Last updated on 23 July 2018

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Strangomera bentincki

SPECIES NAME(s)

Araucanian herring, Chilean herring, sardine, sardina común (Spanish)

(Oliva 2013) studied the parasite fauna in Araucanian herring and found evidences for the existence of two stocks, in central and southern Chile. But according to morphometry and shape of sagittal otoliths (Curin-Osorio et al. 2012) and genetic studies (Galleguillos et al. 1997) high genetic homogeneity exists along the Chilean coast. Even if more research is recommended this unique population is defended as an assessment unit by the Fisheries Development Institute (Instituto de Fomento Pesquero, IFOP) to perform stock assessments and develop management measures within the central-south Chilean regions (from Coquimbo to Chiloe), covering fishing units V-X (IFOP, 2013b). The majority of catches is used for fishmeal being only 1% of the catch limit for human consumption (MEFT 2017). The species is caught in the same fishery as anchoveta


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Dynamic reference points are used to monitor the status of the stock.
  • The hydroacoustic assessment method makes use of one of the most robust methodologies for assessing the spawning biomass of small pelagic fish with partial spawning. The stock assessment model now considers the biological year and the transitioning period is being carefully monitored until the TAC considers as well the biological year.
  • Fishing mortality is at the target level. Recruitment increased around 50% after a weak period and the spawning stock is 5% above the MSY target.
  • Annual catch limit is modified in an adaptive way during the year in result of updated scientific data and has been in accordance to recommendations.
  • An Anchoveta-Araucanian herring management plan was approved, which establishes lines of action to improve the fishery.
  • A research program to quantify and identify non-target species and discarding was conducted in the V-X regions, and a discarding reduction plan was approved in July 2017 for both artisanal and industrial components of the fishery. Discarding decreased from 4% (2015) to 2% (2016) in both fleets. Several mitigation measures are recommended.
  • The use of onboard cameras to identify and quantify bycatch and discards will be gradually implemented.
  • Several marine reserves are established in the Chilean EEZ. Temporal closures to protect juveniles and the spawning stock are defined according to real-time analysis of the stock.
  • The fishing gear used is not expected to impact the seabed ecosystem.
Weaknesses
  • Management does not integrate the multi-species nature of the fishery that targets both Araucanian herring and anchoveta.
  • An explicit harvest control rule is not in place, but development of harvest strategies considering the mixed nature of this fishery is included in the new management plan. 
  • The stock assessment model does not include environmental information.
  • Spawning stock biomass dropped in 2017, possibly associated to analysis design. 
  • There are signs of under-reported landings and there are no specific studies on the matter. Scientists identify the existing legislation as the main reason to promote discarding events.
  • The South American sea lion and some seabird PET species are identified to interact with both artisanal and industrial fleets.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 8

Future Health:

7.8


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Engage with managers and IFOP to ensure that catch recommendations and scientific reports are publicly available in a timely manner.
  • Support the work of scientists and managers to improve reporting of catches, discards, and bycatch, including expansion of the observer program, as well as defining the scale of interactions with benthic habitats.
  • Monitor implementation of the new discard reduction plan (July 2017).
  • Work with scientists to conduct research on and develop new stock assessment models that take into account environmental variables
  • Support the implementation of the Anchoveta-Araucanian herring management plan (2016), and ensure further revisions of the plan include a specific recovery plan with explicit harvest control rules, considering the mixed nature of this fishery.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Central-South Chile Chile Chile Seine nets

