Summary

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Merluccius gayi gayi

SPECIES NAME(S)

South Pacific hake

Several research studies have been conducted on the stock structure of South Pacific hake. (Payá et al. 1997) using morphological characteristics, genetics, parasitology and latitudinal comparisons about the average length of sexual maturity identified a unique stock in Chile; and (Galleguillos et al. 2000), supported this conclusion analysing polymorphic loci of distinct localities along Chile. (George-Nascimento 1996) and (Oliva and Ballón 2002) in turn consider the existence of two stocks according to morphology and parasitology of the species in Puerto Montt and Coquimbo. Finally and more recently (Vidal et al. 2012) using mitochondrial DNA presented a division in three genetic stocks: in Perú, Valparaíso-Coquimbo and Corral.

The Fisheries Development Institute (Instituto de Fomento Pesquero, IFOP), using the results obtained by (Tascheri et al. 2013) applying length composition and relative abundance data, corroborate the scenario that considers that mixing of the individuals is enough to assume a unique stock to assess along fishery management units IV – X (IFOP, 2013).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • A management/recovery plan is awaiting adoption, although there are concerns it may not be precautionary enough, and its measures are not prescriptive but subject to vote within the scientific and technical committee.
  • The recent General Law on Fisheries and Aquaculture established clear rules for setting Management Commissions and Management Plans, stated that the minimum goal for every fishery is to achieve maximum sustainable yield (MSY), and makes mandatory an observer program to address discarding, which is not allowed.
  • The Scientific and Technical Committee composed of scientific and management experts and institutes discuss the status of the stock to advise the Minister. Reference points have been redefined as a consequence.
  • A biological closure is established to protect the spawning season from 1st to 30th September.
  • Trawling is banned within five miles offshore, an area reserved for artisanal fishing. An observers program is in place with the aim to estimate and mitigate discards.
  • A national plan to reduce the bycatch of seabirds in longline fisheries is in place.
Weaknesses
  • The stock is in a collapsed state, at 11-19% of the virgin biomass level, below both limit and MSY biological reference points, and has been in this state for 11 years, indicating a highly risky situation.
  • Uncertainties in the assessment include the natural mortality due to predation by jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas, which may be particularly important given the stock’s precarious condition. This trophic interaction was thought to be an important factor possibly hindering the recovery of the stock, although it is possible that IUU fishing is responsible for part of the mortality attributed to predation by squid.
  • Catch limits have been set within the range of scientific recommendations but at the upper end, despite the stock condition.
  • Bycatch levels by the industrial fleet and underreported landings by the artisanal fleet are issues named by the Scientific and Technical Committee that should be addressed in future fishing seasons under a Special Control Plan. The industrial fishery uses bottom trawls and no specific research is conducted on the impact on the sea floor.
  • There are signs of non-compliance with the discarding ban.
  • There is no systematic information but there are recorded interactions with protected species such as skates, sea lions and seabirds.

SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

< 6

Managers Compliance:

8.2

Fishers Compliance:

< 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

< 6

Future Health:

< 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Implement a fishery recovery and management plan with clear goals, terms, and harvest control rules.
2. Implement a strategy to address the illegal fishing and illegal trade, including underreported landings by the artisanal fleet, which are currently undermining management efforts.
3. Implement approaches to address environmental impacts, including impacts on the seabed and bycatch reduction, and publish the results of the Discards Research Program.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Request that your suppliers join the SFP South American Whitefish Supplier Roundtable (http://www.sustainablefish.org/fisheries-improvement/whitefish/south-american-whitefish-roundtable/south-american-whitefish-supplier-roundtable).
2. Request that Subpesca implement a fishery recovery and management plan with clear goals, terms, and harvest control rules.
3. Request that Subpesca implement approaches to address environmental impacts, including impacts on the seabed and bycatch reduction, and publish the results of the Discards Research Program.


