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Profile updated on 9 July 2019

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Engraulis ringens

SPECIES NAME(s)

Anchoveta

Anchoveta has a wide geographical distribution in the South Eastern Pacific Ocean, from Zorritos (4°30’ S) in Northern Peru to Chiloé (42°30’ S) in Southern Chile (Serra et al. 1979). There are three different anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) stocks (Cahuin et al. 2015):

1. the Northern-Central Peruvian stock, assessed and managed by Peru;
2. the Southern Peru/ Northern Chile stock (this profile), assessed and managed unilaterally by Peru and Chile. In Chile it corresponds to the regions of Arica and Parinacota, Tarapacá and Antofogasta.
3. the Central-Southern Chile stock, assessed and managed by Chile.


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Peruvian and Chilean scientific institutions conduct regular scientific surveys in order to evaluate the biomass of the stock.
  • More precautionary biomass and fishing mortality reference points were adopted in Chile and for 2017, 2018 and 2019 a more precautionary advice was given taking into account the high environmental variability and uncertainty of stock status.
  • An increase of recruitment has been observed since 2015.
  • New management regulations were put in place for the artisanal component of the Peruvian fishery, including an annual TAC that was set for the first time in history.
  • A management plan for the fishery has been approved in Chile, and a Strategic Action Program was developed between Chile and Peru and is expected to increase coordinated measures between both countries for the protection of fish stocks and coastal and marine habitats. 
  • Use of onboard cameras to identify and quantify bycatch discards has been implemented in Chile.
Weaknesses
  • There is high uncertainty with the current stock status and exploitation levels. This is attributed mainly to an increase in growth parameters, which is considered to be an effect of enviromental conditions and high fishing mortalities exerted in the past.
  • A management plan was approved in Chile and an action program to increase coordination between Chile and Peru, but an integrated management plan for reducing the fishing effort on the stock has not been designed yet.
  • Under-reporting and discarding have raised concerns in recent years in Peru.
  • The TAC that was defined for the Peruvian artisanal and small scale fleet applies to the entire coast (i.e., is not disaggregated by the two anchoveta stocks); there is also no public evidence that the quota is supported by a clear scientific recommendation.
  • In Peru, longnose anchovy (Anchoa nasus) is captured and managed along with anchoveta as a target species, but the stock status for this species is unknown. 
  • In Chile, South American pilchard (Sardinops sagax) is captured and managed along with anchoveta as a bycatch species, but the stock status for this species is considered collapsed since year 2000.
  • Information of fishery impacts on bycatch, protected species and vulnerable habitats is scarce, but a research plan is underway to increase data on bycatch and discards in Chile.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 8

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 8

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 6

Future Health:

≥ 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Support the work of the governments of Peru and Chile to establish coordinated fishery research and management plans in line with the objectives of the agreed Strategic Action Programme between both countries. 
  • Support the implementation of the recently approved management plan for the Chilean portion of the fishery.
  • Work with scientists to increase robustness of stock assessment models, ensuring they take into account environmental variables and the needs of dependent predators. 
  • Support the work of scientists and managers in both countries to improve reporting of catches and discards, as well as interactions with habitats and all types of bycatch.
  • Encourage the Peruvian authorities to make public the process by which the artisanal sector TAC is determined, and to assign each stock a specific quota based on scientific advice. 
  • Encourage the Peruvian and Chilean research authorities to assess the status of minor species (e.g. longnose anchovy (Anchoa nasus) and South American pilchard (Sardinops sagax)) and develop management/rebuilding plans as appropriate.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Northern Chile Chile XV-I-II Chile Seine nets
Southern Peru Peru Southern Peru Seine nets