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 18 May 2018

Strengths
  • Dynamic reference points are used to monitor the status of the stock.
  • The hydroacoustic assessment method makes use of one of the most robust methodologies for assessing the spawning biomass of small pelagic fish with partial spawning. The stock assessment model now considers the biological year and the transitioning period is being carefully monitored until the TAC considers as well the biological year.
  • Fishing mortality is at the target level. Recruitment increased around 50% after a weak period and the spawning stock is 5% above the MSY target.
  • Annual catch limit is modified in an adaptive way during the year in result of updated scientific data and has been in accordance to recommendations.
  • An Anchoveta-Araucanian herring management plan was approved, which establishes lines of action to improve the fishery.
  • A research program to quantify and identify non-target species and discarding was conducted in the V-X regions, and a discarding reduction plan was approved in July 2017 for both artisanal and industrial components of the fishery. Discarding decreased from 4% (2015) to 2% (2016) in both fleets. Several mitigation measures are recommended.
  • The use of onboard cameras to identify and quantify bycatch and discards will be gradually implemented.
  • Several marine reserves are established in the Chilean EEZ. Temporal closures to protect juveniles and the spawning stock are defined according to real-time analysis of the stock.
  • The fishing gear used is not expected to impact the seabed ecosystem.
Weaknesses
  • Management does not integrate the multi-species nature of the fishery that targets both Araucanian herring and anchoveta.
  • An explicit harvest control rule is not in place, but development of harvest strategies considering the mixed nature of this fishery is included in the new management plan. 
  • The stock assessment model does not include environmental information.
  • Spawning stock biomass dropped in 2017, possibly associated to analysis design. 
  • There are signs of under-reported landings and there are no specific studies on the matter. Scientists identify the existing legislation as the main reason to promote discarding events.
  • The South American sea lion and some seabird PET species are identified to interact with both artisanal and industrial fleets.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 6 August 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Engage with managers and IFOP to ensure that catch recommendations and scientific reports are publicly available in a timely manner.
  • Support the work of scientists and managers to improve reporting of catches, discards, and bycatch, including expansion of the observer program, as well as defining the scale of interactions with benthic habitats.
  • Monitor implementation of the new discard reduction plan (July 2017).
  • Work with scientists to conduct research on and develop new stock assessment models that take into account environmental variables
  • Support the implementation of the Anchoveta-Araucanian herring management plan (2016), and ensure further revisions of the plan include a specific recovery plan with explicit harvest control rules, considering the mixed nature of this fishery.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 17 May 2018

Fisheries research at the national level is conducted by the Fisheries Development Institute (Instituto de Fomento Pesquero, IFOP).

The direct hydroacoustic surveys have been conducted biannually since 1999 by means of 2 cruises: RECLAS in January (summer; over the recruitment period) and PELACES in May (autumn). As this method does not take into account the stock reproductive dynamics, the assessment of the spawning stock biomass (SSB) of small pelagic fish with partial spawning – as is the case of Araucanian herring – is conducted through the robust ‘Daily Egg Production Method’ (DEPM). Indirect assessment is conducted using a statistical catch-at-age model allowing the incorporation of supplementary information, such as SSB, Catch Per Unit of Effort (CPUE), Fishing mortality (F), catch-by-age and year and recruitment indices. Since 2010, a bi-annual model is performed to include data from the 2 surveys condicted, stock vulnerability due to climatic phenomena (e.g. El Niño) and biological characteristics of the species. Updated assessment reports, based in each of the surveys, are made available upon request (Portal de Transparencia). 1998-2001 landings were amended due to under-reporting signs; there are concerns about this matter and specific studies are recommended to improve input data quality (Basualto and Quiroz 2017).

The September 2017 assessment included improvements recommended by external experts, bringing a better adjustment to the model as well detection of changes in the stock status. Input data included: 1991-June 2017 landings from SERNAPESCA; 1997-June 2017 catch-at-age and weight-at-age data from the Monitoring Program of the Main National Fisheries (Pelagic Fisheries); biomass time series of the acoustic surverys performed in summer (2000-2017) and autumn (2003-2017), from the IFOP scientific research cruises conducted anually; and other relevant information related to the species' life cycle from scientific articles. A new assessment model was used, as agreed in the 4th meeting of CCT-PP. The main difference of applying this new model regards the methodological change in the estimation of the sample sizes of the age compositions and the biological year (July-June) is considered; all input data was corrected accordingly. The transitioning period to consider the biological year in the Total Allowable Catch is mentioned and a proposal is presented (Basualto and Quiroz 2017)

The 2018 updated assessment from IFOP included new information from the RECLAS survey about acoustic biomass, landings and discards at 4% since 2001 and the most recent recruitment estimates (last 5 years). The information used was provided in the report of the second session of the CCT-PP (CCT-PP 2018)

