Last updated on 3 August 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Argopecten purpuratus

SPECIES NAME(s)

Peruvian calico scallop, Chilean-Peruvian Scallop, Concha de abanico, Ostión

COMMON NAMES

Concha de Abanico

Main beds along the Peruvian coast: bays of ‘Mejillones del Sur’, ‘La Rinconada’, ‘Sechura’ and ‘Independencia’ (Avendaño and Cantillánez 2008; Argüelles et al. 2011).


ANALYSIS

Strengths

In 2011 a technical-scientific protocol was defined by IMARPE to properly assess populations. A minimum size limit of 65 mm is defined and (sequential) temporary moratoriums are established. The resource is harvested by hand, so the impact on the ecosystem is considered as minimal. Bycatch is considered as inexistent. The marine reserve ‘La Rinconada’ was implemented to protect Peruvian calico scallop; other areas are protected.

Weaknesses

No formal stock assessments or reference points for the stock; only biomass estimates are available from the major beds. The overall stock status is unknown. The success of moratoriums is not clear; there are exceptions of seeds’ harvest for aquaculture (grow-out seeds). There are doubts if biomass trends result from restocking efforts or “natural recovery”. No survey strategy is defined to assess all beds at the national level. The management system in place and enforcement of regulations are weak. No control of fishing effort. The resource is highly vulnerable to environmental conditions (El Niño) and exploitation.

Options

The enforcement and monitoring system should be improved. Harvest of seeds for aquaculture or restocking purposes should be maintained at optimum sustainable levels. Biological reference points should be developed. Some scientific studies recommend the adaptation of the minimum size limit. There is a unique stock along the Peruvian coast and it has been demonstrated the importance of a national strategy to manage scallop beds along the Peruvian coast and relation among beds.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

< 6

Managers Compliance:

< 6

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

< 6

Future Health:

< 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Start a fishery improvement project to address sustainability issues in this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.
2. Communicate to fishery managers that there are sustainability issues in this fishery that may be affecting the sale of products, and request that they comprehensively evaluate and address such issues.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Encourage your supply chain to start a fishery improvement project. For advice on starting a FIP see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.
2. Work with other suppliers and buyers on a pre-competitive basis to start a supplier roundtable to review improvement needs in this and other similar fisheries, catalyze fishery improvement projects, and monitor progress in improvement efforts.


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
SE Pacific Chile Chile Miscellaneous
Peru Peru Miscellaneous

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 29 August 2016

Strengths
Peru

Last updated on 29 August 2016

In 2011 a technical-scientific protocol was defined by IMARPE to properly assess populations. A minimum size limit of 65 mm is defined and (sequential) temporary moratoriums are established. The resource is harvested by hand, so the impact on the ecosystem is considered as minimal. Bycatch is considered as inexistent. The marine reserve ‘La Rinconada’ was implemented to protect Peruvian calico scallop; other areas are protected.

Weaknesses
Peru

Last updated on 29 August 2016

No formal stock assessments or reference points for the stock; only biomass estimates are available from the major beds. The overall stock status is unknown. The success of moratoriums is not clear; there are exceptions of seeds’ harvest for aquaculture (grow-out seeds). There are doubts if biomass trends result from restocking efforts or “natural recovery”. No survey strategy is defined to assess all beds at the national level. The management system in place and enforcement of regulations are weak. No control of fishing effort. The resource is highly vulnerable to environmental conditions (El Niño) and exploitation.