FIPS

  • Chile common hake - bottom trawl:

    Stage 4, Progress Rating A

CERTIFICATIONS

  • Chile hake trawl:

    Withdrawn

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Chilean Chile IV-X Chile Bottom-set longlines
Bottom trawls
Hooks and lines
Midwater trawls
Set gillnets (anchored)

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Strengths
  • A management/recovery plan is awaiting adoption, although there are concerns it may not be precautionary enough, and its measures are not prescriptive but subject to vote within the scientific and technical committee.
  • The recent General Law on Fisheries and Aquaculture established clear rules for setting Management Commissions and Management Plans, stated that the minimum goal for every fishery is to achieve maximum sustainable yield (MSY), and makes mandatory an observer program to address discarding, which is not allowed.
  • The Scientific and Technical Committee composed of scientific and management experts and institutes discuss the status of the stock to advise the Minister. Reference points have been redefined as a consequence.
  • A biological closure is established to protect the spawning season from 1st to 30th September.
  • Trawling is banned within five miles offshore, an area reserved for artisanal fishing. An observers program is in place with the aim to estimate and mitigate discards.
  • A national plan to reduce the bycatch of seabirds in longline fisheries is in place.
Weaknesses
  • The stock is in a collapsed state, at 11-19% of the virgin biomass level, below both limit and MSY biological reference points, and has been in this state for 11 years, indicating a highly risky situation.
  • Uncertainties in the assessment include the natural mortality due to predation by jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas, which may be particularly important given the stock’s precarious condition. This trophic interaction was thought to be an important factor possibly hindering the recovery of the stock, although it is possible that IUU fishing is responsible for part of the mortality attributed to predation by squid.
  • Catch limits have been set within the range of scientific recommendations but at the upper end, despite the stock condition.
  • Bycatch levels by the industrial fleet and underreported landings by the artisanal fleet are issues named by the Scientific and Technical Committee that should be addressed in future fishing seasons under a Special Control Plan. The industrial fishery uses bottom trawls and no specific research is conducted on the impact on the sea floor.
  • There are signs of non-compliance with the discarding ban.
  • There is no systematic information but there are recorded interactions with protected species such as skates, sea lions and seabirds.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 11 July 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Implement a fishery recovery and management plan with clear goals, terms, and harvest control rules.
2. Implement a strategy to address the illegal fishing and illegal trade, including underreported landings by the artisanal fleet, which are currently undermining management efforts.
3. Implement approaches to address environmental impacts, including impacts on the seabed and bycatch reduction, and publish the results of the Discards Research Program.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Request that your suppliers join the SFP South American Whitefish Supplier Roundtable (http://www.sustainablefish.org/fisheries-improvement/whitefish/south-american-whitefish-roundtable/south-american-whitefish-supplier-roundtable).
2. Request that Subpesca implement a fishery recovery and management plan with clear goals, terms, and harvest control rules.
3. Request that Subpesca implement approaches to address environmental impacts, including impacts on the seabed and bycatch reduction, and publish the results of the Discards Research Program.

1.STOCK STATUS

Stock Assessment

Last updated on

The assessment model used by IFOP (Instituto de Fomento Pesquero) and INPESCA (Instituto de Investigación Pesquera) is a statistical catch-at-age model in ADMB incorporating catch, length, age, weight and logbook data from commercial fisheries, and biomass, catch-at-age and age-weight estimates, and squid abundance, from trawl sampling, direct acoustic and geostatistical methods employed in a regular survey (CCT-RDZCS, 2015). IFOP’s stock assessment reports are currently available only upon request. The Scientific and Technical Committee for Demersal Resources of the South-Center Region (Comité Científico Técnico de Recursos Demersales de la Zona Centro-Sur, CCT-RDZCS) evaluates the IFOP report and publishes its evaluation of the status of the stock, and its advice on biological reference points and on catch limits (CCT-RDZCS, 2015). Two exploitation scenarios were modeled in 2015, either distinguishing the artisanal and industrial fleets (scenario 2) or, in the base case, assuming the artisanal fisheries (longline and gillnet) have the same exploitation pattern as the industrial trawl fisheries (scenario 1).

Uncertainties in the assessment may be related to the lack of sexual dimorphism in the model and to predation mortality by jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas (Tascheri et al, 2015). The presence of this predator has been identified as an important factor in understanding and monitoring the resource dynamics (IFOP, 2013; Subpesca, 2013; Subpesca, 2013b). Overall, the uncertainty in the assessment of stock status is considered to be relatively low (Tascheri et al., 2015).