Arteaga et al. (2014) conducted a research to develop a strategic management of the multi-species fishery of Araucanian herring and anchoveta, including the identified elements regarding recruitment and environmental variables, instead of using a mono-specific model to each of the fisheries. Parada et al. (2013) also consider the importance of environmental conditions to understand stock’s trends and the use of a biophysical model. These improvements are to be considered for this multispecies fishery (IFOP, 2015b).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 12 June 2018

Stock assessments of Chilean fisheries are officially conducted by the IFOP, and include a series of catch options, based on different scenarios (IFOP 2016). Recently, Scientific and Technical Committees (‘Comités Científicos e Técnicos’, CCT) were created for the major fisheries' groups in Chilean waters. The Scientific and Technical Committee for the Small Pelagics (Comité Científico Técnico de Pesquerías de Pequeños Pelágicos, CCT-PP), which includes IFOP and university scientists and managers’ representatives (from SUBPESCA), meets regularly and, after analyzing IFOP’s update on stock status and catch projections, makes the catch recommendations to SUBPESCA. Catch recommendations consist on an advised TAC range with a lower limit of 20% of the actual TAC recommendation, according to the most recent fisheries law (Law N° 20.657, SUBPESCA, 2013b). The mechanism for selecting the advised catch option is defined jointly in an ad-hoc approach. A proportion of discards is now included in the TAC like foreseen in the fisheries law (article 7º B) (IFOP 2017)

Based on IFOP’s 2017 stock assessment (Basualto and Quiroz 2017), the CCT-PP has recommended in October 2017 an initial TAC range between 236,544 and 295,680 tonnes for 2018 (average at 266,112 tonnes). This catch option considers an average recruitment level, a 30% risk of not meeting the management objective and 4% of discards (CCT-PP 2017). The CCT-PP has been making adjustments to the stock assessment model used and an alternative model and output results are currently being analyzed and compared to the base model. A technical workshop is recommended to identify the gaps on the species knowledge and priorities (CCT-PP 2018). The stock recruitment and spawning period is closely monitored by IFOP, per region, and the results are published in monthly bulletins (here in Spanish).

According to the second IFOP stock assessment (not publicly available), fishing activity was scarce in the first quarter of 2018 due to a recruitment closure. The initial TAC range was reviewed due to the stock condition, and recommended between 256,800 and 321,000 tonnes (average at 288,900 tonnes), assuming similarly to the first advised TAC an average recruitment level, a 30% risk of not meeting the management objective and 4% of discards (CCT-PP 2018)

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 12 June 2018

Two appreciations of the stock condition are currently available, based respectively in the PELACES survey (May; autumn 2017) and in the RECLAS survey (January; summer 2018). The second survey results review the first the determination of the stock status in late 2017 (Basualto and Quiroz 2017)

  1. Recruitment has been showing inter-annual oscillations but in 2016/2017 increased 56% in regards to 2015/2016, especially of age 0 individuals. Total biomass has been reflecting recruitment's fluctuations and increased 15% in 2016/2017 comparing to 2015/2016. SSB decreased and is 6.3% below BMSY, at 741,410 tonnes; oppositely to total biomass presents a 36% decrease in 2016/2017 in relation to 2015/2016 what can be explained by the fact the model used considers the biological year so the 2017 value represents the beginning of the biological year (August 2016) which is lower due to a weak recruitment in 2016. F increased 24% in respect to 2015/2016 and is at 0.263 in 2016/2017, 4.4% above FMSY (F2016/2017/FMSY=1.04) (Basualto and Quiroz 2017)
  2. Recruitment and reproductive parameters are considered as normal in the first quarter of 2018. Total biomass is estimated at 2,424,330 tonnes, confirming the trends identified in the last reports, with a high proportion of recruits (~50%). The species' distribution shows some differences comparing to last years. Absolute values were not made available in the last report for SSB but only relative numbers. The stock is still considered as in full exploitation, with SSB 5% above BMSY, and overfishing is not occurring, with F at 0.26/y, below FMSY (0.29/y). Catches until April 2nd were at around 130,500 tonnes - 8,2017 tonnes by the industrial fleet and 122,383 tonnes by the artisanal fleet (CCT-PP 2018)