Options
Peru

Last updated on 29 August 2016

The enforcement and monitoring system should be improved. Harvest of seeds for aquaculture or restocking purposes should be maintained at optimum sustainable levels. Biological reference points should be developed. Some scientific studies recommend the adaptation of the minimum size limit. There is a unique stock along the Peruvian coast and it has been demonstrated the importance of a national strategy to manage scallop beds along the Peruvian coast and relation among beds.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 28 July 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Start a fishery improvement project to address sustainability issues in this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.
2. Communicate to fishery managers that there are sustainability issues in this fishery that may be affecting the sale of products, and request that they comprehensively evaluate and address such issues.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Encourage your supply chain to start a fishery improvement project. For advice on starting a FIP see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs at http://www.sustainablefish.org/publications/2014/04/30/the-seafood-industry-guide-to-fips.
2. Work with other suppliers and buyers on a pre-competitive basis to start a supplier roundtable to review improvement needs in this and other similar fisheries, catalyze fishery improvement projects, and monitor progress in improvement efforts.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT
Peru

Last updated on 29 August 2016

No formal stock assessments are conducted. Biomass is estimated in the major bays using a “sweep area method” (Brown 2011). Last biomass evaluations were conducted in 2008 assessment in ‘Isla Lobos de Tierra’, in 2010 at ‘Sechura’ Bay (IMARPE 2010) and in 2012 at ‘Independencia’ Bay (Galindo et al. 2013). No survey strategy is defined to assess all beds at the national level but in 2011 a technical-scientific protocol was defined by IMARPE to properly assess populations (Argüelles et al. 2011).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE
Peru

Last updated on 3 August 2016

Scientific advice is provided by the Peruvian Sea Institute (IMARPE). The biomass in the major bays is estimated annually by IMARPE, although detailed information on the evaluations is not publicly available. There may be temporary moratoriums when scallop abundance is considered to be very low (Mendo et al. 2008).
A management plan, including all stakeholders in the area, was proposed by Mendo (undated) for ‘Isla Lobos de Tierra’. The same author also recommends the revision of the minimum landing size to 90 mm. Natural beds are subject to extraction for aquaculture (grow-out for seeds or juveniles) so the management is essential to guarantee the sustainability of the resource (Mendo, undated). Wolff and Mendo (2000) demonstrated the importance of a national strategy to manage scallop beds along the Peruvian coast and relation among beds.

Reference Points

Last updated on 03 Aug 2016

No reference points have been defined yet.

CURRENT STATUS
Peru

Last updated on 29 August 2016

The current stock status of Peruvian calico scallop in Perú Peru is unknown. Although the stock has been categorized as fully fished in the past, this information is old (1996). Total landings decreased to 39,680 tons in 2012 at the national level (Mendo et al. 2008; Cacho et al. 2013).

Trends

Last updated on 29 Aug 2016

There is some information on biomass assessments from some fishing areas:


- 2008 assessment in ‘Isla Lobos de Tierra’ concluded that biomass was at 1494,400 tons, mainly of organisms with <65mm. Recruitment has been variable since 1995 and landings attained 3,000 tons in 1997 and reduced in the following years, only increasing during 2002-2004 to around 0,500 t (Mendo, undated).


- In ‘Sechura’ bay, biomass has been increasing since 2006 and was estimated at 52,567 tons in 2009, the highest level of the time series; decreased in 2010 to 35,823 t. Although, this high is likely to result from restocking efforts rather than from a “natural recovery” of the stock (IMARPE 2009; Brown 2011). Landings have increased sharply in recent years, from 4,099 t in 2004 to 97,466 t in 2010 (IMARPE, 2010).


- Natural bed in ‘Independencia’ Bay are considered to be overexploited, with biomass at 422,514 tons, and with no signs of recovery despite the increase in landings 2002-2011. Low density levels are result of high extraction in previous years (Galindo et al. 2013).

Landings trends are in close relationship with environmental variables, especially El Niño (Wolff and Mendo 2000; Wolff et al. 2007; Mendo et al.,2008; Hunt 2010). Maximum highs were attained in 1985 with 47,640 tons and in 1999 with around 30,000 tons; between these years, landings were at around 5,000 tons, on average. From 2001 rose progressively, reaching almost 93,000 tons in 2011 (Mendo et al. 2008; Cacho et al. 2013).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT
Peru

Last updated on 3 August 2016

The fishery is managed by the Ministry of Production (‘Ministerio de la Producción’) under the General Fisheries Law (Mendo, undated). Management of Peruvian scallop is considered weak, lacking also a system of control and enforcement of regulations. Additionally, there is no formal management plan to manage the stock (Mendo et al., 2008; Brown, 2011).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 03 Aug 2016

No recovery plan is known to be in place.

