SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Hyperoglyphe antarctica

SPECIES NAME(s)

Bluenose warehou, Blue eye trevalla

COMMON NAMES

Bluenose, Antarctic butterfish, Big-eye, Deep Sea Trevalla

Blue-eye trevalla (Hyperoglyphe antarctica) are distributed in continental slope waters off South America, South Africa, New Zealand and Australia. Their Australian distribution stretches along the southern continental margin in waters from Moreton Island in Queensland to 30°S in WA. Blue-eye trevalla also occur on the seamounts off eastern Australia and south of Tasmania, Lord Howe Island and probably Norfolk Island. The species supports a significant fishery in New Zealand, where it is known as ‘blue-nose’ (Baelde 1996).

No genetic differences have been observed between the two different Australian morphs (Bolch et al. 1993) and allozyme surveys on the genetic structure of the blue-eye trevalla stock found no population differentiation in samples examined from NSW, Tasmania and SA (Hindell et al. 2006; Robinson et al. 2008).

Target fisheries for bluenose have occurred in the South Pacific from the early 1980s to the present day. Bluenose appear to prefer cold water as part of their habitat characteristics. Schools of relatively small adults (50–60 cm) are occasionally taken by trawl over smooth, muddy substrates (Anon 2006).

Relationships between the Australasian stocks of bluenose and those beyond the EEZs are unknown. Biological productivity is moderate. There are no available estimates of stock size, biomass or fishing mortality. There are currently no known management measures in place for bluenose (Paulovics and Williams 1995). Australian vessels use bottom longlines and drop lines on the high seas to catch bluenose.

Approximately 99% of the blue-eye trevalla caught by NSW managed commercial fisheries is from the Ocean Trap and Line Fishery. Droplining is the primary method by which this species is taken. Blue-eye trevalla are caught year-round but landings are greatest during autumn and winter (Paulovics and Williams 1995, Anon 2006).

It is important to note that the line fisheries for bluenose on the high seas are part of a multi-species fishery. The other critical component in the catch mix is the wreckfishes (Polyprion spp.) (Wilson et al. 2009).

Mostly a Commonwealth fishery, where blue-eye is assessed as ‘not overfished’, but there are concerns about possible local depletion in some areas. Catch rates of NSW commercial fishers and the size composition of catches appear to be stable (Anon 2006).


ANALYSIS

Weaknesses

Significant amounts of biological and fishery data are available; however the data vary with season, area, depth and fishing method, and a full age-structured population model has not been developed.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

NOT YET SCORED

Managers Compliance:

NOT YET SCORED

Fishers Compliance:

NOT YET SCORED

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

NOT YET SCORED

Future Health:

NOT YET SCORED


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • This profile is not currently high on our priority list for development, and we can’t at this time provide an accurate prediction of when it will be developed. To speed up an evaluation of the sustainability status of lower priority fisheries we have initiated a program whereby industry can directly contract SFP-approved analysts to develop a FishSource profile on a fishery. More information on this External Contributor Program is available at https://www.sustainablefish.org/Programs/Science/External-Contributor-Program.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Southeastern Australia Ocean Trap and Line Fishery (NSW) Australia Bottom-set longlines
Longlines
South Coast Demersal Line Fishery Australia Longlines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 19 October 2016

Weaknesses

Significant amounts of biological and fishery data are available; however the data vary with season, area, depth and fishing method, and a full age-structured population model has not been developed.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 10 January 2019

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • This profile is not currently high on our priority list for development, and we can’t at this time provide an accurate prediction of when it will be developed. To speed up an evaluation of the sustainability status of lower priority fisheries we have initiated a program whereby industry can directly contract SFP-approved analysts to develop a FishSource profile on a fishery. More information on this External Contributor Program is available at https://www.sustainablefish.org/Programs/Science/External-Contributor-Program.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 19 October 2016

Attempts to use conventional stock assessment models have been unsuccessful for Australia’s bluenose fishery. Indications of stock status have been based on declines in the catch rate, a drop in the age of small fish caught and a comparatively high estimated fishing mortality. These indicators suggest that the stock is fully fished (Fishery Status Report, Status of Fish Stocks Managed by the Australian Government, 2004).

Relationships between the Australasian stocks of bluenose and those beyond the EEZs are unknown. Biological productivity is moderate. There are no available estimates of stock size, biomass or fishing mortality.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 19 October 2016

Future research is required into population structure to determine if the South Pacific represents one stock.

Determination of stock structure, in particular the links between within EEZ fisheries and high seas fisheries in the south west Pacific will be crucial to ensuring future sustainable management of bluenose.

Commonwealth assessments do not consider the species to be overfished, however there are concerns about the potential for localised depletion (Wilson et al. 2009).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 19 October 2016

It is unclear as to whether the current TAC’s are sustainable within the Australian EEZ bluenose is currently classified as not overfished. However, localised overfishing maybe occurring (Wilson et al. 2009).

Size composition of NSW landed catch from 1993 to 2000 provides evidence of relatively stable proportion of older fish in the population. Size composition of NSW catch is currently being monitored (Wilson et al. 2009).

Trends

Last updated on 19 Oct 2016

Bluenose has been target fished, primarily by various lining methods, off Australia and New Zealand since the early 1980s. Catches are also taken by trawl. Landed bluenose catches from New Zealand vessels on the high seas in the South Pacific accounts for only ~4% of the catch taken within the New Zealand EEZ (~3000 t p.a. in recent years (FAO data)) (Anon 2006).