As a small pelagic, Araucanian herring is naturally highly dependent on abiotic conditions (e.g. El Niño) and primary production than on biological variables (Ramírez et al, 2012b; IFOP, 2013b; IFOP, 2015b). During February -March 2017, warm conditions have been recorded and are expected to continue during the rest of the year (CCT-PP 2017). Landings in 2016 were reported at 278,924 tonnes and 2017 confirms the decreasing trend with 259,226 tonnes reported according to the calendar year (CCT-PP 2017). Discards, comparing to total catches, were at 4% in 2015 and at 2% in 2016 (Basualto and Quiroz 2017)

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 25 May 2018

The fisheries management authority in Chile is the Ministry of Economy, Development and Tourism (Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, MEFT) and the Undersecretariat of Fisheries and Aquaculture (Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura, SUBPESCA) (Law 20.657, SUBPESCA, 2013b). The General Law on Fisheries and Aquaculture (Ley General de Pesca y Acuicultura, LGPA) was enacted in 1991 and updated in 2017 (GdC 2017). In 2016, FAO delivered a report, as requested by the Chilean government, to review the LGPA according to national and international laws and best practices; a few recommendations are made to improve the fisheries' sector in the country (FAO 2016).

Anchoveta and Araucanian herring were first assumed as non-target species of the Chilean jack mackerel fishery. But since 2000 they are managed as a distinct fishery which is based on an ad hoc strategy, with TAC reviewed in 3 periods – September, March, June – considering the biological characteristics of the species and when new biological information of the stock status are obtained and analyzed (IFOP, 2015b). TACs are in place since 2001 and are split at 22% for industrial and 78% for artisanal sectors since 2014 (MEFT 2016)(MEFT 2016). Currently, new access to this fishery is prohibited; new fishing licenses cannot be awarded at the moment to the industrial sector (IFOP, 2015b). A Maximum Catch Limit per Vessel Owner regime has been established for the industrial sector as well as an Artisanal Extraction Regime for the artisanal sector of Regions V, VIII and X. Other management measures such a vessel monitoring system (VMS) and mandatory use of onboard cameras to identify and quantify discards is gradually going to be implemented (MEFT 2015)

The Management Committee for the anchoveta and Araucanian herring mixed fishery in regions V-X - composed by SUBPESCA and SERNAPESCA members, artisanal and industrial fishermen and the processing industry (SUBPESCA, 2016a) - developed a management plan, which has been officially adopted (MEFT 2016). The plan sets lines of action to address biological, economic, social and ecological matters. Fixed and mobile temporal closures to protect the spawning stock and juveniles have also been included. Among the actions planned, there is the evaluation of a series of harvest control rules and definition of a robust rule to allow a viable mixed fishery (SUBPESCA 2016). Biological closures are accordingly applied considering the monthly bulletins published by IFOP with information gathered about recruitment and the spawning period. Regulations about quota swaps and distribution through the fishing regions are also made available here

Discarding of the target species of this mixed fishery is not allowed, according to the LGPA. Discards were first addressed in 2001 and then in 2012 with a specific discard policy (law no. 20.625). This legal framework brought room to develop research programs to identify and quantify target and non-target species as well as incidental catches and identify causes of discards, in both artisanal and industrial sectors, using onboard observers and logbooks. A 2-year research program was conducted in this fishery (2014-2016) and results are available in (Vega et al. 2017). A mitigation plan was consequently developed and officially released in July 2017 (MEFT 2017). Several considerations are taken into account, namely exempt some species of the discard ban, review the current legislation and monitor the mitigation measures applied in an adaptative approach. Recommendations and best practices are also included in regard to the target, non-target species and incidental catches (SUBPESCA 2017). The process improved the knowledge about Chilean fisheries and strenghtened the relationship with the institutions and fishermen contributing, expectedly, to the compliance of the measures achieved among stakeholders (San Martín et al. 2016)

For 2018, a preliminary TAC was set at 295,680 (MEFT 2017), in line with the first upper limit provided by the CCT-PP (between 236,544 - 295,680 tonnes) and first IFOP's advice (all released in late 2017). An intermediary TAC was published in May 2018, at 321,000 tonnes (MEFT 2018), coincident again with the upper limit recommended. 

