Last updated on 31 August 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Lethrinus spp.

SPECIES NAME(s)

Emperor fishes nei (multispecies)

Emperor fishes are not separated in catch records so are considered here in a multi-species profile for the genus Lethrinus spp. This profile may undergo restructuring in the future as new information comes to light. The map below regards the distribution within Indonesian waters in Aru, Arafura and East Timor Seas (FMA 718).


ANALYSIS

Strengths

A Regional Plan of Action to Promote Responsible Fishing Practices including Combating illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) Fishing in the Arafura-Timor Seas, in order to manage the fishing capacity, combat IUU and to conserve fisheries resources and their environment, was implemented in 2007. There are fishing zones to protect small scale fisheries and the fishing resources, 41 established marine conservation areas and furthermore to implement.

Weaknesses

No biological or fishing mortality data is known to exist. No stock assessment has been performed and reference points are not determined. No specific management measures or strategy are known to exist for the fishery. Impacts on the ecosystem are not known. Non-compliance issues are known to exist in the region but no concrete data is available for the fishery.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

NOT YET SCORED

Managers Compliance:

NOT YET SCORED

Fishers Compliance:

NOT YET SCORED

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

NOT YET SCORED

Future Health:

NOT YET SCORED


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Aru, Arafura and East Timor Seas Indonesia Bottom-set longlines
Handlines hand operated
Traps

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Strengths
Aru, Arafura and East Timor Seas
Indonesia
Handlines hand operated

A Regional Plan of Action to Promote Responsible Fishing Practices including Combating illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) Fishing in the Arafura-Timor Seas, in order to manage the fishing capacity, combat IUU and to conserve fisheries resources and their environment, was implemented in 2007. There are fishing zones to protect small scale fisheries and the fishing resources, 41 established marine conservation areas and furthermore to implement.

Weaknesses
Aru, Arafura and East Timor Seas
Indonesia
Handlines hand operated

No biological or fishing mortality data is known to exist. No stock assessment has been performed and reference points are not determined. No specific management measures or strategy are known to exist for the fishery. Impacts on the ecosystem are not known. Non-compliance issues are known to exist in the region but no concrete data is available for the fishery.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT
Aru, Arafura and East Timor Seas
Indonesia
Handlines hand operated

No stock assessment has been performed.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE
Aru, Arafura and East Timor Seas
Indonesia
Handlines hand operated

No scientific advice is publicly available.

Reference Points

No reference points are known to exist.

CURRENT STATUS
Aru, Arafura and East Timor Seas
Indonesia
Handlines hand operated

The status of the stock is unknown.

Trends

Landings are at the national and do not distinguish species of ‘Emperors’ which include Lethrinus spp (MMAF, 2012). Between 2001-2003 oscillated around 30,000 tons, in 2004 reduced to 22,550 tons and since then have been increasing (MMAF, 2012). No abundance or fishing mortality time-series are known to exist for the stock.

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT
Aru, Arafura and East Timor Seas
Indonesia
Handlines hand operated

The Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, created in 1999, brought some improvement to fisheries’ management in Indonesia. 
No specific management measures or strategy are known to exist for the fishery.

Recovery Plans

No recovery plan is known to be in place.

COMPLIANCE
Aru, Arafura and East Timor Seas
Indonesia
Handlines hand operated

There were non-compliance issues in the region, all in the form of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing practices (Resosudarmo et al., 2009; Varkey et al., 2010) but no concrete data is available for the fishery. There are furthermore inconsistencies at the administrative level and foreign vessels also contribute to this problem in the Arafura Sea (Resosudarmo et al., 2009). A Regional Plan of Action (RPOA) to Promote Responsible Fishing Practices including Combating IUU Fishing in the Arafura-Timor Seas was implemented in 2007 in order to manage the fishing capacity, combat IUU fishing and to conserve fisheries resources and their environment (Appendix D of APFC, 2007; Kusuma, 2014).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species
Aru, Arafura and East Timor Seas
Indonesia
Handlines hand operated

The effects of the fishery on protected, endangered or threatened species in Indonesia are at present unknown.