Scientific Advice

Last updated on

Official scientific advice was previously provided annually by IFOP. But under the New General Law on Fisheries and Aquaculture (Ley General de Pesca y Acuicultura 18.892, LGPA) the CCT-RDZCS – gathering IFOP, INPESCA, Subpesca and several experts from Chilean universities – was created to give scientific support to management decisions (MEFR, 2007). Based on IFOP and INPESCA reports, the CCT-RDZCS annually recommends an Acceptable Biological Catch (Captura Biológicamente Aceptable, CBA) range based on the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) approach, where the lower value of the range is 20% below the upper (Subpesca, 2015a). Given the poor condition of the stock, the CBA for 2016 is advised between 18,400 and 23,000 tons, as it was for 2015. For 2015 the Committee had recommended that, considering uncertainties in the assessment, the catch limit should preferably be set close to the lower limit of the range (CCT-RDZCS, 2014; Subpesca, 2014). For 2016, no preference was expressed by the Committee but it noted that if no increase should occur in the biomass in 2016, the TAC should be reduced given the uncertainty around the stock response considering the significant levels of illegal and unreported fishing (CCT-RDZCS, 2015).

In 2013 the CCT-RDZCS advocated the implementation of further management measures such as spatial-temporal closures to protect recruitment and spawning; and advertised the “dangerously high” fishing mortalities in regions VI, VII and VIII (Subpesca, 2013; Subpesca, 2013b).

An official discussion about a Recovery Plan for this fishery was initiated in 2012 and it was expected to imply a significant decrease in fishing levels if implemented. Given the stock condition, in 2014 the CCT-RDZCS reiterated the need for the development and implementation of a recovery plan (CCT-RDZCS, 2014), with positive outcomes.

Reference Points

Last updated on

In 2015, Subpesca formally adopted new definitions of reference points for the stock (Subpesca, 2015b), in accordance with the recommendations of IFOP and INPESCA (CCT-RDZCS, 2014; Subpesca, 2014) and based on MSY targets as foreseen under the LGPA. Values of reference points are re-estimated in the assessment so vary from year to year:

- Biomass at Maximum Sustainable Yield, BMSY = 40% of SSB0. In 2015 this was estimated as 249.9 thousand tons (scenario 1) or 378.8 thousand tons (scenario 2)
- Biomass Limit Reference point, Blim = 20% SSB0. In 2015 it was calculated as 129.5 thousand tons (scenario 1) or 189.5 thousand tons (Scenario 2)
- FMSY = F 40%SPR at F=0. In 2015 it was estimated as 0.27/year (scenario 1) or 0.20/year (scenario 2; Tascheri et al., 2015), or 0.53 /year under scenario 2 according to CCT-RDZS (2015).

The virgin spawning biomass (SSB0) estimate is thus between 620,000 and 950,000 tons.

Current Status

Last updated on

The spawning stock biomass is estimated to be between 93,000 and 119,000 tons (scenario 2 and scenario 1 median points, respectively; Tascheri et al., 2015), at 12 to 20% (Tascheri et al., 2015) or 11 or 19% (CCT-RDZS, 2015) of the virgin biomass level. It is unclear where the differences in these ranges result from. According to CCT-RDZS the stock is collapsed, below both Blim and BMSY, and is now thought to have been in a collapsed state for 11 years, showing no signs of recovery in either biomass or size structure. The situation is considered to be of high risk to its conservation (Subpesca, 2015a). IFOP considers the stock to be at the least overexploited, but the probability of it being collapsed is between 0.5 or 1, depending on the scenario considered (Taschei et al., 2015) The size structure of the population shows no significant changes from its deteriorated state. The fecundity index had been on a decreasing trend but shows an apparent uptick in 2015 that needs to be confirmed (CCT-RDZCS, 2015). Average total length from industrial catches also showed a small increase in 2014, albeit remaining below the reference size, and potentially caused by fishing close to spawning aggregations. Artisanal fisheries showed similar slight increases in 2014 relative to 2013 (Tascheri et al., 2015). Overall, the fishery shows no signs of recovery throughout its extent (CCT-RDZCS, 2015). Although fishing mortality was recently considered to be below FMSY (Subpesca, 2014), concerns have been raised as to the uncertainty introduced in F by illegal and unreported fishing (Subpesca, 2015a).