A catch certification scheme started in March 2018 for the artisanal fleet operating between Valparaíso and Los Lagos (MEFT 2018). The fleet operating in this mixed fishery is now obliged to report catches - a joint allocation of 40% of the sum of the quotas has been established (more than 40% of the species with less quota can not be imputed together in 1/1 proportion). The CCT-PP has shown concerns about this measure, which may result in overpassing of the quota of the weaker status species (anchoveta) and increase in discarding (CCT-PP 2018)

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 17 May 2018

It should be noted that this is a mixed fishery where Chilean anchovy and Araucanian herring are fished together. Once the TAC for one of these two species is met, only 20% of incidental catch of that species with no remaining quota is allowed for each subsequent fishing trip.

Total landings for this fishery (artisanal and industrial fleet combined) have been below the set limits since 2010 (with the exception of 2014) (Basualto and Quiroz 2017)​. In 2017, total landings (259,266 tonnes) were below the TAC defined at 370,000 tonnes (66,796 tonnes for the industrial fleet and 236,824 tonnes for the artisanal fleet) (MEFT 2017). Discarding decreased from 4% in 2015 to 2% in 2016 (comparing to total landings). Scientists identify the existing legislation as the main reason to promote discarding events (Basualto and Quiroz 2017)​.

Under-reporting has occurred in the past (measured at 90% in 2008 for anchovy and Araucanian herring) but current levels are unknown. Specific studies on this matter are missing (Basualto and Quiroz 2017)​. 

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 17 August 2017

The purse seine is a non-selective fishing gear in relation to fish size, since the mesh size used is small enough (1/2” or 9/16”) to prevent a mass escape through the net, even of the smallest-sized juvenile specimens of anchovy or common sardine found in summer (even of 5 cm total length).

The interaction of the fishery with PET species is recently known after the analysis of the 2014-2016 research program. Several mitigation measures are recommended in the recently published discarding reduction plan. Even if in different proportions through the type of fleet the following species were identified: South American sea lions Otaria byronia (Least concern; 2015 IUCN redlist), Sooty shearwater Ardenna grisea (Near threatened; 2016 IUCN red list), Pink-footed Shearwater Ardenna creatopus (Vulnerable; 2016 IUCN red list), Peruvian pelican Pelecanus thagus (Near threatened; 2016 IUCN red list) and Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus (Least concern; 2016 IUCN redlist) (SUBPESCA 2017).  

Other Species

Last updated on 17 August 2017

Araucanian herring and Chilean anchovy are harvested as part of a mixed fishery, in the sense that these resources are caught during the same period and area by an artisanal and industrial fleet that fishes for both species using the same fishing gear (which is non-selective).

A discarding reduction plan was recently published. Discarding represents less than 10% of catches in both artisanal and industrial, assuming the existence of spatial as well as inter and intra-annual oscillations (SUBPESCA 2017)

HABITAT

Last updated on 11 April 2016

The fishing gear used in the common sardine fishery is the purse seine, which is assumed to have no impact on the bottom habitat, except when the water depth is less than the height of the seine during the fishing set. Common sardine is distributed at water depths ranging between 50 and 70 m during the day and between 5 and 15 m at night. In Chile, artisanal purse seines can reach dimensions of 30 fathoms depth by 240 fathoms length (approx. 55m x 249m) while industrial purse seines can reach up to 60 × 500 fathoms (approx. 110m x 915m). Also, to protect the first nautical mile fauna, the use of purse seines with nets of mesh size equal to or larger than 38 mm knot to knot and greater than 20 fathoms depth (approx. 37m) is prohibited between the coast and the first nautical mile offshore.

The stock is highly dependent on recruitment which in turn changes with environmental conditions and oceanographic conditions in the important Chilean upwelling ecosystem, like the El Niño and La Niña (Cury et al., 2000; Gatica et al., 2007; Gómez et al., 2012).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 11 Apr 2016

In Chile, there are five marine reserves: La Rinconada in the II Region, Isla Chañaral in the III Region, Isla Choros-Damas in the IV Region, Putemún and Puliinque in the X Region. The main objective of these reserves is to conserve natural banks of northern scallop (Argopecten purpuratus), Chilean oyster (Tiostrea chilensis) and giant mussel (Choromytilus chorus) among others and also to protect aquatic vertebrates such as dolphins and penguins.