Decline in reported catch during the late1990s was due to changes in catch recording requirements for fishers with both NSW and Commonwealth licences.

In New Zealand, concerns about declining catch rates since about 2003 led to a reduction in TAC for ‘blue-nose’ in all fishery areas for 2009 (Wilson et al. 2009).

Decline over last decade in directed fishing effort in the NSW continental slope line fishery has led to reduced landings but with relatively stable catch per unit effort.

The annual recreational harvest of blue-eye trevalla in NSW is not accurately known but is thought to be less than 20 t.

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 19 October 2016

There are currently no known management measures in place for bluenose. There is no minimum legal length for blue-eye trevalla in NSW (Wilson et al. 2009).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
Other Species

Last updated on 19 October 2016

Associated and dependant species that have been recorded by New Zealand vessels fishing for bluenose outside the EEZ include: Conger eel (Conger sp), Northern Spiny Dogfish (Squalus mitsukurii), blue shark (Prionace glauca), deepwater dogfish, longnecked eel (Derichthys serpentinus), frostfish (Lepidopus caudatus), hairy conger (Bassanago hirsutus), escolar (Lepidocybium flavobrunneum), orange perch (Lepidopera aurantia), pink maomao (Caprodon longimanus), Porae (Nemadactylus douglasi), rough skate (Dipturus nasutus), silver dory (Cyttus novaezealandiae), spider crab, and yellow boarfish (Pentaceros decacanthus) (Fishery Status Report 2004).

Numerous species have been reported as bycatch by New Zealand flagged vessels targeting bluenose outside EEZ’s in the South Pacific region between 1990 and 2006. Species caught between 1992 and 2006 over 100 tonnes were: hapuka & bass (Polyprion oxygeneios & P. americanus). Species caught over 50 tonnes were: alfonsino & long-finned Beryx (Beryx splendens & Beryx decadactylus). Species caught over 10 tonnes were: king tarakihi (Nemadactylus sp) and rubyfish (Plagiogeneion rubiginosus). Species caught over 1 tonnes were: kingfish (Seriola lalandi), ling (Genypterus blacodes), School Shark (Galeorhinus galeus), Gemfish (Rexea solandri), and Sea perch (Helicolenus sp.) (Fishery Status Report 2004).

HABITAT

Last updated on 19 October 2016

Longlining is the predominant fishing method for bluenose on the high seas and has minimal impact on the benthos. However, bottom trawling is also used and can have significant impact on the seafloor (Fishery Status Report 2004).

There is little scientific information on the long term impacts of bottom trawlingthe overall productivity of deepwater systems and their resilience. Bottom trawl gear that touches the bottom damages long lived species, changes community structure and alters the geochemical cycles. The degree of the loss of fishing gear in areas of the South Pacific is unknown but could be having adverse effects such as reducing habitat complexity (Baelde 1995).

FishSource Scores

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

STOCK HEALTH:

No data available
No data available
No data available
No data available
No data available
No data available
No data available
No data available
No data available
No data available
No data available
No data available

Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. Baelde, P. 1996. Biology and dynamics of the reproduction of blue-eye trevalla, Hyperoglyphe antarctica (Centrolophidae), off Tasmania, southern Australia. Fishery Bulletin 94: 199–211http://fishbull.noaa.gov/942/baelde.pdf

  2. Wilson, D., R. Curtotti, G. Begg and K. Phillips (Eds.) (2009). Fishery Status Reports 2008: status of fish stocks and fisheries managed by the Australian Government. Canberra, Bureau of Rural Sciences & Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics.

  3. Bolch, C.J.S; Elliott, N.G.; Ward, R.D. (1993). Enzyme variation in south-eastern Australian samples of the blue-eye or deepsea trevalla, Hyperoglyphe antarctica.

  4. Robinson, N., Skinner, A., Sethuraman, L., McPartlan, H., Murray, N., Knuckey, I., Smith, D.C., Hindell, J. and Talman, S., 2008. Genetic stock structure of blue-eye trevalla (Hyperoglyphe antarctica) and warehous (Seriolella brama and Seriolella punctata) in south-eastern Australian waters. Marine and Freshwater Research, 59(6), pp.502-514.

  5. Baelde, P. (1995). Assessment of the Blue-eye trevalla fishery and analysis of the impact of trawling. Final Report FRDC project 1991/20. Hobart, Tasmanian Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries.

  6. Hindell, J., P. Hamer, H. McPartlan and S. Robertson (2006). Preliminary assessment of the utility of otolith microchemistry, otolith shape analysis and mitochondrial DNA analyses in stock discrimination of blue-eye trevalla (Hyperoglyphe antarctica) from Australian shelf waters and offshore seamounts and New Zealand. Queenscliff, Final Report, FRDC Project 2003/045. Marine and Freshwater Systems, Primary Industries Research Victoria.

  7. Anon. (2006). Report from the Fishery Assessment Plenary, May 2006 : stock assessments and yield estimates. NIWA, Wellington, Ministry of Fisheries Science Group.

  8. Paulovics, K. and H. Williams (1995). The Australian Blue-eye Fishery. Final Report, FRDC project 1990/12. Hobart, Tasmanian Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries.

References

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    Bluenose warehou - Southeastern Australia, Ocean Trap and Line Fishery (NSW), Australia, Longlines

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