Last updated on 27 September 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Engraulis ringens

SPECIES NAME(s)

Anchoveta

Anchoveta has a wide geographical distribution in the South Eastern Pacific Ocean, from Zorritos (4°30’ S) in Northern Peru to Chiloé (42°30’ S) in Southern Chile (Serra et al., 1979). There are three different anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) stocks (Cahuin et al., 2015):

1. the Northern-Central Peruvian stock, managed by Peru;
2. the Southern Peru/Northern Chile stock, managed by both Peru and Chile, and,
3. the “Central-Southern Chile stock”, managed by Chile.

There is some evidence based on reproductive population parameters that two indepedent populations may exist in Central-Southern Chile (Canales and Leal, 2009); however, it is more likely, based on genetic and other studies, that there is only one stock (Ferrada et al., 2002; Cahuin et al., 2015). Still, Chilean authorities assess and manage anchoveta as different fishery units: as a central or Regions III and IV unit and as a southern or Regions V to X unit. In the latter unit, the anchoveta constitutes a mixed fishery with Araucanian herring.


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • Dynamic reference points are used to monitor the status of the stock.
  • Annual catch limit is modified in an adaptive way during the year in result of updated scientific data and has been in accordance to recommendations.
  • IFOP stock assessment reports present biological acceptable catch options, based on different scenarios; TAC advice given by CCT-PP is more clearly defined than in previous years.
  • Five marine reserves are established and seasonal closures to protect juveniles and the spawning stock are redefined according to real-time analysis of the stock.
  • The fishing gear used is not expected to impact the seabed ecosystem.
  • Since 2014 there is a considerable decrease in annual quotas, and fishing mortality had a significant reduction since 2016.
  • The hydroacoustic assessment method makes use of one of the most robust methodologies for assessing the spawning biomass of small pelagic fish with partial spawning.
  • An Anchoveta-Araucanian herring management plan was approved, which establishes lines of action to improve the fishery.
  • A research program to quantify and identify non-target species and discarding of the artisanal sector was conducted in the V-X regions, and a discarding reduction plan was approved in 2017 for both artisanal and industrial components of the fishery. Discarding represents less than 10% of catches in both fleets. Several mitigation measures are recommended.
  • TAC advice now takes into account discards and mis-reporting.
Weaknesses
  • Latests IFOP stock assessment reports are available upon request only.
  • Information on fishery effects on habitat and ecosystem is scarce. 
  • Spawning stock biomass is improving but is still 50% below the target level, thus the stock is in a depleted condition.
  • In this mixed fishery of anchoveta and Araucanian herring, if one of the TACs for these species is reached and the other is not, a joint imputation of 40% is allowed to discourage discards, however this leads to significant overpass of the anchoveta TAC. 
  • A management plan was recently approved but a specific recovery plan with explicit harvest control rules, considering the mixed nature of this fishery, is not yet in place and still needs to be developed especially given the stock condition.
  • A 4-10% of under-reporting and discarding of total catch was estimated by IFOP, however, these estimates come from only 2 years of observations.
  • The South American sea lion and some seabird PET species are identified to interact with both artisanal and industrial fleets. 

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

< 6

Future Health:

7.4


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Engage with managers and IFOP to ensure that catch recommendations and scientific reports are publicly available in a timely manner.
  • Support the work of scientists and managers to improve reporting of catches, discards, and bycatch, including expansion of the observer program, as well as defining the scale of interactions with benthic habitats.
  • Monitor implementation of the new discard reduction plan (July 2017).
  • Work with scientists to conduct research on and develop new stock assessment models that take into account environmental variables
  • Support the implementation of the Anchoveta-Araucanian herring management plan (2016), and ensure further revisions of the plan include a specific recovery plan with explicit harvest control rules, considering the mixed nature of this fishery.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Chilean regions III and IV Chile III-IV Chile Purse seines
Chilean regions V-X Chile V-X Chile Seine nets

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 6 August 2018

Strengths
  • Dynamic reference points are used to monitor the status of the stock.
  • Annual catch limit is modified in an adaptive way during the year in result of updated scientific data and has been in accordance to recommendations.
  • IFOP stock assessment reports present biological acceptable catch options, based on different scenarios; TAC advice given by CCT-PP is more clearly defined than in previous years.
  • Five marine reserves are established and seasonal closures to protect juveniles and the spawning stock are redefined according to real-time analysis of the stock.
  • The fishing gear used is not expected to impact the seabed ecosystem.
Chilean regions V-X

Last updated on 16 July 2018

  • Since 2014 there is a considerable decrease in annual quotas, and fishing mortality had a significant reduction since 2016.
  • The hydroacoustic assessment method makes use of one of the most robust methodologies for assessing the spawning biomass of small pelagic fish with partial spawning.
  • An Anchoveta-Araucanian herring management plan was approved, which establishes lines of action to improve the fishery.
  • A research program to quantify and identify non-target species and discarding of the artisanal sector was conducted in the V-X regions, and a discarding reduction plan was approved in 2017 for both artisanal and industrial components of the fishery. Discarding represents less than 10% of catches in both fleets. Several mitigation measures are recommended.
  • TAC advice now takes into account discards and mis-reporting.
Weaknesses
  • Latests IFOP stock assessment reports are available upon request only.
  • Information on fishery effects on habitat and ecosystem is scarce. 
Chilean regions V-X

Last updated on 16 July 2018

  • Spawning stock biomass is improving but is still 50% below the target level, thus the stock is in a depleted condition.
  • In this mixed fishery of anchoveta and Araucanian herring, if one of the TACs for these species is reached and the other is not, a joint imputation of 40% is allowed to discourage discards, however this leads to significant overpass of the anchoveta TAC. 
  • A management plan was recently approved but a specific recovery plan with explicit harvest control rules, considering the mixed nature of this fishery, is not yet in place and still needs to be developed especially given the stock condition.
  • A 4-10% of under-reporting and discarding of total catch was estimated by IFOP, however, these estimates come from only 2 years of observations.
  • The South American sea lion and some seabird PET species are identified to interact with both artisanal and industrial fleets. 
RECOMMENDATIONS
Chilean regions V-X

Last updated on

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Engage with managers and IFOP to ensure that catch recommendations and scientific reports are publicly available in a timely manner.
  • Support the work of scientists and managers to improve reporting of catches, discards, and bycatch, including expansion of the observer program, as well as defining the scale of interactions with benthic habitats.
  • Monitor implementation of the new discard reduction plan (July 2017).
  • Work with scientists to conduct research on and develop new stock assessment models that take into account environmental variables
  • Support the implementation of the Anchoveta-Araucanian herring management plan (2016), and ensure further revisions of the plan include a specific recovery plan with explicit harvest control rules, considering the mixed nature of this fishery.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 16 July 2018

Fisheries research at the national level is conducted by the Fisheries Development Institute (Instituto de Fomento Pesquero, IFOP). 

Two independent assessments are conducted for anchoveta in Central-Southern Chile: a central unit (Chilean regions III and IV) and a southern unit (Chilean regions V-X) (IFOP 2016)(IFOP 2016), however, based on genetic studies, it is likely that there is only one stock (Ferrada et al., 2002; Cahuin et al., 2015).