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 9 July 2019

Strengths
  • Peruvian and Chilean scientific institutions conduct regular scientific surveys in order to evaluate the biomass of the stock.
  • More precautionary biomass and fishing mortality reference points were adopted in Chile and for 2017, 2018 and 2019 a more precautionary advice was given taking into account the high environmental variability and uncertainty of stock status.
  • An increase of recruitment has been observed since 2015.
  • New management regulations were put in place for the artisanal component of the Peruvian fishery, including an annual TAC that was set for the first time in history.
  • A management plan for the fishery has been approved in Chile, and a Strategic Action Program was developed between Chile and Peru and is expected to increase coordinated measures between both countries for the protection of fish stocks and coastal and marine habitats. 
  • Use of onboard cameras to identify and quantify bycatch discards has been implemented in Chile.
Weaknesses
  • There is high uncertainty with the current stock status and exploitation levels. This is attributed mainly to an increase in growth parameters, which is considered to be an effect of enviromental conditions and high fishing mortalities exerted in the past.
  • A management plan was approved in Chile and an action program to increase coordination between Chile and Peru, but an integrated management plan for reducing the fishing effort on the stock has not been designed yet.
  • Under-reporting and discarding have raised concerns in recent years in Peru.
  • The TAC that was defined for the Peruvian artisanal and small scale fleet applies to the entire coast (i.e., is not disaggregated by the two anchoveta stocks); there is also no public evidence that the quota is supported by a clear scientific recommendation.
  • In Peru, longnose anchovy (Anchoa nasus) is captured and managed along with anchoveta as a target species, but the stock status for this species is unknown. 
  • In Chile, South American pilchard (Sardinops sagax) is captured and managed along with anchoveta as a bycatch species, but the stock status for this species is considered collapsed since year 2000.
  • Information of fishery impacts on bycatch, protected species and vulnerable habitats is scarce, but a research plan is underway to increase data on bycatch and discards in Chile.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 24 September 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Support the work of the governments of Peru and Chile to establish coordinated fishery research and management plans in line with the objectives of the agreed Strategic Action Programme between both countries. 
  • Support the implementation of the recently approved management plan for the Chilean portion of the fishery.
  • Work with scientists to increase robustness of stock assessment models, ensuring they take into account environmental variables and the needs of dependent predators. 
  • Support the work of scientists and managers in both countries to improve reporting of catches and discards, as well as interactions with habitats and all types of bycatch.
  • Encourage the Peruvian authorities to make public the process by which the artisanal sector TAC is determined, and to assign each stock a specific quota based on scientific advice. 
  • Encourage the Peruvian and Chilean research authorities to assess the status of minor species (e.g. longnose anchovy (Anchoa nasus) and South American pilchard (Sardinops sagax)) and develop management/rebuilding plans as appropriate.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 9 July 2019

Stock assessments are conducted by IMARPE and IFOP using information from scientific surveys conducted at least twice a year, in order to evaluate the biomass of the stock and oceanographic conditions. IFOP's assessment model covers the entire stock, considering fishery and biological data from Chile and Peru. The biomass and fishing mortality reference points are dynamic and recalculated annually. Stock assessment conducted by IMARPE covers only the Peruvian part of the stock (IMARPE 2019). A joint Peruvian-Chilean assessment workshop bringing together Chile’s Fisheries Development Institute (IFOP) and the Peruvian Institute of the Sea (IMARPE) was held from 1982 to 2011 to evaluate both anchoveta and sardine, and was restarted in 2015. Last one was held in December 2018.

Northern Chile

Last updated on 9 July 2019

Since 2010, a statistical catch-at-size model is used by IFOP considering the whole stock. Differentiation by fleet addresses different size structures of catches. Data input to the model conducted in 2018 included:

  • Landings from both southern Peru and northern Chile (1984-first semester 2018).
  • Acoustic biomass from southern Peru (1990-2016), recruitment biomass southern Peru (1998 and 2002-2015) and recruitment biomass northern Chile (1997-2002 and 2007-2018).
  • Spawning biomass from the Egg Production Method from northern Chile (1992-2017).
  • Size structure from landings from southern Peru (1984-2016) and northern Chile (1984-2018), and size structure from research survey from northern Chile (2000-2002 and 2007-2018).
  • Maturity ojive by size from Martinez et al., (2009)
  • Size-weight relationship.
  • Life-history traits from Plaza et al., (2017).
  • Fixed natural mortality of 2.2 yr-1

The retrospective analysis of the stock assessment model conducted in 2018 showed that there is a tendency to overestimate the spawning biomass in the most recent years (IFOP 2018). The model used in 2018 incorporated several improvements with respect to previous years' assessments, namely the incorporation of 10 records of acoustic biomass from Peru, the estimation of spawning biomass using the "Lo" methods instead of the "multinomial" method and the employment of the Ricker stock-recuitment relationship, instead of the Beverton & Holt alternative (IFOP 2018).

