Last updated on 30 September 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Gadus chalcogrammus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Alaska pollock, Walleye pollock, pollock, Минтай.

Two populations of pollock are thought to be present in the western Bering Sea: pollock east of 174ºE, in the Navarinsky area, is likely subject to immigration of pollock from the East Bering Sea, and a West Bering Sea (WBS) population is found in waters to the west of 174ºE including the Karaginsky Bay area (PCA, 2010a). This profile addresses the WBS population.


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • An annual analytical assessment is conducted.
  • Recommended TACs are based on a precautionary harvest control rule.
  • TACs for 2016 were explicitly set in line with scientific advice for the first time in over a decade, dividing the West Bering Sea stock from the Navarinsky stock.
Weaknesses
  • The stock is at low levels and decreasing in size, and recruitment may be being compromised.
  • There is a general shortage of regularly published and complete information on the fishery assessment and management: public access to results of the stock assessments has been improving in recent years, but further improvements are still required, including publication of the full assessment report.
  • Fishing mortality estimates for the stock are not available so the future state of the stock cannot be evaluated.
  • Despite separate annual scientific advice on TACs being provided for the Navarinsky and WBS stocks, formal TACs and officially reported catches were provided for the entire western Bering Sea (zone 61.01), covering the Navarinsky stock and a part of the WBS stock, from 2001 to 2015, leading to overfishing of the WBS stock.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

6.6

Future Health:

< 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS
  • Ensure separate catch reporting for West Bering Sea (WBS) and Navarinsky stocks in the western Bering Sea fisheries zone including sub-zones where specific TACs are set or recommended.
  • Develop and implement a stock rebuilding plan with long-term objectives for the WBS stock over entire area of its distribution.
  • Start a fishery improvement project to address sustainability issues in this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.
RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Ask regulators to ensure separate catch reporting for the West Bering Sea (WBS) and Navarinsky stocks in the western Bering Sea fisheries zone, including sub-zones, where specific TACs are set or recommended.
  • Ask regulators and their fisheries institutes to develop and implement a stock rebuilding plan with long-term objectives for WBS stock over entire area of its distribution.
  • Request that your supply chain join SFP’s Russian Far East Whitefish Supply Chain Roundtable.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • Russia Bering Sea Pollock:

    Withdrawn

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
W Bering Sea Russia W of 174ºE Russian Federation Danish seines
Midwater trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 10 February 2016

Strengths
  • An annual analytical assessment is conducted.
  • Recommended TACs are based on a precautionary harvest control rule.
  • TACs for 2016 were explicitly set in line with scientific advice for the first time in over a decade, dividing the West Bering Sea stock from the Navarinsky stock.
Weaknesses
  • The stock is at low levels and decreasing in size, and recruitment may be being compromised.
  • There is a general shortage of regularly published and complete information on the fishery assessment and management: public access to results of the stock assessments has been improving in recent years, but further improvements are still required, including publication of the full assessment report.
  • Fishing mortality estimates for the stock are not available so the future state of the stock cannot be evaluated.
  • Despite separate annual scientific advice on TACs being provided for the Navarinsky and WBS stocks, formal TACs and officially reported catches were provided for the entire western Bering Sea (zone 61.01), covering the Navarinsky stock and a part of the WBS stock, from 2001 to 2015, leading to overfishing of the WBS stock.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 30 September 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators
  • Ensure separate catch reporting for West Bering Sea (WBS) and Navarinsky stocks in the western Bering Sea fisheries zone including sub-zones where specific TACs are set or recommended.
  • Develop and implement a stock rebuilding plan with long-term objectives for the WBS stock over entire area of its distribution.
  • Start a fishery improvement project to address sustainability issues in this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.
Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Ask regulators to ensure separate catch reporting for the West Bering Sea (WBS) and Navarinsky stocks in the western Bering Sea fisheries zone, including sub-zones, where specific TACs are set or recommended.
  • Ask regulators and their fisheries institutes to develop and implement a stock rebuilding plan with long-term objectives for WBS stock over entire area of its distribution.
  • Request that your supply chain join SFP’s Russian Far East Whitefish Supply Chain Roundtable.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 10 February 2016

The West Bering Sea (WBS) stock has been accepted recently as a separate biological stock covering a portion of area 61.01 (the western Bering Sea) to the west of 174ºE and the adjacent Karagin Bay (Karaginsky) area.