COMPLIANCE
Peru

Last updated on 29 August 2016

The system of enforcement and monitoring of regulations is weak (Mendo et al. 2008; Badjeck et al. 2009; Brown 2011), thus Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing is likely to occur at some extent. There are unofficial reports of IUU fishing activities, such as harvesting considerable amounts of Peruvian calico scallop during temporary moratoriums (Andina 2010; ElDigital 2011; Andina 2014).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species
Peru

Last updated on 3 August 2016

Peruvian scallops are hand-gathered. No or minimal bycatch is considered to exist in this fishery, thus no Protected, Endangered or Threatened (PET) species are assumed to be affected.

Other Species
Peru

Last updated on 29 August 2016

Peruvian calico scallops are hand harvested by scuba divers. No or minimal bycatch is considered to exist in this fishery (Brown 2011).

HABITAT
Peru

Last updated on 3 August 2016

Peruvian calico scallops are hand-gathered by divers, thus there is virtually no impact on the bottom habitats (Brown 2011).
The resource is vulnerable to exploitation and to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon trigging regional fluctuations in abundance (Wolff and Mendo 2000; Wolff et al. 2007; Mendo et al. 2008; Hunt 2010).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 03 Aug 2016

A marine reserve was proposed by Avendaño and Cantillánez (1997) and implemented in the same year (Law number 522/1997) to protect beds of Peruvian calico scallop in ‘La Rinconada’ bay, due to illegal extraction.

The Independencia bay is within the national reserve ‘Paracas’.

FishSource Scores

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 1978 data.

The score is < 6.

No national management plan has been officially established to manage the stock. There is an overall lack of management, no catch limits are defined or enforcement measures to ensure sustainable exploitation of the stock (Mendo et al., 2008).

As calculated for 1978 data.

The score is < 6.

There are no catch quotas in place, or control of fishing effort. The only management measures known are a minimum size limit of 65 mm and temporary moratoriums when scallop abundance is considered to be very low. However, there is an overall lack of regulations’ enforcement (Mendo et al., 2008). Natural beds are subject to extraction for aquaculture (grow-out for seeds or juveniles) so the management is essential to guarantee the sustainability of the resource (Mendo, undated).

As calculated for 1978 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

The system of enforcement and monitoring of regulations is weak, thus Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing is likely to occur at some extent. There are unofficial reports of IUU fishing activities, such as harvesting Peruvian calico scallop during temporary moratoriums (Andina, 2010; ElDigital, 2011; Andina, 2014), but there is no information on whether this constitutes a real problem for the stock.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 1978 data.

The score is < 6.

The overall stock status is unknown and reference points are not defined. High levels of biomass have been found but there are uncertainties if they result from restocking efforts rather than from a “natural recovery” (IMARPE, 2009; Brown, 2011). Only isolated assessment studies are performed in the most important beds: low catch levels in 2008 and capture mainly composed of organisms with <65mm in ‘Isla Lobos de Tierra’ (Mendo, undated); in ‘Sechura’ bay landings have been increasing attaining around 97,500 t in 2010 but biomass sharply decreased to 52,000 t in the same year (IMARPE, 2010); natural beds are overexploited in ‘Independencia’ bay (Galindo et al., 2013).

As calculated for 1978 data.

The score is < 6.

The resource is highly vulnerable to environmental oscillations (El Niño) and exploitation (Wolff and Mendo, 2000; Wolff et al., 2007; Mendo et al., 2008; Hunt, 2010). Exploitation levels and fishing effort are not known. There is extraction of seeds from natural beds to grow-out and the effect is not monitored or managed (Mendo, undated).