Model outputs are provided on a six-month scale to better represent the stock’s dynamics with two peak recruitment periods (IFOP 2018)

A workshop for revision of the model used by IFOP was held using updated population parameter estimates, to provide a preliminary analysis of the impacts of observed accelerated, e.g. smaller individuals reproductively mature. Both the base model (scenario A) and  this alternative model (scenario B) have been used in the stock assessment conduicted in 2017 by IFOP (IFOP 2017). The alternative scenario indicated a re-escalation towards lower total biomass, spawning biomass, reproductive potential, fishing mortality values ​and, on the other hand, a higher natural mortality (IFOP 2017). An expert revision of the anchoveta aging technics was conducted, confirming the very rapid growth rate in juvenile anchoveta (Plaza et al. 2017). All this new information on growth and age was incorporated in the last stock assessment conducted in 2018 (IFOP 2018).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 9 July 2019

Advice on catch options and management scenarios are provided separately by each country participating in the fishery. In Chile, official advise is provided by the Scientific and Technical Committee for the Small Pelagic fisheries (“Comité Científico Técnico de Pesquerías de Pequeños Pelágicos”, CCT-PP). In Peru, the Sea Institure ("Instituto del Mar de Perú", IMARPE) is in charge of providing advice to the Ministry of Production.


 

Northern Chile

Last updated on 9 July 2019

In Chile, stock assessments are officially conducted by the Fisheries Development Institute (‘IFOP’) which includes different exploitation and risk options. Since 2013, the Scientific and Technical Committee for the Small Pelagic fisheries (“Comité Científico Técnico de Pesquerías de Pequeños Pelágicos”, CCT-PP), formed by IFOP and the SUBPESCA’s representatives, analyzes IFOP’s update on stock status and catch projections and makes the official recommendation to the Chilean fisheries authority. According to the most recent fisheries law (Law N° 20.657), the recommendation is provided as a TAC range with the lower limit as 20% of the actual TAC recommendation (SUBPESCA 2017).

For 2017, the initial recommended quota based on the FMSY could reach 1.1 million tonnes (IFOP 2016), but given the high instability of environmental conditions on the stock, an atypical El Niño in 2015-2016 and low levels of chlorophyll, the CCT-PP has recommended to maintain the same advice as for 2016, range of 608,000-760,000 tonnes (CCT-PP 2016). For 2017, catch options based on the two mentioned models ranged from 775,000 tonnes to 1.122 million tonnes (IFOP 2017)For 2018 and 2019, catch options were based on the accelerated growth scenario applying different exploitation levels and recruitment assumptions (IFOP 2017) (IFOP 2018). For 2018, catch option according to the model ranged between 1.1 and 1.8 millon tonnes whereas for 2019 the range was 0.76-1.81 million tonnes (IFOP 2018) . Given the high uncertainty and continued discussions on stock assessment, the CCT-PP has continued to implement a status quo in catch advice from 2016 in both 2017 and 2018, of 608,000-760,000 tonnes (CCT-PP 2017; CCT-PP 2017)The advised range was slighlty smaller in 2019, 599,488-749,360 tonnes, as it explicitly considers 1.4% of discards (CCT-PP 2018).

The CCT-PP highlights the need of a peer-review of the stock assessment model conducted by specialists to evaluate the uncertainties emerging from the use of the new acelerated growth paradigm (CCT-PP 2018).

