Last updated on 28 February 2018

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Eopsetta jordani

SPECIES NAME(s)

Petrale sole

The stock structure of petrale sole off the coast of the US and Canada is still insufficiently understood, and there is no evidence suggesting distinct biological stocks of petrale sole off the U.S. coast (Hautch et al. 2011; Stawitz et al. 2016). While the coast-wide population is modeled as a single stock, some effort is made to address underlying structure through geographical separation of data sources and fleets where possible, and consideration residual patterns (Stawitz et al. 2016). 

 


ANALYSIS

Strengths

A rebuilding plan that uses multiple precautionary measures is in place and the stock is projected to be rebuilt before the target year of 2016. Recent fishing mortality rates have been below the target levels. Fishers’ compliance with the annual catch limits is strong.

Weaknesses

The stock structure is not completely understood. Stock biomass have increased but remains below target levels.

Options

Conduct more genetic studies on stock structure. Increase the collection of fishery dependent data (e.g., age data, length compositions for discarded fish).

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 8

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

6.9

Future Health:

8.9


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the MSC certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • US West Coast limited entry groundfish trawl:

    MSC Certified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
US west coast US west coast United States Single boat bottom otter trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 16 August 2013

Strengths

A rebuilding plan that uses multiple precautionary measures is in place and the stock is projected to be rebuilt before the target year of 2016. Recent fishing mortality rates have been below the target levels. Fishers’ compliance with the annual catch limits is strong.

Weaknesses

The stock structure is not completely understood. Stock biomass have increased but remains below target levels.

Options

Conduct more genetic studies on stock structure. Increase the collection of fishery dependent data (e.g., age data, length compositions for discarded fish).

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 1 November 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the MSC certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met. Offer assistance in closing conditions where possible.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 16 August 2013

The last stock assessment of petrale sole (Eopsetta jordani) in U.S. waters off California, Oregon, and Washington was conducted in 2011 (Haltuch et al., 2011). The 2011 assessment uses a newer version of the Stock Synthesis (SS) 3 model.The SS3 is structured as an annual model, and includes both dependent (catch, length- and age-frequency, from and on-board sampling programs) and independent (trawl suveys) fisheries data (Haltuch et al., 2011).

Although the current assessment accounts for uncertainty from several sources, it is still likely to underestimate the uncertainty in the stock status (Haltuch et al., 2011).

The stock structure of this species off the coast of the US is still insufficiently understood, and genetic studies are lacking. Until further information is available, a single stock is assumed based on the evidence of mixing between populations from tagging studies (Haltuch et al., 2011).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 16 August 2013

Scientific advice for this fishery incorporates multiple precautionary measures that are designed to ensure that the resource is maintained at safe levels. Harvest forecasts and decision tables in terms of Allowable biological catch (ABC) and Annual Catch Limits (ACL) are provided to assist managers.

The 2013 coastwide ABC off the West coast of US, is 2,592 tonnes (PFMC/NMFS, 2012).

Reference Points

Last updated on 16 Aug 2013

The most recently defined reference points for this stock are a target biomass level of SB25%, used as a proxy for BMSY, a SB12.5% overfished threshold, and a target fishing mortality of F30%. According to the latest assessment the reference points were calcutated as follows (Haltuch et al., 2011):

Parameter Value Obs.
B0 26,278 t Unfished spawning stock biomass
SB25% 6,570 t used as proxy for Bmsy
SB12.5% 3,285 t overfished threshold
CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 16 August 2013

After a continuous decreasing trend in spawning biomass as a result of excessive exploitation rates, stock size of petrale sole reached minimum values in the mid-90s. Stock biomass increased slightly from 2000-05 owing to above average recruitments, but decreased again from 2005 to 2010. Since 2010 stock size has been increasing and was estimated well above the limit threshold in 2011 (Haltuch et al., 2011). Under the current rebuilding plan, spawning biomass is expected to keep increasing and reach the target reference point (SB25%) before 2016 (100% probability) (Haltuch, 2011; PFMC/NMFS, 2012).

Fishing mortality rates above the current target reference point are estimated to have occurred since the mid-1930s, and to persist until recent years. In 2010 and 2011, fishing mortality rates were estimated to be well below the target levels of F30% (Haltuch et al., 2011).

Trends

Last updated on 16 Aug 2013

After a continuous decrease in spawning biomass as a result of excessive exploitation rates, stock size of petrale sole reached minimum values in the mid-90s. Stock biomass increased slightly from 2000-05 owing to above average recruitments, but decreased again from 2005 to 2010. Since 2010 stock size has been increasing and was estimated well above the limit threshold in 2011 (Haltuch et al., 2011). Under the current rebuilding plan, spawning biomass is expected to keep increasing and reach the target reference point (SB25%) before 2016 (100% probability) (Haltuch, 2011; PFMC/NMFS, 2012).

Fishing mortality rates above the current target reference point are estimated to have occurred since the mid-1930s, and to persist until recent years. In 2010 and 2011, fishing mortality rates were estimated to be well below the target levels of F30% (Haltuch et al., 2011).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 16 August 2013

This stock is managed under the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP) (PFMC, 2011). Managers have historically kept the Allowable catch limits (ACL) at or below scientists’ recommended limit, the ABC.