Also, since the enactment of the General Law on Fisheries and Aquaculture in 1991, a Reserve Zone for Artisanal Fishing has been established by law. It extends over 5 nautical miles measured from the coast from the I Region to 41º28,6’S (located in the first third of the X Region) and from south of 41°28,6’ up to 5 nm west of the straight baselines. This regulation is also in force around the oceanic islands and in inland waters. This measure, besides justifying the development and promotion of the artisanal fishing activity, prevents the industrial fleet from entering the coastal zone to carry out extractive fishing operations. It has also become a conservation measure for the bulk of fishery resources that spawn near the coast and inland waters. This regulation is directly related to the opportunities of protecting and recovering coastal pelagic resources, being of benefit mainly to anchovy and common sardine.

There are annually temporal closed areas for this fishery to protect spawning and juveniles. The closed areas are mobile and depend on monitoring of the biologic indicators (see Managers’ decisions).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 13 July 2018

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Management objectives for this stock are expressed as target biomass and fishing mortality reference points, BMSY proxy and FMSY proxy adopted in 2015 after internal and external expert revisions (MEFT, 2015a) and allow defining the stock status. A management plan was approved in 2016, it sets lines of action to address biological, economic, social and ecological matters, among which the evaluation of a series of harvest control rules and definition of a robust rule to allow a viable mixed fishery is included (SUBPESCA, 2016), notwithstanding an explicit harvest control rule is still not in place. A bycatch and discard reduction plan was approved and several measures were recommended (MEFT, 2017b; SUBPESCA, 2017b).

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 321 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 321 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 100%.

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Artisanal landings at 321,595 t in 2017 overpassed the partial quota set at 236,824 t whilst industrial landings at 22,673 t were below the partial correspondent quota set at 66,796 t (global TAC defined at 310,000 t) (SUBPESCA, 2018). Discarding is illegal in Chile, is known to occur but was estimated to decrease from 4% in 2015 to 2% in 2016 (comparing to total landings). These events are mainly due to the disparate state of exploitation of anchoveta and Araucanian herring, which are fished together in this mixed fishery, and the establishment of significantly different quotas for each one (IFOP, 2017; CCT-PP, 2018). Nevertheless scientists identify the existing legislation as the main reason to promote discarding events (Basualto and Quiroz 2017)​.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

Absolute values were not made available in the last report for the spawning stock but only relative numbers. The stock is still considered as in full exploitation, with SSB 5% above BMSY (CCT-PP 2018).

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is 7.8.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 0.292 (age-averaged). The F management target is 0.280 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 104%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
  1. There is no explicit harvest control rule that anticipates reducing the target Fishing mortality if biomass drops to the limit reference point so score about the Management strategy was determined qualitatively according to the information available.
  2. Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP) assessment report only presents the stock assessment results, being the advised TAC provided by the Technical Scientific Committee for Small Pelagics as a range, according to the Chilean Fisheries law (CCT-PP 2016). Intra-annual updates of stock assessment, advice and quota are conducted as updated information becomes available from conducted surveys. Based in the RECLAS summer survey, a second advised TAC by the CCT-PP was released in late April 2018 between 256,800 - 321,000 tonnes (average at 288,900 tonnes) (CCT-PP 2018), being the second global TAC set at the upper recommended level, at 321,000 tonnes (MEFT 2018). The average, lower and upper advised catch limits are available above in the graph. The Managers compliance score is based in the upper advised catch limit because the Management strategy score is ≥ 6 (please mouse-over for further details).
  3. The new stock assessment model considers the biological year. Previous calendar year data (fishing season) was corrected accordingly for landings, spawning stock biomass (SSB) and fishing mortality (F) time-series, as well as the 1998-2001 period due to under-reporting in the Chilean jack mackerel fishery (Basualto and Quiroz 2017). However, landings are here presented as to the calendar year to be comparable to the advised and set TAC (defined to the calendar year), as it directly affects the score about Fishers’ compliance. Given the artisanal catches overpassed the partial TAC established, a qualitative score was determined (please mouse-over for further details).
  4. Dynamic reference points of main Chilean fisheries were officially adopted since February 2015 and the values are updated yearly (MEFT, 2015a): the biomass target reference point, BMSY proxy (55% of the virgin spawning stock biomass SSB0) and the limit reference point for biomass Blim is 27.5% of SSB0. Absolute values were not made available in the last available report for SSB but only relative numbers thus a qualitative score was atributed to the Current health. The stock in 2018 is still considered as in full exploitation, with SSB 5% above BMSY (CCT-PP 2018).
  5. Catches for 2018 (until April 2nd) are at around 13,500 tonnes - 8,2017 tonnes by the industrial fleet and 122,383 tonnes by the artisanal fleet and Fishing mortality is estimated to be at 0.26, slightly below FMSY (0.29/y). But these are preliminary thus are not included in the data sheet to compute the score about the Future health of the stock, being it correspondent to 2017 (CCT-PP 2018)