Other Species
Aru, Arafura and East Timor Seas
Indonesia
Handlines hand operated

Non-target species caught in the fishery are not identified or quantified.

HABITAT
Aru, Arafura and East Timor Seas
Indonesia
Handlines hand operated

No studies to determine the effects of the fishery on the seabed ecosystem are known to exist.

Marine Reserves

There are three fishing zones for small scale fisheries in the Arafura Sea coastal areas (FMA 718), established by the Agriculture Ministerial Decree No. 392/1999 to restrict access to fishing resources, to protect the spawning grounds and juveniles from overfishing (Resosudarmo et al., 2009). 
There are 41 marine conservation areas (in forms of marine national parks, marine tourism parks, marine reserves and marine sanctuaries) in Indonesia by 2007, totaling 5.4 million hectares (MMAF, 2007). Almost 90% of it located in eastern part of Indonesia. Papua wide contributes to more than 37% of total marine conservation areas in Indonesia, followed by Southeast Sulawesi Province (29%) and South Sulawesi (10%). In addition to that, Indonesia’s Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Mr. Freddy Numberi, announced in May 2007 the establishment of a marine reserve encompassing 900,000 hectares of the Indonesian archipelago of Raja Ampat off the north-western tip of West Papua (Larsen et al., 2011; Setyawati, 2014). The Banda Sea is identified as an ecoregion where biodiversity surveys lack (Yunia, 2009).

FishSource Scores

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

STOCK HEALTH:

No data available for biomass
No data available for biomass
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
No data available for management quality
No data available for management quality
No data available for stock status
No data available for stock status

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

Kusuma, I. 2014. Cooperation in the Southeast Asia Regional Plan of Action to Promote Responsible Fishing Practices including Combating IUU Fishing in the Region (RPOA-IUU), The 4th Global Fisheries Enforcement Training, Workshop Costa Rica, 17-21 February 2014, 19pp.http://www.imcsnet.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Ida-Kusuma-Presentation.pdf

Larsen, S.N., Leisher, C., Mangubhai, S., Muljadi, A., Tapilatu, R. 2011. Report on a Coastal rural appraisal in Raja Ampat Regency, West Papua, Indonesia, The Nature Conservancy, Indonesia Marine Program, Asia Pacific Conservation Region Report No. 3/11, 32pp.http://www.nature.org/science-in-action/science-features/17-indonesia-raja-ampat.pdf

Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF), 2012. Capture Fisheries Statistics of Indonesia, 2011. Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries. Directorate General of Capture Fisheries. Jakarta. Vol. 12, No. 1. 182 pp. http://statistik.kkp.go.id/index.php/arsip/file/58/statistik-pt-tahun-2011.pdf/

Resosudarmo, B. P., Napitupulu, L., Campbell, D. 2009. Illegal fishing in the Arafura Sea, pp.178-200 In Resosudarmo, B. P. and Jotzo, F. (Eds) Working with Nature against Poverty: Development, Resources and the Environment in Eastern Indonesia, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 384pp. http://gdnet09.pbworks.com/f/Budy%2BResosudarmo_Paper_B.5.pdf

Setyawati 2014. Managing Marine Protected Areas in Indonesia, J. Mar. Biol. Ass. India, 56 (1): 13-18. http://mbai.org.in/uploads/manuscripts/56-1art2378123138.pdf

Varkey, D. A., Ainsworth, C. H, Pitcher, T.J., Goram, Y., Sumaila, R. 2010. Illegal, unreported and unregulated fisheries catch in Raja Ampat Regency, Eastern Indonesia. Marine Policy 34(2): 228–236 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X09000980

Yunia, C. 2009. Indonesia – Country status report on MPAs network, Deputy Director of Wetlands, Marine Conservation and Essential Ecosystem, Ministry of Forestry Indonesia, 25pp. http://earw.icriforum.org/PDF/5-2.Indonesia_(Cherryta_Yunia)_5th_ICRI_EARW.pdf

References

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