After being considered overfished in 2009, a new rebuilding plan for this fishery was put in place in 2011, which at rebuilding the stock by 2016 (PFMC/NMFS, 2011). The new rebuilding plan includes newly defined reference points, consistent with the MSY approach and a 25:5 harvest control rule (HCR). According to this HCR, catch (or the ACL) is to be linearly reduced from the overfishing limit (OFL) when “stock size falls between B25% and B5%” (PFMC/NMFS, 2011).

The 2013 ACL, of 2,592 tonnes, is based on applying the 25:5 HCR and equals the ABC as the stock is projected to be above the biomass target by 2013 (PFMC/NMFS, 2011).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 16 Aug 2013

After the petrale sole stock being declared as overfished in 2009, a rebuilding plan was put in place in 2011, which main goal was to rebuild the stock biomass to above the target by 2016. The rebuilding plan includes a revised harvest control rule and new reference points (see ‘Management Decisions’ section for details) (PFMC/NMFS, 2011).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 16 August 2013

Compliance with the management targets of the rebuilding plan has been strong. With the exception of 2005, recent annual coast-wide total landings have been below the set annual catch limits (Haltuch et al., 2011).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 16 August 2013

Directed West Coast groundfish fisheries have consistently been categorized as Category III fisheries, meaning that they are “commercial fisheries determined by the [NMFS] Assistant Administrator to have a remote likelihood of, or no known incidental mortality and serious injury of marine mammals”. Specific managementmeasures are in place to mitigate potential impacts on Threatened and endangered Pacific salmon stocks (PFMC, 2011).

Other Species

Last updated on 16 August 2013

Petrale sole is captured in a mixed demersal groundfish fishery. A series of management measures have been put in place to address and mitigate bycatch and discards of unwanted species (PFMC, 2011).

HABITAT

Last updated on 16 August 2013

The current management plan incorporates a series of gear/area restrictions (e.g., Bottom Trawl Footprint Closure), to prevent the expansion of bottom trawling to new areas and mitigate possible adverse effects of this on vulnerable bottom habitats (PFMC, 2011).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 16 Aug 2013

In March 2006, NOAA Fisheries Service approved a plan to establish and protect more than 130,000 square miles of marine waters off the West Coast as Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) for groundfish.

The current management plan includes a series of area restrictions to fishing methods that can cause long-term damage to the ocean floor, such as bottom trawling, within much of this area (PFMC, 2011).

FishSource Scores

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2011 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

A rebuilding plan was put in place in 2011. The plan, which aims at rebuilding the stock by 2016, includes a revised harvest control rule, and new target reference points (PFMC/NMFS, 2011). The stock is expected to be rebuilt (100% probability) before the target year of 2016 (Haltuch, 2011; PFMC/NMFS, 2012).

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 2.59 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 2.59 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 100%.

As calculated for 2010 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 0.700 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 1.20 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 58.3%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2011 data.

The score is 6.9.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the SSBtrp.

The SSB is 4.72 ('000 t). The SSBtrp is 6.57 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/SSBtrp for this index is 71.8%.

As calculated for 2011 data.

The score is 8.9.

This measures the 1-SPR as a percentage of the trp.

The 1-SPR is 0.540 . The trp is 0.700 (1-SPR) .

The underlying 1-SPR/trp for this index is 77.1%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES

Fishing mortality, F, is expressed as the relative spawning potential ratio (1-SPR). The target F[~30%~] is used as a proxy of F[~MSY~] for this fishery (PFMC/NMFS, 2011), and expressed  1-SPR[~30%~] (=0.7), for scores calculation purposes (Haltuch et al., 2011).  *2)* As no F[~at low biomass~] clearly specified in the current harvest control rule, a qualitative score was attributed to score 1 ("Is the management system precautionary?"). *3)* Allowable Biological Catch (ABC) is presented as a proxy for Advised TAC, and the Allowable Catch Limit (ACL) as a proxy for set TAC. *4)* Advised TAC (ABC), Set TAC (ACL) and catch (commercial landings) are for the calendar year (Haltuch et al., 2011).

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

US West Coast limited entry groundfish trawl

STATUS

MSC Certified on 3 June 2014

SCORES

Principle Level Scores:

Principle Score
Principle 1 – Target Species – Arrowtooth flounder 85.6
Principle 1 – Target Species – Dover sole 84.4
Principle 1 – Target Species – English sole 85.6
Principle 1 – Target Species – Petrale sole 81.0
Principle 1 – Target Species – Lingcod (North) 93.8
Principle 1 – Target Species – Lingcod (South) 88.8
Principle 1 – Target Species – Sablefish 83.3
Principle 1 – Target Species – Chilipepper rockfish 88.8
Principle 1 – Target Species – Longspine thornyhead 92.5
Principle 1 – Target Species – Shortspine thornyhead 92.5
Principle 1 – Target Species – Splitnose rockfish 92.5
Principle 1 – Target Species – Widow rockfish 88.8
Principle 1 – Target Species – Yellowtail Rockfish (N – Vancouver) 92.5
Principle 1 – Target Species – Yellowtail Rockfish (N – Columbia) 87.5
Principle 1 – Target Species – Yellowtail Rockfish (N – Eureka) 87.5
Principle 1 – Target Species – Yellowtail Rockfish (South) < 60
Principle 1 – Target Species – Longnose Skate 92.5
Principle 2 - Ecosystem 85.0
Principle 3 – Management System 94.4