The direct hydroacoustic surveys have been conducted biannually since 1999 by means of two cruises: in summer (recruitment period) and in the autumn. Indirect assessment is conducted using a statistical catch-at-age model allowing the incorporation of supplementary information, such as Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB), Catch Per Unit of Effort (CPUE), Fishing mortality (F), catch-by-age and year and recruitment indices. Since 2010, a bi-annual model is performed to include data from the two surveys and stock vulnerability due to climatic phenomena (e.g. El Niño) and biological characteristics of the species. Most updated assessment reports, based in each of the surveys, are made available upon request (Portal de Transparencia). Executive summaries by the Scientific Technical Committee for the Small Pelagic Fisheries (Comité Científico Técnico de Pesquerías de Pequeños Pelágicos, CCT-PP) are timely published.

Chilean regions V-X

Last updated on 16 July 2018

The Anchoveta stock in Chilean regions V-X constitutes a mixed fishery with Araucanian herring Strangomera bentincki, although mono-specific models are used for each species.  

The September 2017 assessment is an update of previous assessment. Input data included: 1991-2016 landings from SERNAPESCA; 1997-2016 catch-at-age and weight-at-age data from the Monitoring Program of the Main National Fisheries (Pelagic Fisheries); biomass time series of the acoustic surverys performed in summer (2000-2017) and autumn (2003-2017), from the scientific research cruises conducted anually; and other relevant information related to the species' life cycle from scientific articles. A new assessment model was used, as agreed in the 4th meeting of CCT-PP, which includes a difference in size sample estimation of age compositions in surveys and catch (IFOP 2017)

The 2018 updated assessment from IFOP included new information from the RECLAS 2018 acoustic biomass survey, landings and discards at 4% since 2001 and the most recent recruitment estimates (last 5 years). The information used was provided in the report of the 2018 second session of the CCT-PP (CCT-PP 2018)

Arteaga et al. (2014) conducted a research to develop a strategic management of the multi-species fishery of Araucanian herring and anchoveta, including the identified elements regarding recruitment and environmental variables, instead of using a mono-specific model to each of the fisheries. Alternative strategies are being studied by the University of Concepcion (CCT-PP, 2014). Parada et al. (2013) also consider the importance of environmental conditions to understand stock’s trends and the use of a biophysical model.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 16 July 2018

Stock assessments of Chilean fisheries are officially conducted by the IFOP, and include a series of catch options, based on different scenarios (IFOP 2016). These are assessed by the Scientific-Technical Committees for Small Pelagics (‘Comité Científico-Técnico de Pequeños Pelágicos’, CCT-PP), which includes scientists and managers’ representatives, to make the catch recommendations. It consists on an advised TAC range with a lower limit of 20% of the actual TAC recommendation, in accordance to the most recent fisheries law (Law N° 20.657, SUBPESCA, 2013b). The mechanism for selecting the advised catch option is defined jointly in an ad-hoc approach.

Up to three recommendations may be issued for anchoveta in a year, taking into account summer and autumn cruises and catches updates. A proportion of discards is now discounted from the advised TAC, as foreseen in the fisheries law (article 7º B) (IFOP 2017)

Chilean regions V-X

Last updated on 16 July 2018

Although biomass is below the biomass limit referent point (Blim ) for several years, there is no harvest control rule that indicate reduction of fishing mortality. The CCT-PP noted the difficulties in managing mixed fisheries of sympatric species that seem to overlap in their ecological niche. Particularly, the presence of anchoveta in southern Chile is considered a population expansion due to the current inter-decadal regime that favors this family in the South Pacific, where anchoveta is competing with the Araucanian herring, an endemic species naturally adapted to the environmental conditions of the central-southern Chile. Therefore, the collapse state of this stock is restricted only to the area of ​​spatial overlap with the Araucanian herring. In this scenario, the CCT-PP recognized that some flexibility in the anchoveta quota allocation criteria was required to make the Araucanian herring fishery viable, considering the mixed fishery situation (CCT-PP 2014). In 2016, the CCT-PP indicated that a 7-13% catch of anchoveta of the Araucanian herring quota coincides with the maximum sustainable yield, which is in accordance with the management objectives (CCT-PP 2016).

Based on IFOP’s 2017 stock assessment (IFOP 2017), the CCT-PP has recommended an initial TAC (October 2017) range of 39,552-49,440 tonnes (CCT-PP 2017). For the first time advised TAC takes into account an estimate of discards, discounting 4% of these to the estimated catch levels. This range was calculated considering recent recruitment levels and a risk of 10% to not attain the management goal. Based on the most recent assessment update (April 2018, complete report not yet available), a 5% increase respect the initial advised TAC was estimated, but the CCT-PP final recommendation was to maintain the initial TAC for 2018 (CCT-PP 2018).  

There is a strong seasonality in landings with peaks between February and May, conditioned since 2001 by fishing quotas and temporal closures to protect spawning peaks and recruitment. These measures have defined an intensive extractive activity, by both the industrial and artisanal components. For this reason, it is imperative to update each year and diagnose the status of the anchoveta and to establish an ad-hoc management strategy for the conservation of the resource and the sustainability of the fishery (IFOP 2016). The stock recruitment and spawning period is closely monitored by IFOP, per region, and the results are published in monthly bulletins (here in Spanish).

CURRENT STATUS
Chilean regions V-X

Last updated on 16 July 2018

Discards estimates were included in the October 2017 stock assessment, at 4% in 2015 and at 2% in 2016 based on results from the discards research program 2014-2015. This additional source of mortality resulted in a re-scale of biomass, fishing mortality and reference points estimates. Biomass target reference point - BMSY proxy - is defined at 55% of the virgin spawning stock biomass (SSB0) and was estimated at 720,000 tonnes in 2017 (estimated at ~560,000 tonnes prior to including discards) and the limit reference point - Blim proxy - is set at 27.5% of SSB0, i.e. 360,000 tonnes; target fishing mortality is associated to fishing intensity that maintain BMSY, being estimated at FMSY proxy = 0.39 (IFOP 2017).  

The most recent stock assessment conducted in March 2018 (complete report not yet available) under colder environmental conditions, SSB was 50% below the target biomass reference point, BMSY proxy and below the limit reference point. In 2017, catches were 58,443 tonnes (CCT-PP 2018). Absolute values were not made available in the summary CCT-PP report for SSB but only relative numbers. Recruitment and reproductive parameters are considered as normal in the first quarter of 2018. There are signs of improvement in SSB compared to the decreasing period observed since 2005; associated to sucessfull recruitments in 2016 and 2017, recent favorable oceanographic conditions and lower catches. However, the stock is still considered to continue in a collapsed condition.

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 16 July 2018

The fisheries management authority in Chile is the Ministry of Economy, Development and Tourism (Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, MEFT) and the Undersecretariat of Fisheries and Aquaculture (Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura, SUBPESCA) (Law 20.657, SUBPESCA, 2013b). The General Law on Fisheries and Aquaculture (Ley General de Pesca y Acuicultura, LGPA) was enacted in 1991 and updated in 2017 (GdC 2017). In 2016, FAO delivered a report, as requested by the Chilean government, to review the LGPA according to national and international laws and best practices; a few recommendations are made to improve the fisheries' sector in the country (FAO 2016).

The National Fisheries Service (SERNAPESCA) is in charge of ensuring proper application of the rules and regulations on fishing and supervising their enforcement, providing the artisanal fishing activity with technical assistance, and keeping a national record of artisanal fishermen.