Trends

Last updated on

The fishery started in the 1930s and a period of full exploitation occurred between 1953 and 1961 with annual landings around 80 thousand tons. The stock suffered a sharp decrease after reaching the maximum historical landings level at around 130,000 tons in 1968, and landings stabilized at around 30,000 tons up to the 1980s, coinciding with hake’s decreased use in fishmeal production, and low domestic demand for human consumption. As the stock recovered and exports increased another landings peak of around 120,000 tons was hit in the early 2000s. Since then, the stock’s biomass and landings have been decreasing, and the stock’s age structure has become dependent on juvenile fish (Tascheri et al., 2015). TACs have been being gradually reduced – in 2014 another TAC reduction was enforced and artisanal fisheries were to receive a compensation to mitigate quota reductions (CONFEPACH website).

The spawning biomass, which remains below the biomass reference limit B20% since 2004, increased slightly from 2007-2012 but decreased again in 2013. In recent years, F had been below FMSY. The exploitation rates observed during 2001-2013, and the additional causes of mortality (e.g., predation by jumbo flying squid and other species), have prevented the stock’s recovery from its over-exploited (now collapsed) condition (IFOP, 2013; Subpesca, 2013; Subpesca, 2013b). 26% to 34% of the stock was estimated to be removed in 2003 and 2004 by predation by jumbo flying squid (IFOP, 2013). However, it’s now noted that mortality due to discarding and under-reporting of landings has been underestimated, so historical estimates of predation by squid will likely be reduced accordingly (Tascheri et al., 2015).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

Managers' Decisions
Chilean
Chile IV-X

Last updated on

A management plan is awaiting adoption, and has been considered by CCT-RDZCS in its advice for 2016. It is based on applying fishing mortalities that recover the stock to above Blim within five years. When the stock is in a collapsed state and levels of illegal fishing are significant, which was found to be the current situation, a fishing mortality of 60% of FMSY is to be applied, after approval by vote within CCT-RDZCS (Subpesca, 2015a).

For the 2016 fishing season, the Total Allowable Catch (TAC) was set at 23,000 tons (MEFT, 2015), within the CBA range; and the same as defined in the previous fishing season. As foreseen in the LGPA, 60% of the quota is assigned to the industrial fleet, corresponding to 13,542 tons (fractioned into two seasons) in 2016 and 40% to the artisanal fleet: 9,028 tons; 200 tons (2%) are assigned for research purposes and 230 tons (1%) for unexpected situations (MEFT, 2015). The fishery is regulated by TACs since 1982 but the split between artisanal and industrial fisheries is only in place since 1992 (FAO, 2013).

Additional management measures are in use: e.g. the use of a juvenile escape device was established in 2005 for the industrial fleet, gear regulations (mesh size of 100mm for trawl vessels targeting South Pacific hake and of 120mm for fisheries targeting other species than South Pacific hake; and size of the gear), control and inspection plans, observation programs. The measures established by the recently passed Fisheries Law were to be implemented during 2013. No minimum landing size is set, although Individuals below the “reference” size of 37 cm are frequent in landings (CCT-RDZCS, 2015).

From 2011, to protect the species during spawning season, a biological closure was defined from the 1st to 30th September, from the north of region IV to parallel 41º28,6’ LS (Decreto Exento 20/2011). In 2012, the proportion of allowed bycatch of South Pacific Hake in total catches of crustacean fisheries by fishing trip, within the temporal closure, was reduced from 10% to 1% (MEFT, 2012); for trawls, gillnets and longline fisheries, the allowed proportion is 5% (Decreto Exento 20/2011). A new law for discards, established in 2012, defines control measures and sanctions for the fleets (Law 20625/2012) and discarding is not allowed (Law 20657/2013). No new fishing licenses are allowed (Subpesca, 2010).