IFOP recommended the use of high-resolution satellite information for the monitoring of the pelagic ecosystem in northern Chile, to have a diagnosis of the productive levels of the environment and thus have a better understanding of the condition of the resource and catch levels that are biologically permissible for the sustainability of the fishery each year (CCT-PP 2016; IFOP 2016). Recently, a revision and benchmark workshop was recommended by the CCT-PP- to review implications of the confimed rapid growth parameters in stock assessment and status (CCT-PP 2018), but no information on this regard is publicly available. The use of a dynamic size-age transition matrix in the stock assessment models was recommended by the CCT-PP in the report (CCT-PP 2018).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 9 July 2019

According to last IFOP stock assessment, that included both the Peruvian and the Chilean parts of the stock, the virginal spawning stock biomass is 1,800,000 tonnes and the current estimated spawning stock biomass is 1,132,000 tonnes which is  22% above the target reference point (50%SSB0) estimated at 931,000 tonnes, and almost 2.5 times above the limit reference point (25%SSB0) estimated at 465,500 tonnes. Fishing mortality was estimated at 0.93 yr-1 which is 9% above the reference point Ftarget=0.7 yr-1. These values place the stock in a situation of overfishing but not overexploitation (CCT-PP 2018). However, due to some uncertainties in the modelling approach (e.g. high uncertainty in the estimation of population variables, retrospective patterns and concerns related to the new growth paradigm for anchoveta) the CCT-PP determined the stock as overexploited based on qualitative indicators such as the decreasing trend in the mode of the size of the captures and the biomass estimates from acoustic surveys and the daily egg production method.

Discard rates for the industrial fraction of the fishery, as estimated by IFOP were 0.27% and 2.81% in 2017 and 2018 respectively, whereas discards for the artisanal fraction were estimated at 4% and 1.52% for the same two years (CCT-PP 2018)

In Peru, the last scientific survey to assess the abundance of pelagic resources estimated a total biomass of 1,160,000 tonnes for the Peruvian part of the stock (IMARPE 2019). As in previous years, IMARPE also conducted an analytical stock assessment, using a Biomass Dynamic model. Based on the model run results, the stock lays under the underexploited and underfished region of the Kobe diagram (IMARPE 2019). The 2018 spawning stock biomass was estimated at 2.78 million tonnes, i.e., well above the Bmsy; and the exploitation levels adopted in the last years in Peru have been below the target reference point Fmsy. The estimated reference points from the assessment are as follows (IMARPE 2019):

  • MSY=1,080,000 tonnes.
  • Bmsy=1,730,000 tonnes
  • Fmsy=0.62 yr-1

With these estimated parameters, the stock lays under the underexploited and underfished region of the Kobe diagram (IMARPE 2019), as the estimated biomass is well above the Bmsy and the exploitation levels adopted in the last years in Peru have been below the target reference point Fmsy.

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 9 July 2019

This stock is distributed along Chilean and Peruvian waters, but is managed separately by these countries, through management measures including closed seasons, minimum mesh sizes and total allowable catches (TACs).

Although scientific workshops IFOP-IMARPE are annually undertaken to exchange relevant data and an Strategic Action Program between Chile and Peru was approved in 2016 for implementing a coordinated series of measures aimed at greater protection of fish stocks and coastal and marine habitats (CIAM 2017) (IMARPE 2018) (UNDP Peru n.d.), no joint management plan to effectively manage shared stock still exists.

Northern Chile

Last updated on 9 July 2019

In Chile, fisheries are managed by the Ministry of Economy, Development and Tourims (MEFT) through the Subsecretary of Fisheries (SUBPESCA). In Chile, a single TAC is issued annually for the anchoveta fishery in regions XV-I-II (northern Chile; from Arica and Parinacota to Antofagasta), and allocated by fleet component and semester. In 2016, the Chilean TAC was set at around 752,000 tonnes. For 2017 and 2018, the status quo on TAC advice and setting was applied due to high uncertainty on stock status. This limit is close to the upper value of the recommended range (MEFT 2015; MEFT 2016; MEFT 2017; MEFT 2017). The share for the industrial and artisanal fleets is around 636,500 tonnes and 115,300 tonnes, respectively. TAC for 2019 are 112,456 tonnes for the artisanal fraction and 629,210 tonnes for the industrial fraction (MEFT 2018).