Annual TAC is split between the industrial and artisanal sectors and are allocated to the industrial fishery in periods taking into account the seasonality of the catch. Currently, new access to this fishery is prohibited (SUBPESCA, 2016a). Also, a Maximum Catch Limit per Vessel Owner regime has been established for the industrial sector and an Artisanal Extraction Regime for the artisanal sector, through which artisanal individual fishermen or associations may obtain catch quotas. TAC for the coming year is set preliminary in October-December; and can be revised later in March and June after the summer and/or autumn surveys, which provide updated information on recruitment and growth, and TAC use. 

A management plan is required by the Fisheries Law (SUBPESCA 2017) for the fisheries under a closed-access system, such as the anchoveta. Other management strategies include vessel monitoring systems (VMS), temporal closures set upon SUBPESCA and IFOP recommendation, recent mandatory use of onboard cameras to identify and quantify discards (MEFT 2015).

Chilean regions V-X

Last updated on 16 July 2018

 A Management Committee for the anchoveta and araucanian herring mixed fishery in regions V-X, compose by SUBPESCA and SERNAPESCA members, artisanal and industrial fishermen and the processing industry (SUBPESCA, 2016a) developed a management plan, which has been officially adopted (MEFT 2016). The management plan set lines of action to addresses biological, economic, social and ecological matters, on which all the members of the committee reached consensus on the diagnosis and considerations that a future sustainable policy should have. Fixed and mobile temporal closures to protect the spawning stock and juveniles have also been included. Among the actions planned, there is the evaluation of a series of harvest control rules and definition of a robust rule to allow a viable mixed fishery (SUBPESCA 2016)

Biological closures are accordingly applied considering the monthly bulletins published by IFOP with information gathered about recruitment and the spawning period. Regulations about quota adjustments within a year are made available here

Discarding of target species of this mixed fishery is not allowed, according to the Fisheries Law. Discards were first addressed in 2001 and then in 2012 with a specific discard policy (Law Nº 20.625). This legal framework brought room to develop research programs to identify and quantify target and non-target species as well as incidental catches and identify causes of discards, in both artisanal and industrial fleets, using onboard observers and logbooks. A 2-year research program was conducted in this fishery (2014-2016) and results are available in (Vega et al. 2017). A mitigation plan was consequently developed and officially released in July 2017 (MEFT 2017). Several considerations are taken into account, namely exempt some species of the discard ban, review the current legislation and monitor the mitigation measures applied in an adaptative approach. Recommendations and best practices are also included in regard to the target, non-target species and incidental catches (SUBPESCA 2017). The process improved the knowledge about Chilean fisheries and strenghtened the relationship with the institutions and fishermen contributing, expectedly, to the compliance of the measures achieved among stakeholders (San Martín et al. 2016)

For 2018, a preliminary TAC was set at 49,440 t with 10,626 t for the industrial sector and 37,676 t for the artisanal sector; and the remaining value for research purposes (MEFT 2017). Set TACs have been in line with the upper limit of the advised TAC range (CCT-PP 2017)

During the discards research program (2014-2016), a 100% joint TAC imputation was allowed for anchoveta and Araucanian herring in regions V-X (MEFT 2016; MEFT 2017; MEFT 2017), in 2018, a 40% was allowed (MEFT 2018).

COMPLIANCE
Chilean regions V-X

Last updated on 16 July 2018

Compliance with the management policies adopted proves high, being encouraged by a supervision and control system that has been applied for several years but which still lacks consolidation. Closed access for new industrial and artisanal vessels, the satellite positioning system, the (5-nautical-mile) reserve zone, the implementation of spawning and recruitment closures have all resulted in the strengthening of the small pelagic stocks. 

Discarding in Chile is not allowed, but in the V-X regions, anchoveta and Araucanian herring are caught together, as these cannot be differentiated by fishing equipments. In this mixed fishery of anchoveta and Araucanian herring Strangomera bentincki, prior to 2014, if one of the TACs for these species was reached and the other was not, 20% of incidental catch of the species with no remaining quota was allowed for each fishing trip. Discarding and misreporting of catches was of concern, so a research program was put in place to estimate misreporting, discards and bycatch rates (MEFT 2014; IFOP 2016) and a discards reduction plan was published in July 2017 (MEFT 2017).

During the discards research program (2014-2016), a 100% joint TAC imputation was allowed for anchoveta and araucanian herring in regions V-X, what led to overshoots of the set TAC for anchoveta (CCT-PP 2018), between 2014 and 2016, particularly by the artisanal fleet. After the program was finalized, a 40% joint TAC imputation has been allowed (MEFT 2018). Currently, this mixed fishery presents a disparate state of exploitation of each resource and significantly different quotas for each one, which can constitute a strong incentive for users to discard or under-report the limiting resource and thus be able to complete the catch quota assigned to the main resource, which is Araucanian herring in recent years (IFOP 2017). Scientists identify the existing legislation as the main reason to promote discarding events (Basualto and Quiroz 2017; CCT-PP 2018).

In 2017, total landings for this fishery (artisanal and industrial fleet combined) were at the global set limit (IFOP 2017; MEFT 2016), but as quota transfers between fleets throughout the year are allowed by SUBPESCA, final quota per fleet is not clear. Discards were estimated at 4% in 2015 and 2% in 2016, and IFOP estimated discards and under-reporting estimates of 2-4% in 2001-2007, 2-40% in 2008- 2011, 2-10% in 2012-2014 and 2-10% in 2017 (IFOP 2017).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

The purse seine is a non-selective fishing gear in relation to fish size, since the mesh size used is small enough (1/2" or 9/16") to prevent a mass escape through the net, even of the smallest-sized juvenile specimens of anchovy or common sardine found in summer (as small as 5 cm total length). There is a rather strong possibility that the species to be caught can be previously selected, since both fishermen’s experience and the use of state-of-the-art echo sounders and sonar allow the species to be identified with some accuracy before setting the net. However, on some occasions, the catch trapped in the sack is released by opening the net when necessary.

Unlike purse seine fishing in other regions, in Chile the incidence of dolphins in catches is considered infrequent. The Peruvian pelican (Pelecanus thagus, Near Threatened in IUCN Red List, 2014), among other 7 seabird species has been identified during sampling conducted on board artisanal purse seine boats.

Available information suggests impacts from purse seines are low (Arata and Hucke-Gaete, 2005), however there is limited research and no current information on the impact of this fishery on the species mentioned above.

Chilean regions V-X

Last updated on 27 April 2016

The availability of anchoveta as a prey is one of the major threats to Humboldt Penguin Spheniscus humboldti (Vulnerable; 2014 IUCN Redlist) (Luna-Jorquera and Culik, 2003; UNEP/WCMC, 2003; BirdLife International, 2012).

The interaction of the fishery with PET species is recently known after the analysis of the 2014-2016 time series. Several mitigation measures are recommended in the recently published discarding reduction plan. Even if in different proportions through the type of fleet the following species were identified: South American sea lions Otaria byronia (Least concern; 2015 IUCN redlist), Sooty shearwater Ardenna grisea (Near threatened; 2016 IUCN red list), Pink-footed Shearwater Ardenna creatopus (Vulnerable; 2016 IUCN red list), Peruvian pelican Pelecanus thagus (Near threatened; 2016 IUCN red list) and Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus (Least concern; 2016 IUCN redlist) (SUBPESCA 2017)

Other Species
Chilean regions V-X

Last updated on 27 April 2016

Anchoveta and Araucanian herring in the V-X Regions are harvested as part of a mixed fishery, in the sense that these resources are caught during the same period and area by an artisanal and industrial fleet that fishes for both species using the same fishing gear (which is non-selective).