The Management Committee of the fishery highlighted that the lack of both control and knowledge of illegal practices’ magnitude are hindering the stock recovery (CCT-RDZCS, 2014).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on

A recovery plan started to be discussed in 2012, when the stock was still determined to be “over-exploited” and not yet collapsed. It included the following main guidelines: Management Committee establishment and implementation of the Recovery plan; measures to control fishing effort and catch composition; regulation of fishing gears; increased duration of the closures and juveniles protection areas; implementation of control and inspection of fishing activities; better understanding of jumbo flying squid natural history; observation programs, mitigation of discards and under-reporting (Subpesca, 2012). In 2014 the CCT-RDZCS raised again the need for a recovery plan given the stock condition (CCT-RDZCS, 2014) and in 2015 a management plan was awaiting formal adoption. Full details are not available but a it aims to recover the stock within 5 years by reducing the target F from FMSY to 60% of FMSY whenever the stock is depleted and there is significant illegal fishing. Concerns within the CCT-RDZCS itself that this reduction may be insufficient were apparent though (Subpesca, 2015a).

Compliance
Chilean
Chile IV-X

Last updated on

Historically, reported landings only occasionally exceeded TACs, and have not done so not since 2000. In 2012 and 2013, reported landings were 23-24% below the TACs. In 2014 they were around 5% below the TAC of 19,000 tons. However, managers reported in 2015 that illegal and unreported fishing levels are significant (Subpesca, 2015a). An estimate of 2014 landings by IFOP found that actual landings in the artisanal sector could be 2.5 times official numbers (Tascheri et al., 2015; CCT-RDZS, 2015), higher than 2012 and 2013 estimates which were around 1.5 times the official data. Unreported landings of the artisanal fleet were conservatively estimated at 25% between 1997 and 2008, although they could have reached twice that (Arancibia et al, 2010).

Discarding is not allowed (Law 20657/2013) and although no official data is available there are signs of non-compliance (SERNAPESCA, 2014). One project estimated discards by industrial vessels at around 30% in 2001/2002 and 7% in 2006-2008 (Arancibia et al, 2010).

Both compliance issues raised by the CCT-RDZCS were due to be addressed in future fishing seasons under a Special Control Plan (Subpesca, 2013). Unreported and landings and discards must be accounted for, according to IFOP, in order to reliably estimate fishing mortality rates and adequately determine stock status. A 2015 research project is to estimate historical rates of discarding and under-reporting in the hake fishery (Tascheri et al., 2015).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP Species

Last updated on

There is no systematic information about potential interactions with Protected, Endangered and Threatened (PET) species. However, the yellownose skate Zearaja chilensis (Vulnerable in IUCN Red List; Kyne et al., 2007), overexploited in Chilean waters, appears as bycatch (0.2%) in research surveys for this fishery (Lillo et al., 2015) and is recorded by observers in 20.4% of industrial trips (Gálvez et al., 2015), and, along with Dipturus trachyderma, are under fishery-specific bycatch quotas (Subpesca, 2014b; Subpesca, 2015c). On the other hand, increased numbers of South American sea lions Otaria flavescens (Least concern in IUCN Red List; Campagna, 2014) are reportedly interacting with artisanal gillnets. Gillnet use has increased significantly in the past decade as the artisanal sector has transitioned to an increasingly dominant use of this gear (Tascheri et al., 2015).

The first annual mortality estimated about 890 (438 – 1,418) birds killed in this fishery (2011/12) through interactions with trawl cables and the third wire. The seven most abundant species accounted for 98.2% of the individuals from all species of birds recorded, being black-browed albatross Thalassarche melanophrys (25.9% relative abundance; Near threatened in IUCN Red List; BI, 2014) the most abundant and highest occurrence throughout the study period, followed by Cape petrel Daption capensis (17.9%), Dominican gull Larus dominicanus (13.9%; Least concern in IUCN Red List), Pink-footed shearwater Puffinus creatopus (11.5%; Vulnerable, IUCN Red List; BI, 2012a) and Peruvian pelican Pelecanus thagus (10.5%; Near threatened in IUCN Red List; BI, 2012c). Mitigation trials demonstrated that the use of bird-scaring lines eliminated cable-related seabird mortality in this fishery (BirdLife, 2013).