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

Arata, J. and Hucke-Gaete, R., 2005. Pesca incidental de aves y mamíferos: Devastación Marina. Document no. 10. OCEANA. Santiago, Chile. March 2005. 81 pp. (In Spanish.)http://oceana.org/sites/default/files/reports/Pesca_incidental.pdf

Arteaga, M., Ernst, B., Vásquez, S., Gatica, C. 2014. Bases conceptuales para la aplicación de una evaluación de estrategias de manejo (EEM) en sardina común (Strangomera bentincki) y anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) en la zona centro-sur de Chile, Lat. Am. J. Aquat. Res., 42(3): 445-467http://www.scielo.cl/pdf/lajar/v42n3/art06.pdf

BirdLife International (BI), 2012a. Larus dominicanus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3 [Accessed 21 February 2015]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22694329/0

BirdLife International (BI), 2012b. Pelecanus thagus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3 [Accessed 21 February 2015]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22697619/0

BirdLife International (BI), 2012c. Larus pipixcan. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3 [Accessed 21 February 2015]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22694462/0

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Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo (MEFT), 2014c. Decreto Exento nº 952 de 2014 Establece cuotas anuales de captura de unidades de pesquería de recursos pelágicos pequeños que indica sometidas a licencias transables de pesca, año 2015. Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura, 4pp.http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-86508_documento.pdf

Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo (MEFT), 2014d. Decreto Exento nº 3511 de 2014 Establece distribución de las fracciones artesanales de las cuotas anuales de captura, por región, año 2015. Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura, 10pp.http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-86517_documento.pdf

Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo (MEFT), 2014e. Decreto Exento nº 713 de 2014 Establece veda biológica para los recursos sardina común y anchoveta entre la V y XIV regiones por período que indica. Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura, 2pp.http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-85250_documento.pdf

Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo (MEFT), 2014f. Decreto Exento nº 946 de 2014 Autoriza porgrama de investigación del descarte de pesqueiras de anchoveta, sardina común y fauna acompañante. Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura, 3pp.http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-85250_documento.pdf

Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo (MEFT), 2014g. Decreto Exento nº 748 de 2014. Modifica Decreto Exento nº 713 de 2014, del actual Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, respecto de la veda biológica de las espécies sardina común y anchoveta, entre la V y XIV regiones, Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura, 2pp.http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-85291_documento.pdf

Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo (MEFT), 2015a. Decreto Exento nº 291 de 2015. Establece puntos biológicos de referencia para pesquerías administradas com licencias transables de pesca. Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura, 4pp.http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-86859_documento.pdf

Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo (MEFT), 2015b. Decreto Exento nº 943 del 11 Noviembre 2015. Establece cuotas globales anuales de captura de unidades de pesquería de recursos pelágicos pequeños que indica, año 2016. Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura, 4pp.http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-91225_documento.pdf

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SUBPESCA, 2014b. Suspende veda reproductiva complementaria para anchoveta y sardine común, V a VIII regiones, año 2014, 5pp. ño 2014, 5pp.http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-85307_documento.pdf

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SUBPESCA, undated 2. Áreas Marinas Protegidas (AMPS) en Chile (In Spanish.). Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA) website. Accessed 17 March 2014.http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/w3-propertyvalue-50832.html

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References

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