The discarding reduction plan was recently published. Discarding represents less than 10% of catches in both artisanal and industrial, assuming the existence of spatial as well as inter and intra-annual oscillations. The artisanal component of the fleet has shown a negligible discarding proportion in some regions (SUBPESCA 2017).

HABITAT

Anchoveta is a pelagic species distributed at water depths ranging between 15 and 70 m during the day and between 5 and 20 m at night. In Chile, artisanal purse seines can reach dimensions of 30 fathoms depth by 240 fathoms length (approx. 55 m x 249 m) while industrial purse seines can reach up to 60 × 500 fathoms (approx. 110 m x 915 m). In general, the impact of this fishing gear on the seafloor is not a subject under technical or scientific debate, since these nets are usually deployed at greater depths, where bottom contact does not occur (Chuenpagdee et al., 2003). However, it should be noted that in this particular fishery, “penetration windows” exist, where industrial operations within the first five nautical miles offshore is permitted. 

The stock is highly dependent on recruitment which in turn changes with environmental conditions and oceanographic conditions in the important Chilean upwelling ecosystem, like the El Niño and La Niña (Cury et al., 2000; Gatica et al., 2007; IFOP, 2015).

Marine Reserves

In Chile, there are five marine reserves: La Rinconada in the II Region, Isla Chañaral in the III Region, Isla Choros-Damas in the IV Region, Putemún and Pullinque in the X Region. The main objective of these reserves is to conserve natural banks of northern scallop (Argopecten purpuratus), Chilean oyster (Tiostrea chilensis) and giant mussel (Choromytilus chorus) among others, and also to protect aquatic vertebrates such as dolphins and penguins.

Also, since the enactment of the General Law on Fisheries and Aquaculture in 1991, a Reserve Zone for Artisanal Fishing has been established by law. It extends over 5 nautical miles measured from the coast from the I Region to 41º28,6’S (located in the first third of the X Region) and from south of 41°28,6’ up to 5 nm west of the straight baselines. This regulation is also in force around the oceanic islands and in inland waters. This measure, besides justifying the development and promotion of the artisanal fishing activity, prevents the industrial fleet from entering the coastal zone to carry out extractive fishing operations. It has also become a conservation measure for the bulk of fishery resources that spawn near the coast and in inland waters. This regulation is directly related to the opportunities of protecting and recovering coastal pelagic resources, being of benefit mainly to anchovy and common sardine. It may be temporarily suspended through authorizations for research fishing and dredging that allow the temporary entry of industrial vessels into the reserve zone, in specific areas and during specific periods. 

Chilean regions V-X

Last updated on 27 April 2016

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 27 Apr 2016

There are annually temporal closures for this fishery to protect spawning and juveniles. These closures are mobile and depend on monitoring of the biologic indicators (MEFT, 2016b).

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 16 July 2018

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Management objectives for this stock are expressed as target biomass and fishing mortality reference points, BMSY proxy and FMSY proxy adopted in 2015 after internal and external expert revisions (MEFT, 2015a) and allow defining stock status. An anchoveta-Araucanian herring management plan was approved in 2016, which establishes an action plan to addresses biological, economic, social and ecological matters. The evaluation of a series of harvest control rules and definition of a robust rule to allow a viable mixed fishery is included in the action plan and is expected to be addressed in the near future (SUBPESCA, 2016), notwithstanding an explicit harvest control rule is still not in place. A bycatch and discard reduction plan was approved and several measures were recommended (MEFT, 2017a; SUBPESCA, 2017b).

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Upper advised catch.

The Set TAC is 49.4 ('000 t). The Upper advised catch is 49.4 (' 000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Upper advised catch for this index is 100%.

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Catches in 2017 were at the global TAC limit; TAC was split in 12,558 tonnes for the industrial sector and 44,524 tonnes for the artisanal sector. The industrial fleet catches were 3,200 tonnes, well below its partial quota, whilst the artisanal fleet overpassed its partial quota by 20% (SUBPESCA, 2018). However, numerous quota transfers were approved by SUBPESCA, and final quota per fleet is unclear. Discarding is illegal in Chile, but discards and under-reporting is known to occur and was estimated between 4 and 10% in 2017. These events are mainly due to the disparate state of exploitation of anchoveta and Araucanian herring, which are fished together in this mixed fishery, and the establishment of significantly different quotas for each one (IFOP, 2017; CCT-PP, 2018). Nevertheless scientists identify the existing legislation as the main reason to promote discarding events (Basualto and Quiroz 2017; CCT-PP, 2018)​.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is < 6.

Absolute value of latest dynamic reference point (MSY) and biomass estimates were not made available in the last stock status report for the spawning stock but only relative numbers. The stock is still considered in a collapse condition, with SSB 50% below BMSY (CCT-PP 2018). Still, there are signs of improvement in SSB with respect to previous years.

As calculated for 2017 data.

The score is 7.4.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 0.448 (age-averaged). The F management target is 0.390 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 115%.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses within this fishery.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
  1. There is no explicit harvest control rule that anticipates reducing the target Fishing mortality if biomass drops to the limit reference point so Management strategy score was determined qualitatively.
  2. Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP) assessment report does not provide a scientific advice, the Technical Scientific Committee for Small Pelagics (CCT-PP) provides an advised TAC range.
  3. Intra-annual updates of stock assessment are conducted as updated information becomes available, e.g. research cruises. Last update of the year is shown in the datasheet.
  4. For both anchoveta fishery units Chilean regions III-IV and V-X, biomass target reference point is BMSY proxy defined at 55% of the virgin spawning stock biomass (SSB0) and limit reference point for biomass Blim is 27.5% of SSB0.

 

Chilean regions V-X

Last updated on 16 July 2018

  1. For 1998 to 2001, official anchoveta landings were corrected due to Chilean jack mackerel unreported landings in the multi-species fishery (IFOP 2016).
  2. Intra-annual updates of stock assessment, advice and quota are conducted as updated information becomes available from surveys. The datasheet presents data from the latest published reports and regulations within the year. 
  3. Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP) assessment report only presents the stock assessment results and projections under different recruitment and fishing pressure scenarios, being the advised TAC provided by the Technical Scientific Committee for Small Pelagics (CCT-PP) as a range, according to the Chilean Fisheries law (CCT-PP 2016). The average, lower and upper advised catch limits are available in the datasheet and graphs. The Managers compliance score is based in the upper advised catch limit because the Management strategy score is ≥ 6.
  4. Discards estimates were included in the stock assessment, resulting in a re-scale of biomass and fishing mortality estimates as well as of reference points (IFOP 2017).
  5. Current health score was assigned qualitatitvely as absolute value of most recent MSY were not presented in the most recent stock status report  (CCT-PP 2018). The stock in 2018 is still considered collapsed, with SSB 50% below BMSY proxy (CCT-PP 2018)

Download Source Data

Registered users can download the original data file for calculating the scores after logging in. If you wish, you can Register now.

Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. IFOP. 2007. Investigación, Evaluación de Stock y CTP Anchoveta y Sardina española III y IV Región, 2007. 82 pages.
  2. IFOP, 2007. Investigación, Evaluación de Stock y CTP Anchoveta centro sur, 2007. Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP). 100 pp. (In Spanish.)
  3. IFOP. 2008. Investigación, Evaluación de Stock y CTP Anchoveta y Sardina española III y IV Región, 2008. 69 pages.
  4. IFOP, 2008. Investigación, Evaluación de Stock y CTP Anchoveta centro-sur, 2008. Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP). 68 pp. (In Spanish.)
  5. IFOP. 2009. Investigación, Evaluación de Stock y CTP Anchoveta y Sardina española III y IV Región, 2009. 73 pages. 
  6. IFOP. 2009. Investigación, Evaluación de Stock y CTP Anchoveta centro sur, 2009. Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP). 46 pp. (In Spanish.)
  7. IFOP, 2009. Investigación del estatus y evaluación de estrategias de explotación sustentables en anchoveta centro-sur, 2010. Pre-Informe Final. Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP). 56 pp. (In Spanish.)
  8. IFOP. 2010. Investigación, Evaluación de Stock y CTP Anchoveta y Sardina española III y IV Región, 2010. 59 pages. 
  9. IFOP, 2010. Investigación, Evaluación de Stock y CTP Anchoveta centro sur, 2010. 66 pp. (In Spanish.)
  10. Ramírez, C.C. and Troncoso, F.C., 2012. Segundo informe (Septiembre) – Convenio: Estatus y posibilidades de explotación biológicamente sustentables de los principales recursos pesqueros nacionales, año 2013. Anchoveta V-X Región 2013, Instituto de Fomento Pesquero, 137 pp. (In Spanish).
  11. Serra. R.; Aguayo, M .; Rojas, O.; Cañón, J.; Inostroza, F. 1979. Anchoveta Engraulis ringens (Jenyns) Teleostomi Clupeiformes Engraulidae. En: CORFO-IFOP (eds). Estado actual de las principales pesquerías nacionales. Bases para un desarrollo pesquero: I Peces. AP 79/18: 1-52.
  12. SUBPESCA. 2006. Cuota global anual de captura para las unidades de pesquería de anchoveta y sardina española, Regiones III y IV, año 2007. Technical Report N° 101 – November, 2006. 47 pages.
  13. SUBPESCA. 2007. Cuota global anual de captura para las unidades de pesquería de anchoveta y sardina española, Regiones III y IV, año 2008. Technical Report N° 084 – November, 2007. 47 pages.
  14. SUBPESCA, 2007. Cuota global anual de captura para las unidades de pesquería de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) y sardina común (Strangomera bentincki) V a X regiones, año 2009. Informe Técnico (R. PESQ.) No. 093/07. November 2007. 55 pp. (In Spanish.)
  15. SUBPESCA. 2008. Cuota global anual de captura para las unidades de pesquería de anchoveta y sardina española, Regiones III y IV, año 2009. Technical Report N° 084 – November, 2008. 46 pages.
  16. SUBPESCA, 2008. Cuota global anual de captura para las unidades de pesquería de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) y sardina común (Strangomera bentincki) V a X regiones, año 2009. Informe Técnico (R. PESQ.) No. 085/08. November 2008. 54 pp. (In Spanish.)
  17. SUBPESCA. 2009. Modificación de la cuota global annual de captura de anchoveta, Regiones V a X, año 2009. Informe Técnico (R. PESQ.) No. 64/09. June 2009. 10 pp. (In Spanish.)
  18. SUBPESCA, 2009. Cuota global anual de captura para las unidades de pesquería de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) y sardina común (Strangomera bertincki) V a X Regiones, año 2010. Informe Técnico (R. PESQ.) No. 106709. November 2009. Subsecretaría de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Valparaíso. 33 pp. (In Spanish.)
  19. SUBPESCA. 2010. Cuota global anual de captura para las unidades de pesquería de anchoveta y sardina española, Regiones III y IV, año 2011. Technical Report N° 113 – November, 2010. 48 pages.
  20. SUBPESCA, 2010. Cuota global anual de captura para las unidades de pesquería de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) y sardina común (Strangomera bentincki) V a X regiones, año 2011. Informe Técnico (R. PESQ.) No. 120/10. November 2010. Subsecretaría de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Valparaíso. 32 pp. (In Spanish.)
  21. SUBPESCA. 2011a. Cuota global anual de captura para las unidades de pesquería de anchoveta y sardina española, Regiones III y IV, año 2012. Technical Report N° 110 – November, 2011. 39 pages.
  22. SUBPESCA. 2011b. Adenda al informe de Cuota global anual de captura para las unidades de pesquería de anchoveta y sardina española, Regiones III y IV, año 2012. Technical Report N° 118 – November, 2011. 4 pages.
  23. SUBPESCA, 2011. Cuota global anual de captura para las unidades de pesquería de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) y sardina común (Strangomera bentincki) V a X regiones, año 2012. Informe Técnico (R. PESQ.) No. 115/11. November 2011. Subsecretaría de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Valparaíso. 59 pp.
  24. Arata, J. and Hucke-Gaete, R., 2005. Pesca incidental de aves y mamíferos: Devastación Marina. Document no. 10. OCEANA. Santiago, Chile. March 2005. 81 pp.http://oceana.org/sites/default/files/reports/Pesca_incidental.pdf
  25. Arteaga, M., Ernst, B., Vásquez, S., Gatica, C. 2014. Bases conceptuales para la aplicación de una evaluación de estrategias de manejo (EEM) en sardina común (Strangomera bentincki) y anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) en la zona centro-sur de Chile, Lat. Am. J. Aquat. Res., 42(3): 445-467http://www.scielo.cl/pdf/lajar/v42n3/art06.pdf
  26. BirdLife International, 2012. Spheniscus humboldti. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Version 2013.1. [Accessed 24th October 2013]http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/106003862/0
  27. Cahuin, S.M.; Cubillos, L. A.; Escribano, R. 2015. Synchronous patterns of fluctuations in two stocks of anchovy Engraulis ringens Jenyns, 1842 in the Humboldt Current System. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 31, 45–50, ISSN 0175–8659. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jai.12646/pdf
  28. Canales, T.M.; Leal, E. 2009. Life history parameters of anchoveta Engraulis ringens Jenyns, 1842, in central north Chile. Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía 44(1): 173-179. http://www.scielo.cl/pdf/revbiolmar/v44n1/art17.pdf7
  29. CCT-PP, 2012. Informe de la Reunión (Plenaria) del Comité Científico y Técnico de Pelágicos Pequeños (CCT-PP). [Meeting Report from the Scientific Committe on Small Pelagics, CCPP]. 5 November 2012. 14 pp. (In Spanish.)http://sitios.ifop.cl/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=891db1d7-3a0c-42ac-a5ae-b244a5bdf7d6&groupId=35476
  30. CT-PP, 2013. Reporte Técnico No. 1 del Comité Cientifico Técnico de Pesquerías de Pequeños Pelágicos (CCT-PP). Valparaíso. 9 December 2013. 46 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-82144_documento.pdf
  31. CCT-PP, 2014. Comité Cientifico Técnico de Pesquerías de Pequeños Pelágicos (CCT-PP). Informe Técnico N° 01/2014: Situación y rango de captura Biológicamente aceptable de Recursos pelágicos pequeños, Año 2015. November, 2014. 27 pphttp://www-old.subpesca.cl/transparencia/documentos/2014/CCT_PP-Informe_Tecnico_01-2014.pdf
  32. CCT-PP, 2014. Comité Cientifico Técnico de Pesquerías de Pequeños Pelágicos (CCT-PP). Informe Técnico N° 01/2014: Situación y rango de captura Biológicamente aceptable de Recursos pelágicos pequeños, Año 2015. November, 2014. 27 pp. http://www-old.subpesca.cl/transparencia/documentos/2014/CCT_PP-Informe_Tecnico_01-2014.pdf