A management plan has been approved in April 2018 by Chile for the nothern anchoveta stock. It presents the challenges and agreed actions to improve stock status, reduce bycatch and increase social aspects of the fishery (MEFT 2018; SUBPESCA 2018). Although scientific workshops IFOP-IMARPE are annually undertaken to exchange relevant data and an Strategic Action Program between Chile and Peru was approved in 2016 for implementing a coordinated series of measures aimed at greater protection of fish stocks and coastal and marine habitats (CIAM 2017; IMARPE 2018; UNDP Peru n.d.), the Chilean management plan does not define actions to conduct an effective joint management between Chile and Peru.

Mandatory use of onboard cameras to identify and quantify discards has been recently implemented (MEFT 2015).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 9 July 2019

Historically, landings have always been below both Chilean and Peruvian set TAC (IFOP 2016; IMARPE 2017; SUBPESCA 2018) (IFOP 2018)

There is however evidence in the literature of some catch under-reporting. Mendo and Wosnitza-Mendo (2014) estimated correction factors for unreported catches in Peru, from 1950 to 2010, including discards of excess catch and juveniles, loss of fish blood, underestimation through misreporting by processing plants; illegal landings and irregular sales. Industrial anchoveta catches correction factor varied mostly between 15% and 35%, peaking in the early 1970s well over 30%. In 2010, estimate for undeclared anchoveta catches by fishing companies was 10%, confirming that the data gathering system needs improvement. Small and artisanal fleets correction factor is on average 35%. There is evidence that part of the anchoveta fished by the artisanal and small scale fishery in Peru is illegally used for reduction purposes (OCEANA Peru 2019).

There are no estimates for under-reporting from the Chilean fishery (IFOP, 2016).

In January 2019, a new law that strengthens the inspection body in Chile (SERNAPESCA) was published (MEFT 2019).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 16 August 2017

The fishery for anchoveta is known to interact with several PET species of sea turtles, marine mammals, seabirds and sharks, most of which are released just after being caught. Among these, are the Humboldt Penguin Spheniscus humboldti (“Vulnerable”- IUCN), Peruvian Diving Petrel Pelecanoides garnotii (“Endangered”- IUCN) and Smooth Hammerhead Sphyrna zygaena (“Vulnerable”- IUCN). The greatest impact of this fishery might be the decrease in the availability of anchoveta, as it is an important prey for many of the species mentioned above (CeDePesca 2010). Bertrand et al. 2012) found out that the foraging efficiency of breeding seabirds may be significantly affected by not only the global quantity, but also the temporal and spatial patterns of fishery removals, thus an ecosystem approach to fisheries management should limit the risk of local depletion around breeding colonies using, for instance, adaptive marine protected areas. There are also concerns about Burmeister’s porpoise Phocoena spinipinnis (“Data Deficient” – IUCN), the Guanay Cormorant Phalacrocorax bougainvillii (“Near Threatened” – IUCN) and green turtle Chelonia mydas (“Endangered”- IUCN) (IUCN 2017), which feed extensively on anchoveta.

IMARPE records seabirds and marine mammals’ observations during the Peruvian hydroacoustic surveys (IMARPE 2015; IMARPE 2017), but there is no regular reporting on interaction with the anchoveta fishery. As such, the direct and indirect effects of the fishery on these species are not known in detail.

Other Species

Last updated on 9 July 2019

In the Peruvian fishery for anchoveta, there is a bycatch limit of 5% (PRODUCE 2011). However, bycatch data is not collected on a regular basis. According to an onboard observer program conducted in 2010, anchoveta comprised 99.9% of the catches, while the remaining 0.1% was mostly comprised by Chilean silverside Odontesthes regia (‘pejerrey’). Species such as the Mexican barracuda Sphyraena ensis, Pacific bonito Sarda chilensis, Patagonian squid Loligo gahi, among others, were also observed in the catches (IMARPE 2010). Results from an onboard observer programs conduted in January and February 2015 indicated that anchoveta  dominated both catches from the artisanal and the small scale components, comprising 98% or more of the total catches. Longnose anchovy Anchoa nasus ('Samasa' or 'anchoveta blanca'), lorna drum Sciaena deliciosa ('lorna'), pejerrey and chub mackerel Scomber japonicus ('caballa') comprised the remaining fraction of the catches (IMARPE 2015; IMARPE 2015). Longnose anchovy (Anchoa nasus) and anchoveta are managed together under a single quota in the industrial fishery. However, the proportion of this species in catch is not regularly reported and stock status is not known. 