In 2008, the National plan to reduce the bycatch of seabirds in longline fisheries (in Spanish) was approved by the Ministry of Economy, Development and Reconstruction (Draft of the National Plan; Subpesca, 2008). Recording of interactions with birds by the industrial fleet in 2014 reflected low impacts on seabirds, although previous reports contradict this finding. Training actions in seabird identification were conducted during 2014, which are expected to increase reporting efforts from 2015 (Gálvez et al., 2015).

Other Target and Bycatch Species

Last updated on

South Pacific hake represents from 72% (autumn) to 98% (spring) of catches in trawl fisheries. Nine species of fish and three of shrimp and squat lobster have bycatch quotas in this fishery. Most of them are assessed by acoustic and/or indirect models. Bycatch estimates of jumbo flying squid constitutes around 8.7% of the catch (IFOP, 2013). Effort in the industrial fishery was significantly reduced in 2014, but 69 taxa of bycatch were sampled, with squid representing the greatest proportion (2.5%), followed by bigeye flounder (0.8%) and Chilean grenadier (0.4%; Gálvez et al., 2015). Cardinal fish Epigonus crassicaudus appears in 6.1% of trips and is considered to be collapsed in Chilean waters, and southern hake (6% of industrial trips, Gálvez et al., 2015) and hoki are both overexploited. Golden kingclip Genypterus blacodes (2.7%) is also in a collapsed state. None of these species reached 1% of catches by weight in 2015 (Gálvez et al., 2015). Estimated discards between 1990 and 2002 represented 15% of the catches while for 2003 the estimate value was between 2-3% (IFOP, 2013). There is currently an observers program in place with the aim to estimate and eventually mitigate discards. Observer coverage in 2014 reached 47% of Chilean center-south industrial fisheries. Coverage in artisanal fisheries was lower, at 3%-26%, by area (Gálvez et al., 2015).

The LGPA includes a procedure for setting bycatch limits in the artisanal fishery by targeted species, fishing area and fishing gear. In 2015 limits are set for Chilean nylon shrimp, blue squat lobster, carrot squat lobster, southern hake, pink cusk-eel and squid (Subpesca, 2015c). Bycatch in gillnet fisheries reportedly does not exceed 5% of the catch in weight and is composed of Chilean lemon crab Cancer porter, carrot squat lobster Pleuroncodes monodon and Lorna drum Sciaena deliciosa. Gillnet loss is not considered an issue (ECM, 2009).

Habitat

Last updated on

The industrial fishery uses bottom trawls and no specific research is conducted on the impact on the sea floor. However, given the sharp characteristics of the Chilean shelf, the bottom fields for trawling are scarce, and trawling is banned within five miles off the coast, an area reserved for artisanal fishing (General Fisheries and Aquaculture Law; Subpesca, undated; Orensanz and Seijo, 2013). Beyond that, according with late technological developments, most of the trawling operations are not in direct contact with the bottom.

Marine Reserves

Last updated on

In Chile, there are five marine reserves: La Rinconada in the II Region, Isla Chañaral in the III Region, Isla Choros-Damas in the IV Region, Putemún and Pullinque in the X Region. The main objective of these reserves is to conserve natural banks of northern scallop Argopecten purpuratus, Chilean oyster Tiostrea chilensis and giant mussel Choromytilus chorus among others and also to protect aquatic vertebrates such as dolphins and penguins (MMA, 2008), spawning areas and productive zones. Trawling is banned within five miles off the coast, an area reserved for artisanal fishing (General Fisheries and Aquaculture Law; Subpesca, undated; Orensanz and Seijo, 2013). Additionally, marine parks are declared in order to protect units of ecological interest, and associated diversity and habitats (Subpesca, 2004).

FishSource Scores

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is < 6.

A management plan is awaiting formal adoption but has been used in TAC setting in 2015. Although a reduction in F to 60% of FMSY is foreseen at low biomass, aiming to foster a recovery within five years, it requires a vote by CCT-RDZCS members. Several members expressed concern that the reduction was not large enough, given the extent of illegal fishing and the lack of any signs of recovery from the stock, and the Committee acknowledged that a further reduction may be required as illegal fishing creates uncertainty as to how the stock will respond (Subpesca, 2015a).