A statistical age-structured assessment model is used (“Synthesis”), using commercial catch and sampling data and data from at least two direct surveys from previous years, whose regularity is limited by climatic conditions (PCA, 2010a). An ichthyoplankton survey has not been conducted since 2002 due to ice cover and lack of funding. A bottom trawl survey conducted since 1960 is used to tune the model despite it being focused on demersal species (KamchatNIRO, 2015). Uncertainty in the assessments is considered to be moderate, indicating “sufficient credibility” (PCA, 2010a). The 2014 survey in the Karaginsky zone did not follow the same procedure as in previous years and the unusually high survey results were not considered by assessors. Overall, the quality of data from the Karaginsky subzone used in the 2015 assessment was considered to be satisfactory, but from the WBS to be of low quality (KamchatNIRO, 2015). Full stock assessment reports are not regularly made public, only assessment summaries.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 28 January 2016

Advice is provided annually by scientists at Russia’s Pacific TINRO fisheries research center, followed by input from the central VNIRO scientific council, as catch recommendations based on latest survey data. Forecasts are updated throughout the fishing season as environmental factors and fishing developments are further mapped (PCA, 2010a). TINRO also coordinates research on environmental impacts.

Projections conducted as part of the 2015 assessment projected the 2016 SSB as 190.5 thousand tons, a further reduction on the 2014 estimate of 208.1 thousand tons (KamchatNIRO, 2015). Given the decline in the stock and the risk that future recruitment may be affected, recommended TACs, following the harvest control rule, have been successively reduced, with 11.5 thousand tons recommended for 2015, and just 7.4 thousand tons in 2016 – as in previous years, the entire TAC is recommended to be taken in the Karaginsky sub-zone and a zero TAC is recommended for WBS zone to the west of 174ºE. However, even in the absence of fishing, the assessment notes that a small risk is present of the stock becoming depleted (KamchatNIRO, 2015).

Reference Points

Last updated on 28 Jan 2016

Reference points appeared to be re-estimated annually, but in the 2013 to 2015 assessments, reference points have remained as (KamchatNIRO, 2013; 2014; 2015):

Ftrp=Fmed=0.126
Flim=0.343

Btrp=SSBFtrp=362,900 tons
Blim=accounting for uncertainty in Bmin=145,900 tons.

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 28 January 2016

The 2015 stock assessment summary estimated the 2014 spawning stock at 208.1 thousand tons (KamchatNIRO, 2015), a decrease on recent years, but still between the target (362,900 tons) and limit (145,600 tons) reference points (KamchatNIRO, 2015), and close to levels which preceded the closure of the main target fishery in 2002 (KamchatNIRO, 2014). The predominant age groups recorded in 2014 catches were ages 5 to 7, with some age 2 fish also present. The lack of strong year classes since 2006 suggests the stock will continue to decline in the next few years (KamchatNIRO, 2015).

The results of the 2008 assessment indicated the spawning stock was in a healthy state at 958,000 tons, well above its then target reference point of 486,700 tons. This status was revised in 2012: according to the 2012 evaluation, which recalculated the reference points, the stock was apparently overfished in recent years, although it was predicted that the spawning biomass would reach 468.2 thousand tons in 2013, between its limit and target reference points (KamchatNIRO, 2012b).

A target fishing mortality is determined but current fishing mortality series are not reported in the summary assessment document published; however, systematic overfishing is reported in the West Bering Sea area (KamchatNIRO, 2015).

Trends

Last updated on 28 Jan 2016

During the 1970s and 80s, catches including those in the Karaginsky subzone, averaged 273,000 tons, peaking at 549,000 tons in 1976. The late 1990s saw a decrease due to depletion of the stock caused by natural factors and by overharvesting, including poaching, and the target fishery was closed from 2002 to 2006 (PCA, 2010a). The stock showed signs of increase during the closure but recent assessments indicate that it then decreased again (KamchatNIRO, 2013; 2014; 2015) and the stock has remained overfished in recent years. Catches have averaged 70,000 tons in the last 20 years and saw a maximum of 180,000 tons (KamchatNIRO, 2015).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 28 January 2016

Previous descriptions of the management process state that scientific advice is successively considered by several bodies in the TAC-setting process, including stakeholders. Harvest monitoring and control and gear types in use are also reportedly collaboratively discussed with research institutions (PCA, 2010a) and proposals may also be submitted by fishers (PCA, 2010c). A harvest control rule is apparently in place which reduces the fishing mortality to 10% of the target fishing mortality (F) in depleted states of the stock.