In Chile, there is no data on bycatch but it is considered to be low (IFOP 2013; IFOP 2015c). South American pilchard Sardinops sagax was caught together with anchoveta during the history of the fishery (CeDePesca 2010). The resource is collapsed, associated with adverse physical and biological environmental conditions for the resource. Still, the highest rates of exploitation occurred in the early 1990s, when the stock was already declining significantly. A quota is issued annually; in 2015 reported catches were 338 tonnes (SUBPESCA 2017), well below set TAC (SUBPESCA 2014).

HABITAT

Last updated on 16 August 2017

Anchoveta is a pelagic species that is captured by purse seines both in Chile and Peru. Usually, the purse seine fishery are not deemed to significantly impact the seafloor unless used in shallow waters. In Peru, industrial vessels can only operate outside the 10 nm from the coast; the artisanal and small-scale fleets are can operate from the 3nm from the coast in order to protect coastal habitats and spawning and breeding zones for several species (PRODUCE 2012; PRODUCE 2017).

Anchoveta biomass is strongly affected by the oceanographic conditions; periodically, the upwelling that drives the Humboldt Current Large Marine Ecosystem’s productivity, where the fishery operates, is disrupted by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. The spatiotemporal variability of anchoveta have been studied by several authors (e.g., Ballón et al. 2011; Bertrand et al. 2012; Espino 2012; Espinoza and Bertrand 2014). During El Niño event, fish abundance and distribution are significantly affected, often leading to stock crashes and cascading social and economic impacts. These events cause regime shifts where anchovies and sardines alternate as the dominant species in the ecosystem. Still, both anchovy and sardine fisheries’ collapses can be attributed to a combination of El Niño events and decadal shifts towards less productive conditions, and overfishing (Bertrand et al. 2012).

Kelvin waves and a strong El Niño event observed in 2014 and 2015 are considered to have caused a decrease of the coastal habitat (anchoveta habitat), decrease in nutrients and phytoplankton biomass (IMARPE 2014; IMARPE 2015) affecting the ecosystem (IMARPE 2014; IMARPE 2015).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 16 Aug 2017

There are two marine protected areas in Peru, “Reserva Marina de Paracas” and “Reserva Nacional de Islas, Islotes y Sistemas de Puntas de Guano”, both aiming at protecting marine life, in particular seabirds and marine mammals. In Chile, there are five marine protected areas (“La Rinconada”, “Isla Chañaral”, “Isla Choros-Damas”, “Putemún” and “Pullinque”), which main goal is to preserve the natural oyster Argopecten purpuratus and scallop _Tiostrea chilensis _ banks, and protect several species of marine mammals that occur in the area. The effects of these marine reserves on the stock of anchoveta are unknown (CeDePesca 2010).

In Peru and Chile, some areas may be temporarily closed due to the high proportion juveniles. Since 2014, the instability of the environmental conditions is thought to be the cause of a higher mix of adult and juvenile anchoveta. In Peru, fishery was closed in the second season of 2014 (IMARPE 2015), and recently there have been numerous temporal closures in both countries when high proportions of juveniles are observed in catches (MEFT 2016; MEFT 2016; PRODUCE 2016).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 15 June 2019

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2019 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

This stock is distributed along Chilean and Peruvian waters, but is managed separately by these countries, which has resulted in the inability to address overfishing at the stock level (IFOP 2015c). Reference points have been adopted for the Chilean fishery (MEFT 2015a) and a management plan with actions to improve the fishery in several aspects has recently been approved in Chile (MEFT, 2018; SUBPESCA, 2018), but there is no Harvest Control Rule that anticipates reducing fishing effort when biomass is low. Managers make use of regular surveys to deploy within year (in Chile) or within season (in Peru) management measures and fishing quotas (IFOP, 2018; IMARPE, 2019).