No data available for biomass
No data available for biomass
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
Peru

Last updated on 29 August 2016

Notes:
1) There are no formal stock assessments and no reference points have been defined yet (Mendo et al., 2008; Brown, 2011), thus the current stock status and exploitation rates are unknown. Biomass estimates are available for some years in some beds (e.g. Ilsa Lobo de Tierras in 2008, Sechura bay in 2009; Independencia, 2012), but are not representative of the stock, preventing the determination of scores #4 and #5 which were determined qualitatively. There is a unique stock along the Peruvian coast (Marín et al., 2013) and it has been demonstrated the importance of a national strategy to manage scallop beds along the Peruvian coast and relation among beds (Wolff and Mendo, 2000).
2) Lack of fishing quotas and fishing mortality reference points prevented the calculation of numerical scores. For the management strategy (score #1) and managers and fishers’ compliance (scores #2 and #3), qualitative scores have been attributed (please mouse-over for further details).
3) Landings represent extraction of Peruvian calico scallop from natural beds: 1978-2002 from Mendo et al (2008) and 2003-2012 from Cacho et al (2013).

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. Wolff, M. and Mendo, J., 2000. Management of the Peruvian bay scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) metapopulation with regard to environmental change. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 10(2), pp.117-126.

  2. Marín, A., Fujimoto, T. and Arai, K., 2013. Genetic structure of the Peruvian scallop Argopecten purpuratus inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA variation. Marine genomics, 9, pp.1-8.

  3. Avendaño, M., Cantillánez, M., Le Pennec, M. and Thouzeau, G., 2008. Reproductive and larval cycle of the scallop Argopecten purpuratus (Ostreoida: Pectinidae), during El Niño-La Niña events and normal weather conditions in Antofagasta, Chile. Revista de biología tropical, 56(1), pp.121-132.

  4. Badjeck, M.C., Mendo, J., Wolff, M. and Lange, H., 2009. Climate variability and the Peruvian scallop fishery: the role of formal institutions in resilience building. Climatic Change, 94(1-2), pp.211-232.

  5. Argüelles, J., Lorrain, A., Cherel, Y., Graco, M., Tafur, R., Alegre, A., Espinoza, P., Taipe, A., Ayón, P. and Bertrand, A., 2011. Tracking habitat and resource use for the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas: a stable isotope analysis in the Northern Humboldt Current System. Marine biology, 159(9), pp.2105-2116.

  6. Mendo J, Wolff M, Carbajal W, Gonzáles I, Badjeck M. (2008). Manejo y explotación de los principales banos naturales de concha de abanico (Argopecten purpuratus) en la costa peruana. En: Lovatelli A, Farías A, Uriarte I (eds) Estado actual del cultivo y manejo de moluscos bivalvos y su proyección futura: factores que afectan su sustentabilidad en América Latina. Taller Técnico Regional de la FAO, 20-24 agosto 2007, Puerto Montt, Chile. FAO Actas de Pesca y Acuicultura 12: 101-114.

  7. IMARPE (2009) Evaluacion Poblacional de Concha de Abanico (Agropecten purpatus) en La Bahia de Sechura, 19-15 Mayo 2009. IMARPE Ciencia Y Tecnologia.

  8. IMARPE (2010) Evaluacion Poblacional de Concha de Abanico (Agropecten purpatus) en La Bahia de Sechura, 19-15 Mayo 2010. IMARPE Ciencia Y Tecnologia.

  9. Galindo-Bect, M. S., Alvarez, E., Barron-Barraza, F. J., Pacheco-Chavez, M. R., Sánchez-Velasco, L., Lavín, M. F., Hernandez-Ayon J. M., Camacho-Ibar, V. F., Santamaria-del-Angel, E. (2013). Shrimp larvae and postlarvae from the Upper Gulf of California; cruise golca-1006 (June 1–9, 2010). Informe técnico 103576. Comunicaciones Académicas. Serie Oceanografía Física. CICESE. Ensenada, Baja California.

  10. Wolff M, Taylor M, Mendo J, Yamashiro C (2007) A catch forecast model for the Peruvian scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) based on estimators of spawning stock and settlement rate. Ecological Modeling 209: 333-341.

  11. Ministry of Production Peru-Vice Ministry of Fisheries (2010) Statistical Data-Landings 2003-2010.

References

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