From a scientific perspective, the stock is assessed separately from the Navarinsky stock and although a dividing line separating the TAC area of the WBS population from the Navarinsky population was previously defined, it ceased to be explicitly considered from 2001 to 2015, and a combined TAC was formally set for both western Bering Sea stocks combined, resulting in the current overfished state of the WBS “proper” stock (PCA, 2010a). In a break from that pattern, the TAC for 2016 was officially set in line with scientific advice, with the entirety of the West Bering Sea area TAC to be taken from the Navarinsky stock. However, as of January 2016, catch statistics (up to September 2015) remained jointly reported for the two areas.

TACs are generally defined by management area, but the 2016 TAC of 455,800 tons is explicitly to be taken to the east of 174ºE. Thus the total catch limit for the stock is the TAC set for the Karaginsky subzone, of 7,400 tons (Ministry of Agriculture, 2015), formally in line with scientific advice for the first time in several years.
The pattern in the period from 2013 to 2015 (from which advice started to be published online) was a TAC for Karaginsky set in line with the advice for that subzone, but a single TAC formally set for the entire western Bering Sea fishing zone at between 393,000 and 430,000 tons, allowing for the 13,000 to 0 tons advised to be taken west of 174ºE to be exceeded (Ministry of Agriculture, 2012; 2013; 2014).

A second seasonal closure from 1 September to 31 December was advised by scientists to protect the declining WBS stock, but the proposal is still awaiting adoption.

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 28 Jan 2016

The closure of the target fishery from 2002 to 2006, with only a 10,000 ton bycatch quota attributed, had a positive effect on stock status. Simultaneously the minimum commercial landing size was increased from 32 to 37 cm. While the stock recovered, fishing was “mainly limited to inshore Danish seine operations” (PCA, 2010a). Similar measures are now again in place given the stock’s new decline, with the harvest control rule in the rebuilding phase limiting 2016 recommended catches to 7.4 thousand tons (KamchatNIRO, 2015). It was anticipated that an additional closed season in the WBS fishing zone, to the west of 174° E, would be introduced by the end of 2013, thus providing additional protection against overfishing of the WBS stock in the zone but it is unclear if this has occurred.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 28 January 2016

The Federal Security Service (FSB) enforces laws in Russia’s EEZ and territorial seas and Government Marine Inspectors monitor and control fishing activities. Vessels must complete Daily Vessel Reports and larger vessels must carry a monitoring system (VMS) (PCA, 2012c). From January 2009, it is mandatory that all catches of marine bioresources, including pollock, from the Russian EEZ and adjacent shelf areas be taken to national marine ports for processing for domestic markets and export. The measure reportedly works as an effective addition to other measures aimed at the eradication of IUU fishing, but uncertainty remains as to the degree of compliance in the fishery.

Within the combined Navarinsky/WBS TACs for the Western Bering Sea, the WBS stock is systematically overfished (KamchatNIRO, 2013). Surveillance and inspections are conducted and report strong compliance with fishing regulations in general. Of 769 inspections in 2009, 18 resulted in penalties for breach of regulations (PCA, 2010c). A national plan to reduce illegal, unreported and unregulated IUU) fishing was to be implemented in 2010 (PCA, 2010c).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 28 January 2016

Impacts on endangered, protected and threatened (ETP) species are thought to be low (PCA, 2010b). Steller sea lion and Northern fur seal populations have reportedly been stable (PCA, 2010a), although the number of fur seal pups was down in 2014 (KamchatNIRO, 2015) and the global panmictic population is classified as Vulnerable and decreasing on the IUCN Red List (Gelatt et al, 2015). The Red List classifies Steller Sea lion as Endangered, and notes it is persistently decreasing in the Commander Islands (Gelatt & Lowry, 2012). Harvesting of rare and endangered species listed in the Russian Red Book is prohibited (PCA, 2010a) and closed areas are declared around rookeries of otters, Steller sea-lions and seals (PCA, 2010c); however harvesting of fur seals is permitted, under a TAC set based on population trends (KamchatNIRO, 2015).

Other Species

Last updated on 28 January 2016

Bycatch limits for allowed species are set by regulation (PCA, 2010a). Pelagic trawl must have a mesh insert for improving selectivity of the catch. Bycatch species include cod, herring, Pacific and Greenland halibut, chinook and coho salmon and Komandor squid. Bycatch rates are low and none of these is noted to be depleted, with the exception of herring, which is not being affected by bycatch rates in the pollock fishery (PCA, 2010b). The 2015 assessment summary (KamchatNIRO, 2015) indicates a similar state for these bycatch species in the region, although the quality of the assessments varies.