  33. CCT-PP, 2015. Informe Técnico N° 06/2015. Determinación del Estado de Situación y Rango de Captura Biológicamente Aceptable de Recursos Pelágicos pequeños, Año 2016. Comité Científico Técnico de Pesquerías de Pequeños Pelágicos. November 2015. 29 pp. http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-91246_documento.pdf
  34. Chilean Fisheries Research Institutehttp://www.inpesca.cl
  35. Chilean Fisheries Subsecretariathttp://www.subpesca.cl
  36. Chilean National Fisheries Servicehttp://www.sernapesca.cl
  37. Cury, P., A. Bakun, R. Crawford, A. Jarre, R. Quiñones, L. Shannon & H. Verheye. 2000. Small pelagics in upwelling systems: patterns of interaction and structural changes in "wasp-waist" ecosystems. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 57: 603-618. http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/content/57/3/603.short?rss=1&ssource=mfc
  38. Decreto Exento Extento. No. 392/2012. Modifica Decreto Exento No. 1251 De 2011, del Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo. Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo. Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). 18 April 2012. 2 pp. (In Spanish.)http://200.54.73.149/SUBPESCA_V2/mostrararchivo.asp?id=13834
  39. Decreto Exento N° 1074/2009. Modifica Decreto Exento N° 1675 de 2008 que estableció cuotas globales anuales de captura para las unidades de pesquería sometidas a límite máximo de captura, año 2009. Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). 10 July 2009. 3 pp. (In Spanish.)http://200.54.73.149/SUBPESCA_V2/mostrararchivo.asp?id=7297
  40. Decreto Exento N° 1251/2011. Estabelece cuotas globales anuales de captura para las unidades de pesquería sometidas a limite máximo de captura, año 2012. Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). 26 December 2011. 17 pp. (In Spanish.)http://200.54.73.149/SUBPESCA_V2/mostrararchivo.asp?id=13512
  41. Decreto Exento N° 1453/2010. Estabelece cuotas globales anuales de captura para las unidades de pesquería sometidas a limite máximo de captura, año 2011. Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). 27 December 2010. 17 pp. (In Spanish.)http://200.54.73.149/SUBPESCA_V2/mostrararchivo.asp?id=12082
  42. Decreto Exento N° 1675/2008. Establece cuotas globales anuales de captura para las unidades de pesquería sometidas a límite máximo de captura, año 2009. Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). 23 December 2008. 17 pp. (In Spanish.)http://200.54.73.149/SUBPESCA_V2/mostrararchivo.asp?id=6536
  43. Decreto Exento N° 1925/2009. Establece cuotas globales anuales de captura para las unidades de pesquería sometidas a límite máximo de captura, año 2010. Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). 24 December 2009. 17 pp. (In Spanish.)http://200.54.73.149/SUBPESCA_V2/mostrararchivo.asp?id=8506
  44. Decreto Exento N° 195/2013. Modifica Decretos Exentos N° 1.336 de 2012, y N° 38 de 2013, ambos del Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo. Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). 18 February 2013. 15 pp. (In Spanish.)http://200.54.73.149/SUBPESCA_V2/mostrararchivo.asp?id=14877
  45. Decreto Exento No. 195/2013. Modifica Decreto Exento nº 1336 de 2012 y nº 38 de 2013, ambos del Ministerio de Ecnonomia, Fomento y Tursimo. Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Santiago. 11 February 2013. 15 pp. (In Spanish)http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-80424_documento.pdf
  46. Decreto Exento No. 403/2013. Modifica Decreto Exento nº 35 de 2013 que establece veda biologica para recursos sardina austral, sardina comun y anchoveta en X region. Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaría de Pesca y Acuicultura. Santiago. 18 April 2013. 2 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-80474_documento.pdf
  47. Decreto Exento No. 669/2012. Modifica Decreto Exento No. 1251 de 2011 que establece cuotas globales anuales de captura para las unidades de pesqueria que se indican sometidas a limite máximo de captura, año 2012. Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). 18 April 2012. 3 pp. (In Spanish.)http://200.54.73.149/SUBPESCA_V2/mostrararchivo.asp?id=14150
  48. Decreto Exento No. 747/2013, Modifica Decreto Exento nº 115 de 1998, del actual Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, respecto a la veda biológica de las especies Sardina común y Anchoveta, entre las regiones V y XIV, Santiago 25 Julio 2013, Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaría de Pesca y Acuicultura, 2 pp.http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-80811_documento.pdf
  49. DRNRB, 2011. Las Áreas Protegidas de Chile: Antecedentes, Institucionalidad, Estadísticas y Desafíos. División de Recursos Naturales Renovables y Biodiversidad (DRNRB). Ministerio del Medio Ambiente. May 2011. Chile. 35 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.mma.gob.cl/1304/articles-50613_pdf.pdf
  50. Emol, 2013. Veda de la sardina común y la anchoveta se extiende por tres semanas más, Economía. Emol newspaper website. published 25 October 2013. (In Spanish.)http://www.emol.com/noticias/economia/2013/10/25/626452/veda-de-la-sardina-comun-y-la-anchoveta-se-extiende-por-tres-semanas.html
  51. Ferrada, S.; Hernández, K.; Montoya, R.; Galleguillos, R. 2002. Population study of the anchovy resource (Engraulis ringens Jenyns 1842) (Clupeiformes, Engraulidae), through DNA analysis. Proceeding of the IV Symposium Workshop of Chilean Association of Ichthyology. Gayana (Concepc.) v.66 n.2 Concepción. http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-65382002000200022
  52. Gatica, C., Arteaga, M., Giacaman, J., Ruiz, P. 2007. Tendencias en la biomasa de sardina común (Strangomera bentincki) y anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) en la zona centro-sur de Chile, entre 1991 y 2005. Invest. Mar., Valparaíso, 35(1): 13-24.http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?pid=S0717-71782007000100002&script=sci_arttext
  53. García-Godos, I., 2007. Revisión de las interacciones entre cetáceos y la pesquería marina peruana; perspectivas para la conservación de los cetáceos en Perú. Memorias del Taller de Trabajo Sobre el Impacto de las Actividades Antropogénicas en Mamíferos Marinos en el Pacífico Sudeste. Bogotá, Colombia: 28-29. (In Spanish.)http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ignacio_Garcia-Godos/publication/257985273_REVISIN_DE_LAS_INTERACCIONES_ENTRE_CETCEOS_Y_LA_PESQUERA_MARINA_PERUANA_PERSPECTIVAS_PARA_LA_CONSERVACIN_DE_CETCEOS_EN_PER/file/3deec52689e15a3fc9.pdf
  54. IFOP, 2012. Estatus y posibilidades de explotación biológicamente sustentables de los principales recursos pesqueros nacionales, año 2012. Anchoveta V-X Región 2012. Segundo informe. January 2012. 89 pp. (In Spanish.)IFOP_2012_CTP_anchoveta_V-X.pdf
  55. IFOP. 2013. Segundo Informe: Anchoveta III-IV Regiones 2014. SubSecretaria de Economia, September 2013. 131 pp. http://www.ifop.cl/wp-content/uploads/anchoveta-iii-a-iv.pdf
  56. IFOP, 2013a. Evaluación hidroacústica del reclutamiento de anchoveta y sardina común entre la V y X regions, año 2013. Instituto de Fomento pesquero (IFOP). June 2013. 104 pp. (In Spanish.)IFOP_2013_CTP_2013_sardina_com_n_V-X_Regi_n_julio.pdf
