yu, N., Chen, L. 2009. Evaluating ecosystem structure and functioning of the East China Sea Shelf ecosystem, China, Hydrobiologia 636:331–351http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10750-009-9964-9?LI=true
  14. Li Y. & Y. Zhang, 2011. Fisheries impact on the East China Sea Shelf ecosystem for 1969–2000. Helgoland Marine Research 66(3): 371-383.http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10152-011-0278-8?LI=true
  15. Lu Z., Li H., Fan Z. & Zhang J., 2011. Population genetic structure of Octopus ocellatus in coastal waters of China based on 16S rDNA sequence. Journal of Fishery Sciences of China 18(1):29-37.http://upload1.bio1000.com/file/upload/201111/03/05-47-18-23-161.swf
  16. Ministry of Agriculture (MofA), 1993. Aquatic Wildlife Conservation Implementation Regulations, Government of the People's Republic of China. [Assessed 23 May 2013; Translated by Google]http://www.gov.cn/flfg/2005-08/06/content_20939.htm
  17. Ministry of Agriculture (MofA), 2007. Minimum mesh size of the system ready to work on doing the full implementation of the marine fishing nets notice, Regional Bureau of East China Sea Fishery Management , Popular Republic of China [Translated from Chinese; accessed on 09th April 2013]http://www.moa.gov.cn/sydw/dhyzj/yyxk/xkzgl/200701/t20070104_2299988.html
  18. Mortimer, J.A & M. Donnelly (IUCN SSC Marine Turtle Specialist Group), 2008. Eretmochelys imbricata. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. [Downloaded on 09 April 2013].http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/8005/0
  19. Ou, C.-H and Tseng, H.-S. 2010. The fishery agreements and management systems in the East China Sea, Ocean & Coastal Management 53:279-288http://www.deepdyve.com/lp/elsevier/the-fishery-agreements-and-management-systems-in-the-east-china-sea-vMKUgbTIT0
  20. Rathjen, W.F., 1991. Cephalopod Capture Methods: An Overview. Bulletin of Marine Science 49(1-2): 494-505.http://docserver.ingentaconnect.com/deliver/connect/umrsmas/00074977/v49n1/s42.pdf?expires=1365606740&id=73719406&titleid=10983&accname=Guest+User&checksum=199292D8F93AEF156E999D12DC3E0D9F
  21. Reeves, R.R., M. L. Dalebout, T.A. Jefferson, L. Karczmarski, K. Laidre, G. O’Corry-Crowe, L. Rojas-Bracho, E.R. Secchi, E. Slooten, B.D. Smith, J.Y. Wang & K. Zhou, 2008. Sousa chinensis. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2 [Downloaded on 07 April 2013].http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/20424/0
  22. Reilly, S.B., J.L. Bannister, P.B. Best, M. Brown, R.L. Brownell Jr., D.S. Butterworth, P.J. Clapham, J. Cooke, G.P. Donovan, J. Urbán & A.N. Zerbini, 2000. Eschrichtius robustus (western subpopulation). In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. [Downloaded on 09 April 2013].http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/8099/0
  23. Roper, C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney & C.E. Nauen, 1984. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 3. Cephalopods of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of species of interest to fisheries. FAO Fisheries Synopsis, (125)Vol. 3:277p.ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/009/ac479e/AC479E00.pdf
  24. Sarti Martinez, A.L. (Marine Turtle Specialist Group), 2000. Dermochelys coriacea. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. [Downloaded on 09 April 2013].http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/6494/0
  25. Seminoff, J.A. (Southwest Fisheries Science Center, U.S.), 2004. Chelonia mydas. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. [Downloaded on 09 April 2013].http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/4615/0
  26. Tang, Y.-L. Fang Y.-Y., Liang, Z.-L., Zhao, T.-Y., 2009. The Attractive Effects of Artificial Reef Models with Different Shapes and Materials on Octopus ocellatus. Periodical of Ocean University of China 2009-01.http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-QDHY200901009.htm
  27. Taylor, B.L., R. Baird, J. Barlow, S.M. Dawson, J. Ford, J.G. Mead, G. Notarbartolo di Sciara, P. Wade, & R.L. Pitman, 2008. Pseudorca crassidens. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2 [Downloaded on 07 April 2013].http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/18596/0
  28. UniProt Consortium, 2002-2013. Species: Amphioctopus fangsiao (Ocellated octopus) (Octopus ocellatus).http://www.uniprot.org/taxonomy/515817
  29. Wang, J.Y. & Reeves, R. 2012. Neophocaena phocaenoides. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2 [Downloaded on 07 April 2013].http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/198920/0
  30. Watson, R., Pang, L., Pauly, D. 2001. Marine Fisheries of China: Development and Reported Catches, Fisheries Centre Research Reports, University of British Columbia (Canada), Vol. 9 No. 2 58pp.http://www.seaaroundus.org/report/china/fullchina.pdf
  31. Yang, J. & Wang W., 2009. Studies on Reproduction and Population Genetic Diversity of Octopus ocellatus. Shandong Marine Fisheries Research Institute, China, P.R.http://www.yslme.org/doc/2rmc/CD/Wednesday%20pm/Yang%20Jianmin%20Studies%20on%20Reproduction%20and%20Population%20Genetic%20Diversity%20of%20Octopus%20ocellatus.pdf
  32. Ye Y., K. Cochrane, Qui Y., 2011. Using ecological indicators in the context of an ecosystem approach to fisheries for data-limited fisheries. Fisheries Research 112 (3):108–116.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165783611002219
  33. Yongtong, M.U., Huiguo, Y.U., Jingna, C., Yugui, Z. 2007. A Qualitative Appraisal of China’s Efforts in Fishing Capacity Management, Journal of Ocean University of China 6(1):1-11http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11802-007-0001-1?LI=true
  34. Zhangyuanyuan, D. (undated). The design and the hypothesized effect of the strategic fishery policy - Chinese strategic fishery policies and effects, University of Tromso, Norway 2002-2008, 20 pp.http://triton.nfh.uit.no:86/China%20Symposium08%20For%20webpubl/Dai_%20the%20effect%20of%20Chinese%20strategic%20fishery%20policy.pdf
References

    Comments

    This tab will disappear in 5 seconds.

    Comments on:

    Webfoot octopus - East and South China Seas, China, China, Purse seines

    comments powered by Disqus