As calculated for 2019 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

TACs for this stock are still set unilaterally by Peru and Chile, despite being a single stock. Set TACs from each of the two countries have generally been in line with the advice by the respective scientific institutions (MEFT, 2018, PRODUCE, 2018). For Peru, a TAC of 300,00 tonnes was set for the artisanal and small scale fleet for the first time (PRODUCE 2017e), and status quoin catch limit was applied for 2018 (PRODUCE 2018b). However, the TAC applies to the entire coast (i.e., there are no specific catch share by each of the northern and sourthern Peruvian anchoveta stocks), and also no public evidence that the quota is supported by a clear scientific recommendation.

As calculated for 2019 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

Landings have usually been below both Chilean and Peruvian set TAC. In 2018, preliminary landings were 33% of the total TAC (IFOP, 2018). However, there is a 10% estimate of unreported catches in Perú by the industrial fleet (Mendo and Wosnitza‐Mendo 2014) and there is evidence that part of the anchoveta fished by the artisanal and small scale fishery in Peru is illegally used for reduction purposes (Oceana Peru, 2019). There are no estimates for under-reporting from the Chilean fishery (IFOP 2016), but a research program is underway to obtain such estimates (MEFT 2016).

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2019 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Stock assessment conducted in 2018 by IFOP considering the whole stock (both Peruvian and Chilean sections) yielded estimates of SSB 21.6% higher than the target reference point (931,000 tonnes). However, IFOP recognized high uncertainty in the results from that stock assessment related to high uncertainty in the estimation of population variables, retrospective patterns and concerns related to the new growth paradigm for anchoveta (IFOP, 2018; CCT-PP, 2018). Based on those uncertainties, the advising committee CCT-PP set a precautionary TAC based on qualitative indicators such as the decreasing trend in the mode of the size of the captures and the biomass estimates from acoustic surveys and the daily egg production method and declared the stock as overexploited (CCT-PP, 2019).

As calculated for 2019 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Stock assessment conducted in 2018 by IFOP considering the whole stock (both Peruvian and Chilean sections) yielded estimates of SSB 21.6% higher than the target reference point (931,000 tonnes) but fishing mortality levels in 2018 were 9% above the target reference point for the last semester of the evaluation (0.86), placing the stock in a situation of overfishing but not overexploitation. However, IFOP recognized high uncertainty in the results from that stock assessment related to high uncertainty in the estimation of population variables, retrospective patterns and concerns related to the new growth paradigm for anchoveta (IFOP, 2018; CCT-PP, 2018). Based on those uncertainties, the advising committee CCT-PP set a precautionary TAC based on qualitative indicators and declared the stock as overexploited (CCT-PP, 2019).

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No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
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To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
  • Advised TAC, set TAC and catches data are the sum of both Peruvian and Chilean fisheries. 
  • Since 2013 advised TAC in Chile is defined as a range by the Technical Scientific Committee for Small Pelagics (CCT-PP), according to the Chilean Fisheries law (CCT-PP 2016), based on the Instituto Fomento Pesqueiro (IFOP) assessments reports. 
  • The Management strategy score is estimated qualitatively because there is no management removal rate at low biomass and the reouurce is above the limit reference point. 
  • The Manager compliance score is estimated qualitatively because of the uncertaintites related to the peruvian TAC for the artisanal fleet. In 2017, a TAC of 300,000 tonnes was assigned to the entire Peruvian coast for the artisanal and small scale fleet for the first time in history (PRODUCE 2017). The same volume was defined as set TAC for 2018 (PRODUCE 2018). As there are no specific catch share by each of the two Peruvian anchoveta stocks, and also no public evidence that the quota is supported by a clear scientific recommendation, the value is not included in the datasheet.
  • Score on fishers compliance is set qualitatively based on the uncertainties related to the unreported catches.
  • Although the last stock assessment by IFOP provided updated reference points and population parameter estimates, scores about current health and future health of the stock are calculated qualitatively due to the uncertainties related to the stock assessment process (IFOP 2018) which made the Scientific Committee to advise a conservative TAC based on qualitative indicators rather than using the results of the stock assessment (CCT-PP 2018)

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

References

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