  57. IFOP, 2013b. Estatus y posibilidades de explotación biológicamente sustentables de los principales recursos pesqueros nacionales, año 2012. Anchoveta V-X Región 2012. Segundo informe. Instituto de Fomento pesquero (IFOP). September 2013. 149 pp. (In Spanish.)IFOP_2013_CTP_2014_Estatus_y_posibilidades_de_explotacion_sustentable_Anchoveta_V-X__sep_2013.pdf
  58. IFOP, 2015. Estatus y posibilidades de explotación biológicamente sustentables de los principales recursos pesqueros nacionales año 2016”: Anchoveta III - IV Regiones. September, 2015. 119 pp. IEstatus_Anchoveta_III-IV_2016_sept_2015.pdf
  59. IFOP, 2015. Estatus y posibilidades de explotación biológicamente sustentables de los principales recursos pesqueros nacionales año 2016”: Anchoveta V-X Regiones. September, 2015. 118 pp. CD2015_Estatus_Anchoveta_V-X_2016.pdf
  60. IUCN, 2013. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. Downloaded on 19 March 2014.http://www.iucnredlist.org
  61. IUCN, 2014. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. [Assessed on 27 February 2014]. http://www.iucnredlist.org
  62. IUCN, 2015. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. [Assessed on 27 February 2015]. http://www.iucnredlist.org
  63. Luna-Jorquera, G. and Culik, B.M. 2003. Diving behaviour of Humboldt Penguin Spheniscus humboldti in Northern Chile, Marine Ornithology 27: 67–76.http://www.marineornithology.org/PDF/27/27_9.pdf
  64. MEFT, 2014a. Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo - Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura. Dto. Exento N° 952. Estabelece cuotas globales anuales de captura para las unidades de pesquería de recursos pelágicos pequeños sometidas a licencias transables de captura, año 2015. Santiago, 22 Diciembre 2014.http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-86508_documento.pdf
  65. MEFT, 2014b. Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo - Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura. Resolución Exenta N° 946. Establece programa de investigación del descarte para pesquerías de anchoveta, sardina común y su fauna acompañante. Valparaíso, 3 Abril 2014. http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-82860_documento.pdf
  66. MEFT, 2014c. Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo - Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura. Dto. Ex. N° 145-2014. Establece Veda biológica de las especies sardina austral, sardina común y anchoveta, entre la region X. Santiago, 21 Marzo 2014. http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-82792_documento.pdf
  67. MEFT, 2014d. Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo - Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura. Dto. Ex. N° 378-2014. Establece Veda biológica de las especies sardina común y anchoveta, entre las regiones V y XIV. Santiago, 21 Julio 2014. http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-84418_documento.pdf
  68. MEFT, 2014e. Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo - Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura. Dto. Ex. N° 748-2014. Establece Veda biológica de las especies sardina común y anchoveta, entre las regiones V y XIV. Santiago, 30 Octubre 2014. http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-85291_documento.pdf
  69. MEFT, 2015a. Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo - Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura. R.Ex. N° 291-2015. Establece Puntos Biológicos de Referencia para Pesquerías Administradas con Licencias Transables de Pesca. http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-86859_documento.pdf
  70. MEFT, 2015b. Dec. Ex. N° 943/2015. Establece Cuotas Anuales de Captura de Unidades de¨Pesquería de Recursos Pelágicos, Anchoveta y Sardina Común, Año 2016, V-X Región. November 2015. 4 pp. http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-91225_documento.pdf
  71. MEFT, 2016a. Res. Ex. N°1052-2016 Programas de Investigación del Descarte y la Pesca Incidental. April. 2016. 3 pp. http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-92922_documento.pdf
  72. MEFT, 2016b. Dec. Ex. N° 51-2016 Establece Veda Biológica para los recursos Anchoveta y Sardina común en V-X Regiones. January, 2016. 5 pp. http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-92212_documento.pdf
  73. Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Exterior (MEFE), 2010. Subsecretaria de Pesca, Cuotas Pesquerías, LMC 2011. Estabelece cuotas globales anuales de captura para las unidades de pesquería sometidas a limite máximo de captura, año 2011. Dto Exento 1453. Santiago, 27 Deciembre 2010http://www.subpesca.cl/controls/neochannels/neo_ch903/neochn903.aspx?appinstanceid=1021&pubid=1525
  74. Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Reconstrucción. 2009. Decreto Exento N° 1925: Establece cuotas globales anuales de captura para las unidades de pesquería sometidas a límite máximo de captura, año 2010. Issued on December 24th, 2009. Link accessed on January 22nd, 2010 at:http://www.subpesca.cl/mostrararchivo.asp?id=8506
  75. Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo (MEFT), 2011. Subsecretaria de Pesca, Cuotas Pesquerías, LMC 2012. Estabelece cuotas globales anuales de captura para las unidades de pesquería sometidas a limite máximo de captura, año 2012. Dto Exento 1251. Santiago, 26 Diciembre 2011http://www.subpesca.cl/controls/neochannels/neo_ch903/neochn903.aspx?appinstanceid=1021&pubid=1525
  76. MEFT, 2014a. Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo - Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura. Dto. Exento N° 952. Estabelece cuotas globales anuales de captura para las unidades de pesquería de recursos pelágicos pequeños sometidas a licencias transables de captura, año 2015.. Santiago, 22 Diciembre 2014.http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-86508_documento.pdf
  77. MEFT, 2014b. Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo - Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura. Dto. Ex. N° 426-2014. Establece Veda biológica y Establece Porcentaje de Desembarque como Fauna acompañante para el recurso Anchoveta, III-IV Región. Santiago, 4 Agosto 2014. http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-84556_documento.pdf
  78. MEFT, 2015a. Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo - Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura. R.Ex. N° 291-2015. Establece Puntos Biológicos de Referencia para Pesquerías Administradas con Licencias Transables de Pesca. Valparaiso, 4 de Febrero.http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-86859_documento.pdf
  79. MEFT, 2015b. Dto. Exento N° 1184-2015 del Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo - Subsecretaría de Pesca y Acuicultura. Establece cuotas anuales de captura de Unidades de Pesquería de Anchoveta y Sardina Española III-IV Regiones sometidas a Licencias Transables de Pesca, Año 2016. Santiago, 29 December 2015. 4pp. http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-91849_documento.pdf
  80. MEFT, 2015c. Dec. Ex. N° 652-2015 Establece Veda Biológica para el recurso Anchoveta III-IV Regiones. September 2015. 2pp.http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-88919_documento.pdf
  81. MEFT, 2016. Res. Ex. N°1052-2016 Programas de Investigación del Descarte y la Pesca Incidental. April. 2016. 3 pp. http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-92922_documento.pdf