HABITAT

Last updated on 28 January 2016

Environmental impacts of the fishery are reported to be low, as it is historically conducted mainly with pelagic trawl, with Danish seine used in coastal areas, and regulations are in place to ensure impacts on benthic habitats are minimized (PCA, 2010b). Bottom trawling and other non-selective gear are prohibited in the fishery (PCA, 2010c).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 28 Jan 2016

An internationally agreed closed area is in place in central Bering Sea since 1993 (PCA, 2010a). The target fishery in the Karaginsky sub-area was closed from 2002 to 2006 due to low abundance. Since re-opening, a closure has been enforced during spawning season, from March 1st to April 30th. A spawning closure is also in place from March 1st to May 15th in the northern part of the sea. Shallow water (<300 m) areas are closed to limit capture of juveniles, many coastal zones being closed to all types of fishing (PCA, 2010a), and several marine reserves are declared, and fishing banned, around marine mammal rookeries (PCA, 2010c).

Russia W of 174ºE
Russian Federation
Midwater trawls

Environmental impacts of the fishery due to pelagic trawl are reported to be low (PCA, 2010b).

FishSource Scores

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

A harvest control rule is used for estimating advised catch limits (KamchatNIRO, 2014), but it is unclear if these have been formally implemented by management in recent years, as up to 2015, a single TAC appeared to be set for both stocks in the West Bering Sea. In 2016 this situation changed with explicit separate TACs, but it remains to be seen if this is a policy change and if catch data collection will follow suit.

As calculated for 2016 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 7.40 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 7.40 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 100%.

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

There remains uncertainty about the degree of compliance.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is 6.6.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the SSBtrp.

The SSB is 208 ('000 t). The SSBtrp is 363 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/SSBtrp for this index is 57.3%.

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is < 6.

The stock has declined sharply to a level where recruitment is thought to be impaired (KamchatNIRO, 2013) and has been undergoing systematic overfishing in the West Bering Sea (KamchatNIRO, 2015) due to the setting of a single TAC covering both this stock and the Navarinsky stock for over a decade.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
  1. Set TACs and catch statistics have in the past decade been not been explicitly split by governmental fishery regulatory bodies between the WBS stock and the Navarinsky stock but rather set for the entire western Bering Sea area, covering both. For this reason, catch data presented for years 2009 to 2012 is for Karaginsky only, as is TAC data for 2010 and 2012-2015. For 2016, TACs were explicitly divided according to advice and cover the entire stock. Scores #1 and #3 are determined qualitatively due to this situation.
  2. Advised TACs are divided by sub-areas and stocks, and the 2013 value is thus not comparable with set TACs and reported catches. For 2014 and 2015 however, the advised TAC for the area west of 174ºE was zero, with catches only advised in Karaginsky. For 2016, both the advised and set TACs represent the entire stock, with the entirety of catches to be taken in Karaginsky.
  3. Current fishing mortality estimates are not available because TACs and catches officially reported for the Bering Sea fishing zone are not reported by stocks. Therefore score #5 was also determined qualitatively.

Download Source Data

Registered users can download the original data file for calculating the scores after logging in. If you wish, you can Register now.

Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

Russia Bering Sea Pollock

STATUS

Withdrawn on 20 December 2011

SCORES

Certification Type:

Sources

Credits
  1. Fisheries Monitoring and Communications Centre (CFMC), 2013. Quotas of living aquatic resources [via Google translate]. Accessed on 15 Jan 2013.http://www.cfmc.ru/index.php/statistics/sources
  2. Gelatt, T. & Lowry, L. 2012. Eumetopias jubatus ssp. jubatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T17367725A17367744. (Accessed online on January 25, 2016.)http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T17367725A17367744.en
  3. Gelatt, T., Ream, R. & Johnson, D. 2015. Callorhinus ursinus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T3590A45224953. (Accessed online on January 25, 2016.)http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T3590A45224953.en
  4. KamchatNIRO, 2010. Kamchatka Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography. Results of the Bering Sea pollock survey as of 31.07.2010.http://www.fishkamchatka.ru/?cont=long&id=24175&year=2010&today=02&month=08&PHPSESSID=sazonqio
  5. KamchatNIRO, 2011. Kamchatka Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography. Results of the Bering Sea pollock survey as of 30.06.2011.http://niro.zebra41.ru/obzory_promysla/mintaevaya_putina/beringovomorskaya_mintaevaya_ekspediciya/itogi_bme_po_sostoyaniyu_na_30062011_g/
  6. KamchatNIRO, 2012a. Overview of the situation in the fishing waters off Kamchatka in February 2012.http://niro.zebra41.ru/obzory_promysla/obzory_promysla4/
  7. KamchatNIRO, 2012b. TAC-2013 Public Hearings documents (13 March 2012).http://old.fishkamchatka.ru/?cont=long&id=35086&year=2
  8. KamchatNIRO, 2013. TAC-2014 Public Hearings documents (14 February 2013).http://old.fishkamchatka.ru/?cont=long&id=41828&year=2013&today=14&month=02
  9. KamchatNIRO, 2014. TAC-2015 Public Hearings documents (12 March 2014).http://old.fishkamchatka.ru/?cont=long&id=48431&year=2014&today=12&month=03
  10. KamchatNIRO, 2015. TAC-2016 Public Hearings documents (21 April 2015).http://old.fishkamchatka.ru/?cont=long&id=53426&year=2015&today=21&month=04
  11. Ministry of Agriculture, 2012. Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation on October 31, 2012 N 571 "On approval of the total allowable catch of marine biological resources in the inland waters of the Russian Federation as well as in the territorial sea of the Russian Federation, on the continental shelf of the Russian Federation and in the exclusive economic zone of the Russian Federation, in the Azov and the Caspian Sea in 2013".http://m.garant.ru/hotlaw/federal/431885/
  12. Ministry of Agriculture, 2013. Order N 403 of 11 Nov 2013. On approval of TACs of aquatic biological resources for 2014. http://fishnews.ru/rubric/ofitsialno/7497
  13. Ministry of Agriculture, 2014. Order of Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation of 21.10.2014 N 399 (ed. By 26.12.2014) "On approval of the total allowable catch of aquatic biological resources in the inland waters of the Russian Federation, the territorial sea of the Russian Federation, on the continental shelf of the Russian Federation and in the exclusive economic zone of the Russian Federation in the Sea of Azov and the Caspian Sea in 2015. "http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_173757/
  14. Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation. Order on October 7, 2015; N 465. Approval of the total allowable catch; aquatic biological resources in inland sea waters of the Russian Federation and the Russian territorial sea, on the Russian continental shelf and the exclusive economic zone of the Russian Federation, in the Azov and Caspian Sea for 2016 (in Russian; accessed online December 25, 2015).http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=187365;fld=134;dst=1000000001,0;rnd=0.009773221798241138
  15. Russian Pollock Catchers Association (PCA), 2010a. Russian Pollock Catchers Association Information Submission for MSC Certification Assessment of West Bering Sea. Principle 1 – Conservation of Target Stocks.https://fisheries.msc.org/en/fisheries/russia-bering-sea-pollock/@@assessments
  16. Russian Pollock Catchers Association (PCA), 2010b. Russian Pollock Catchers Association Information Submission for MSC Certification Assessment of West Bering Sea. Principle 2 – Maintenance of Ecosystem Integrity.https://fisheries.msc.org/en/fisheries/russia-bering-sea-pollock/@@assessments
  17. Russian Pollock Catchers Association (PCA), 2010c. Russian Pollock Catchers Association Information Submission for MSC Certification Assessment of West Bering Sea. Principle 3 – Management Institutions.https://fisheries.msc.org/en/fisheries/russia-bering-sea-pollock/@@assessments
  18. Russian Pollock Catchers Association (PCA), 2012. Results of pollock fishery in the 2012 season.http://pollock.ru/assets/files/promisel/otchet_2012.pdf
  19. Statistical Bulletin, 2011. Catches of fish and other biological aquatic resources, and products made from them in 2011 [via Google Translate]. http://fish.gov.ru/activities/Documents/f407-0_4%D0%BA%D0%B2_2010.pdf
  20. Statistical Bulletin, 2012. Catches of fish and other biological aquatic resources, and products made from them in 2012. [via Google Translate]. http://fish.gov.ru/activities/Documents/f407-0%20%D1%8F%D0%BD%D0%B2%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%8C%20%D0%B4%D0%B5%D0%BA%D0%B0%D0%B1%D1%80%D1%8C.pdf
  21. Statistical Bulletin, 2014. Russian Federation Information: fish catches, extraction of other aquatic resources and fish production; January-December 2014 (cumulative). (in Russian; accessed online January 24, 2016).http://fish.gov.ru/activities/Documents/f407-0.pdf
  22. TINRO, 2010. Methods of assessing the status of stocks of pollock.http://www.tinro-center.ru/component/content/?start=10
References

    Comments

    This tab will disappear in 5 seconds.

    Comments on:

    Alaska pollock - W Bering Sea, Russia W of 174ºE, Russian Federation, Midwater trawls

    comments powered by Disqus