Certification Type: Silver

Sources

Credits
  1. Federal Register / Vol. 72, No. 227 / Tuesday, November 27, 2007 / Rules and Regulations.http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/pdfs/fr/fr72-66048.pdf
  2. Haltuch, M.A., 2011. 2011 petrale sole rebuilding analysis. Pacific Fishery Management Council. Portland, OR. November, 2011. 35 pp.http://www.pcouncil.org/wp-content/uploads/Petrale_2011_Rebuilding.pdf
  3. Haltuch, M.A., Hicks, A. and Kevin See, K., 2011. Status of the U.S. petrale sole resource in 2010. Pacific Fishery Management Council. Portland, OR. November, 2011. 389 pp.http://www.pcouncil.org/wp-content/uploads/Petrale_2011_Assessment.pdf
  4. Lai, H.-L., M. A. Haltuch, A. E. Punt, J. M. Cope, 2005. Stock Assessment of Petrale Sole: 2004. Northwest Fisheries Science Center.http://www.pcouncil.org/wp-content/uploads/Final_Petrale_102405.pdf
  5. Medley, P.A.H., O’Boyle, R., Pedersen, M.G., Tingley, G.A., Hanna, S. S., Devitt, S., 2014. MSC Assessment Report for United States West Coast Limited Entry Groundfish Trawl Fishery. Version 6: Public Certification Report. Intertek Fisheries Certification, June 2014. 403pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/us_west_coast_limited_entry_groundfish_trawl/assessment-downloads-1/20140602_PCR_V2_GRO223.pdf
  6. NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service), 2013. 50 CFR PART 660, SUBPARTS C – G Federal Pacific Coast Groundfish Regulations for Commercial and Recreational Fishing 3-200 Nautical Miles off Washington, Oregon, and California: under the Authority of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act and the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan. National Marine Fisheries Service. Seattle, WA. May, 2013. 431 pp.http://www.nwr.noaa.gov/publications/fishery_management/groundfish/regs.pdf
  7. PFMC. 2005. Pacific Cost Groundfish Fishery Management Plan for the California, Oregon, and Washington Groundfish Fishery. Appendix C. Part 2. The Effects of Fishing on Habitat: West Coast Perspective. Pacific Fishery Management Council. November 2005. http://www.pcouncil.org/groundfish/gffmp/gfa19/GF_FMP_App_C2.pdf
  8. PFMC. 2006. Pacific Fishery Management Council. Fishery Management Plan for The California, Oregon, and Washington Groundfish Fishery as Amended Through Amendment 19. Including Amendment 16-4. November 2006.http://www.pcouncil.org/groundfish/gffmp/fmpthru19.pdf
  9. PFMC (Pacific Fishery Management Council), 2011. Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan for the California, Oregon, and Washington Groundfish Fishery. Pacific Fishery Management Council. Portland, OR. December, 2011. 146 pp.http://www.pcouncil.org/wp-content/uploads/GF_FMP_FINAL_Dec2011.pdf
  10. PFMC (Pacific Fishery Management Council) and NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service), 2011. Proposed Harvest Specifications and Management Measures for the 2011-2012 Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery and Amendment 16-5 to the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan to Update Existing Rebuilding Plans and Adopt a Rebuilding Plan for Petrale Sole; Final Environmental Impact Statement. Pacific Fishery Management Council, Portland, OR. February 2011. 501 pp.http://www.pcouncil.org/wp-content/uploads/1112GF_SpexFEIS_100806-FINAL_feb21_.pdf
  11. PFMC (Pacific Fishery Management Council) and NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service), 2012. Proposed Harvest Specifications and Management Measures for the 2013-2014 Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery and Amendment 21-2 to the Pacific Coast Fishery Management Plan, Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Pacific Fishery Management Council, Portland, OR. May 2012. 514 pp.http://www.pcouncil.org/wp-content/uploads/May_2012_Main_Document_13-14_DEIS_SPEX.pdf
  12. Stawitz, C.S., Hurtado-Ferro, F., Kuriyama, P., Trochta, J.T., Johnson, K.F., Haltuch, M.A., and Hamel, O.S., 2016. Stock assessment update: status of the U.S. petrale sole resource in 2014.  Northwest Fisheries Science Center. http://www.pcouncil.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Petrale2015Update_1Apr16.pdf
  13. STAR Panel Report. Petrale Sole. Alaska Fisheries Science Center Seattle, Washington September 26-30, 2005.http://swfsc.noaa.gov/publications/FED/00831.pdf
References

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