As calculated for 2016 data.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Average advised catch.

The Set TAC is 23.0 ('000 t). The Average advised catch is 20.7 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Average advised catch for this index is 111%.

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is < 6.

Although reported landings have historically been below the set TACs, unreported landings in the artisanal sector are estimated to be 2.5 times reported values in 2014 and a high and increasing proportion of immature fish (<37cm) are observed in landings (CCT-RDZCS, 2015). Discarding is not allowed (Law 20657/2013) and although no official data is available, there are signs of non-compliance (SERNAPESCA, 2014). Overall, managers consider that the level of illegal and unreported fishing is significant (Subpesca, 2015a) and assessment scientists note that these removals must be adequately accounted for in order to reliably determine the stock status (Tascheri et al., 2015).

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is < 6.

The stock is considered to be in a collapsed state, at 11-19% of the virgin biomass level, below both limit and MSY biological reference points, and to have been in this state for the past eleven years (CCT-RDZCS, 2015).

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is < 6.

The stock is considered to be collapsed and no indications of improvement have been detected, either in abundance or in age structure (CCT-RDZCS, 2015; Subpesca, 2014). Fishing mortality is likely to be higher than estimated due to unreported landings and discarding (Tascheri et al., 2015).

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses within this fishery.

No data available for recruitment
Data notes
Chilean

Last updated on 15 February 2016

Notes:
1)
The results shown here for SSB, F and respective reference points corresponds to scenario 1 of the 2015 assessment results. Scenario 1 was chosen to be graphed as it is the base case although the assessment authors (Tascheri et al, 2015) express no preference for either of the two modeled scenarios.
2) The Scientific and Technical Committee recommended an Acceptable Biological Catch between 18,400 and 23,000 tons for 2016 (CCT-RDZCS, 2015), similarly to the case for 2015. As no preference was shown for either end of the range for 2016, the mean point was used to compute score #2. Advised TACs shown are IFOP’s up to 2014 and CCT-RDZCS’s thereafter. Advised TACs shown are IFOP’s up to 2014 and CCT-RDZCS’s thereafter.
3) Reported landings have been below TACs but score #3 has been determined qualitatively given the reported extent of illegal fishing.
4) The status of the stock has been scored qualitatively as assessment scientists presented two different scenarios, but the most likely situation is that the stock is below its limit reference point.
5) Although F in 2015 was estimated at below FMSY, a qualitative score #5 has been determined based on available information and uncertainty in the F estimate due to IUU fishing.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

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Access FIP Public Report

Progress Rating: A
Evaluation Start Date: 1 May 2013
Type: Fip

Comments:

FIP progress rating remains at  A. Stage 4 achievement reported in past 12 months - research plan extended to ensure time to discuss proposals by the Managament Committee

1.
FIP Development
Nov 10
2.
FIP Launch
May 12
Apr 16
3.
FIP Implementation
Apr 16
4.
Improvements in Fishing Practices and Fishery Management
Jun 17
5.
Improvements on the Water
Verifiable improvement on the water
6.
MSC certification (optional)
MSC certificate made public

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

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NAME

Chile hake trawl

STATUS

Withdrawn on 20 August 2013

SCORES

Certification Type:

Sources

Credits

Arancibia, H., Roa, R., Neira, S., Niklitschek, E., Barros, M. 2010. Evaluación de estratégias de recuperación en la pesquería de merluza común, Informe final proyecto FIP 2009-22, Universidade de Concépcion, 341 pp.http://www.fip.cl/Archivos/Hitos/Informes/INFORME%20HITO%20FINAL164Adjunto1.pdf

BirdLife, 2013. Fifth Meeting of the Seabird Bycatch Working Group - Seabird mortality in the Chilean demersal Haketrawl fishery and the effect of bird-scaring lines as a mitigation measure. SBWG5 Doc 39, BirdLife International, La Rochelle, France, 1 - 3 May 2013. http://www.acap.aq/index.php/en/documents/working-groups/cat_view/128-english/59-working-groups/60-seabird-bycatch-working-group/417-seabird-bycatch-wg-meeting-5

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References

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