  82. Parada, C., Yannicelli, B., Hormazábal, S., Vásquez, S., Porobić, J., Ernst, B., Gatica, C., Arteaga, M., Montecinos, A., Núñez, S., Gretchina, A. 2013. Variabilidad ambiental y recursos pesqueros en el Pacífico suroriental: estado de la investigación y desafíos para el manejo pesqueiro, Lat. Am. J. Aquat. Res., 41(1): 1-28 http://www.scielo.cl/pdf/lajar/v41n1/art01.pdf
  83. Schlatter, R., Paredes, E., Ulloa, J., Harris, J., Romero, A., Vásquez, J., Lizama, A., Hernández, C. and Simeone, A., 2009. Mortandad de pingüino de Magallanes (Spheniscus magellanicus) en Queule, región de la Araucanía, Chile. Boletín Chileno de Ornitología, 15, 2: 78-86. (In Spanish.)http://aveschile.cl/boletin/PDF/15.2/03.pdf
  84. SUBPESCA. 2009. Ficha Pesquera: Anchoveta III-IV Regiones (Noviembre 2008). Link accesed on November 11th, 2009.http://www.subpesca.cl/mostrararchivo.asp?id=6591
  85. SUBPESCA, 2009. Las áreas marinas protegidas en Chile: Oportunidades y desafíos. Link accessed on November 15th, 2009.http://www.subpesca.cl/taller/documentos/docs_taller/Las%20Areas%20Marinas%20Protegidas%20de%20Chile.pdf
  86. SUBPESCA. 2010. Informe sectorial: Diciembre 2009 (In Spanish.). Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Valparaíso. accessed on 22 January 2010.http://www.subpesca.cl/mostrararchivo.asp?id=8628
  87. SUBPESCA, 2012a. Adenda a Informe Técnico (R. PESQ.) No. 41/12: Modificación de la cuota global anual de captura sardina común V a X regiones, año 2012. Informe Técnico (R. PESQ.) No. 70/12. April 2012. Subsecretaría de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Valparaíso. 11 pp. (In Spanish.)RPESQ70-2012_Adenda_a_RPESQ41-2012_Modif_1a_Cuota_de_Sardina_Comun_2012.pdf
  88. SUBPESCA, 2012b. Modificación de la cuota global de captura de anchoveta, V a X regiones, año 2012, para el establecimiento de fauna acompañante de sardina común. Informe Técnico (R. PESQ.) N°123/2012. Subsecretaría de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Valparaíso. June 2012. 9 pp. (In Spanish.)RPESQ123-2012_Modifica__2da_Cuota_de_anchoveta2012_vf.pdf
  89. SUBPESCA, 2012c. Cuota global anual de captura para las unidades de pesquería de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) y sardina común (Strangomera bentincki) V a X regiones, Año 2013. Informe Técnico (R. PESQ.) No. 210/12. December 2012. Subsecretaría de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Valparaíso. 32 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.subpesca.cl/transparencia/documentos/RPESQ210-2012Cuota_sardina_comun_y_anchoveta_2013.pdf
  90. SUBPESCA, 2012d. Suspención temporal del acceso a las unidades de pesquerías de anchoveta y sardina común, V a X regiones, 2012-2013. Informe Técnico (R.Pesq.) no. 114/12 Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura (SUBPESCA). Valparaíso. June 2012. 9 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.subpesca.cl/publicaciones/606/articles-79015_documento.pdf
  91. SUBPESCA, 2013a. Fraccionamento Y Distributíon de la cuota global de captura de Anchoveta Y Sardina española, Regiones III Y IV, Ano 2014. Technical Report N° 192 – December, 2013. 9 pageshttp://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-82270_documento.pdf
  92. SUBPESCA, 2013a. Fraccionamiento y distribución de la cuota global anual de captura Anchoveta y Sardina común, regiones V a X, año 2014. Informe Técnico (R. Pesq.) nº 193/13. Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura (SUBPESCA). Valparaíso. December 2013. 10 pp. (In Spanish.) http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-82143_documento.pdf
  93. SUBPESCA, 2013a. Modificación del periodo de veda reproductiva de Anchoveta y Sardina común, V a XIV regiones, año 2013. Informe Técnico (R.Pesq.) no. 089, Subsecretaria de Pesca y Acuicultura (SUBPESCA). Valparaíso. July 2013. 6 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www-old.subpesca.cl/transparencia/documentos/RPESQ089-2013_Modifica_Veda_reproductiva%20anchoveta_y_sardina_com%C3%BAn_2013.pdf
  94. SUBPESCA, 2013b. Ley General de Pesca y Acuicultura (texto actualizado incorpora modificación Ley N°20.657). 186 pp. http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-516_documento.pdf
  95. SUBPESCA, 2013b. Decreto Exento N° 1409: Establece cuotas globales anuales de captura de unidades de pesquería de recursos pelágicos pequeños que indica sometidas a licencias transables de pesca, año 2014. Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, Subsecretaria de Pesca (SUBPESCA). Santiago. 24 December 2013. 4 pp. (In Spanish.)http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-82132_documento.pdf
  96. SUBPESCA, 2014a. Informe Sectorial de Pesca y Acuicultura. Departamento de Análisis Sectorial. Diciembre 2014. 19 pp. http://www.subpesca.cl/publicaciones/606/articles-86569_documento.pdf
  97. SUBPESCA, 2014b. Estado de situacíon de las principals pesquerías chilenas, 2013. Subsecretaris de Pesca y Acuicultura. March 2014. 63pphttp://www.subpesca.cl/publicaciones/606/articles-82828_recurso_1.pdf
  98. SUBPESCA, 2014a. Taller para la Constitución del Comité de Manejo de sardina común y anchoveta. Chilean Anchovy and Araucaninan herring Management Committee website. Valdivia. 17 January 2014. (In Spanish.)http://comitedemanejo.wordpress.com/
  99. SUBPESCA, 2014b. Informe Sectorial de Pesca y Acuicultura. Departamento de Análisis Sectorial. Diciembre 2014. 19 pp. http://www.subpesca.cl/publicaciones/606/articles-86569_documento.pdf
  100. SUBPESCA, 2015. Comité de manejo Anchoveta y Sardina española III-IV. [Assessed on 27 February 2015]. http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/w3-propertyvalue-56203.html
  101. SUBPESCA, 2016a. Estado de situación de las principales pesquerías chilenas, año 2015. División de Administración Pesquera. March 2016. 95 pp. http://www.subpesca.cl/publicaciones/606/articles-92703_recurso_1.pdf
  102. SUBPESCA, 2016a. Comité de Manejo sardina común y anchoveta de la V a la X región avanza en plan de manejo. [Accessed on 25 April 2016]. http://www.subpesca.cl/prensa/601/w3-article-92042.html
  103. SUBPESCA, 2016b. Informe Sectorial de Pesca y Acuicultura Enero 2016. Departamento de Análisis Sectorial. 20 pp. http://www.subpesca.cl/publicaciones/606/articles-92231_documento.pdf
  104. SUBPESCA, 2016c. Estado de situación de las principales pesquerías chilenas, año 2015. División de Administración Pesquera. March 2016. 95 pp. http://www.subpesca.cl/publicaciones/606/articles-92703_recurso_1.pdf
  105. UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 2003. Report on the status and Conservation of the , CMS/ScC12/Doc.5 Attach 5, 13 pp.http://www.cms.int/bodies/ScC/12th_scientific_council/pdf/English/Doc_05_Attach5_HumboldtPenguin_E.pdf
  106. Zúñiga B, M.J and Canales, C., 2012. Estatus y posibilidades de explotación biológicamente sustentables: Anchoveta Centro-Sur 2013. Plenaria Comité Científico Pequeños Pelágicos. Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP). 6 November 2012. 26 pp. (In Spanish.)http://sitios.ifop.cl/documents/35476/48642/comite_AnchovetaCentro-Sur2012_maria_jose.pdf
References

    Comments

    This tab will disappear in 5 seconds.

    Comments on:

    Anchoveta - Chilean Central-Southern, Chilean regions V-X, Chile V-X, Chile, Seine nets

    comments powered by Disqus