Last updated on 13 October 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Oncorhynchus gorbuscha

SPECIES NAME(s)

Pink salmon

COMMON NAMES

pink salmon


ANALYSIS

Strengths

1. The Kamchatka Peninsula is the world’s only large-volume source of exclusively wild pink salmon. Stock status is fairly robust there. 2. Russian salmon fishery management has transitioned over the last 5 years from quota-based management to escapement-based management informed by pre-season forecasts. This change may result in more flexible, responsive, in-season management of the resource. 3. Beginning in 2008, fishing companies have been awarded long-term leases to fishing plots, reducing incentives to misreport harvest in order to receive a larger allocation in the subsequent season.

1. Harvest and escapement trends are stable. 2. Hatchery mark-and-recapture studies have been underway since 2010 and are ongoing. 3. Anti-poaching compliance appears to be strong here in comparison with other areas in the Sakhalin region.

Weaknesses

1. Illegal, unregulated and unreported fishing is a serious problem in almost all Russian pink salmon fisheries, particularly on Kamchatka. 2. On Sakhalin Island, large contributions of hatchery fish to harvest in some areas (Southeast Sakhalin, Aniva Bay, Iturup Island) may result in unsustainably high harvest rates on wild stocks, as the hatchery fish are generally not temporally or spatially separate from wild fish. 3. Inadequate information is made publicly available, including information on in-season management decisions, escapement goals and the models upon which they are based, and mark-and-recapture results associated with the recent resurgence of hatchery marking programs.

It is unknown whether or not the “integrated” nature (broodstock is taken from wild- and hatchery-origin fish, i.e., a mixed stock is created) of the Iturup pink salmon hatchery program and straying noted particularly in Kurilsk Bay (and associated inter-breeding between hatchery- and natural-origin fish) are negatively impacting productivity of the stock.

Options

Continue the mark-and-recapture program and use results to further explore the question of hatchery impacts upon wild stock productivity.Make public government hatchery review documentation and historic catch and escapement data

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

8

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

8

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

10

Future Health:

7


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Start a fishery improvement project to address sustainability issues in this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs here.
2. Communicate to fishery managers that there are sustainability issues in this fishery that may be affecting the sale of products, and request that they comprehensively evaluate and address such issues.

1. Work actively to address and close out conditions placed upon the certification of the fishery in the agreed timeframe.
2. Report achievements publicly to share progress with buyers.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Encourage your supply chain to start a fishery improvement project. For advice on starting a FIP see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs here.
2. Work with other suppliers and buyers on a pre-competitive basis to start a supplier roundtable to review improvement needs in this and other similar fisheries, catalyze fishery improvement projects, and monitor progress in improvement efforts.

1. Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met.
2. Express your support to help meet conditions that may be at a government/regulatory level (where applicable).


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • Iturup Island pink and chum salmon:

    MSC Certified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

DISTRICT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Chukhotka Russia Russian Federation Beach seines
Fixed gillnets (on stakes)
Traps
East Kamchatka Russia Russian Federation Beach seines
Fixed gillnets (on stakes)
Traps
Iturup Island Sakhalin Russia Russian Federation Traps
Khabarovsk Krai and Amur Russia Russian Federation Beach seines
Traps
Magadan Russia Russian Federation Beach seines
Traps
Northeast Sakhalin Russia Russian Federation Beach seines
Traps
Primoriya Russia Russian Federation Beach seines
Traps
Sakhalin and Kuril Islands Russia Russian Federation Beach seines
Traps
West Kamchatka Russia Russian Federation Beach seines
Fixed gillnets (on stakes)
Traps

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 1 July 2008

Strengths

1. The Kamchatka Peninsula is the world’s only large-volume source of exclusively wild pink salmon. Stock status is fairly robust there. 2. Russian salmon fishery management has transitioned over the last 5 years from quota-based management to escapement-based management informed by pre-season forecasts. This change may result in more flexible, responsive, in-season management of the resource. 3. Beginning in 2008, fishing companies have been awarded long-term leases to fishing plots, reducing incentives to misreport harvest in order to receive a larger allocation in the subsequent season.

Iturup Island Sakhalin

Last updated on 12 June 2014

1. Harvest and escapement trends are stable. 2. Hatchery mark-and-recapture studies have been underway since 2010 and are ongoing. 3. Anti-poaching compliance appears to be strong here in comparison with other areas in the Sakhalin region.

Weaknesses

1. Illegal, unregulated and unreported fishing is a serious problem in almost all Russian pink salmon fisheries, particularly on Kamchatka. 2. On Sakhalin Island, large contributions of hatchery fish to harvest in some areas (Southeast Sakhalin, Aniva Bay, Iturup Island) may result in unsustainably high harvest rates on wild stocks, as the hatchery fish are generally not temporally or spatially separate from wild fish. 3. Inadequate information is made publicly available, including information on in-season management decisions, escapement goals and the models upon which they are based, and mark-and-recapture results associated with the recent resurgence of hatchery marking programs.

Iturup Island Sakhalin

Last updated on 12 June 2014

It is unknown whether or not the “integrated” nature (broodstock is taken from wild- and hatchery-origin fish, i.e., a mixed stock is created) of the Iturup pink salmon hatchery program and straying noted particularly in Kurilsk Bay (and associated inter-breeding between hatchery- and natural-origin fish) are negatively impacting productivity of the stock.

Options
Iturup Island Sakhalin

Last updated on 12 June 2014

Continue the mark-and-recapture program and use results to further explore the question of hatchery impacts upon wild stock productivity.Make public government hatchery review documentation and historic catch and escapement data

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Start a fishery improvement project to address sustainability issues in this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs here.
2. Communicate to fishery managers that there are sustainability issues in this fishery that may be affecting the sale of products, and request that they comprehensively evaluate and address such issues.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Encourage your supply chain to start a fishery improvement project. For advice on starting a FIP see SFP’s Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs here.
2. Work with other suppliers and buyers on a pre-competitive basis to start a supplier roundtable to review improvement needs in this and other similar fisheries, catalyze fishery improvement projects, and monitor progress in improvement efforts.

Iturup Island Sakhalin

Last updated on

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Work actively to address and close out conditions placed upon the certification of the fishery in the agreed timeframe.
2. Report achievements publicly to share progress with buyers.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Monitor the progress in closing out conditions placed upon the certification of the fishery and if agreed timelines are met.
2. Express your support to help meet conditions that may be at a government/regulatory level (where applicable).

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 1 July 2008

Assessments of stocks are conducted by measurements of fry emigration (hatchery releases plus fry net sampling near mouths of index rivers), adult escapements monitored at trap nets and from aerial and ground surveys of spawning areas, and commercial catch records. Assessment effort and thoroughness varies by region in the Far East.

Prior to each fishing season, regional branches of the Federal Fisheries Agency forecast the total return of pink salmon to each region based on parent spawning escapements (two years earlier), hatchery releases, and spawner-recruit relationships. The target escapement is based on the proportion of spawning grounds occupied by spawners (see below for description). By subtracting target escapement from total returns, a pre-season Recommended Catch (RC) is calculated.

Since 2009, when the Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit management system was eliminated and replaced with the RC, the RC is being used for planning purposes only rather than in-season management.

Estimates of total catch in trap nets and gill nets can be uncertain, with evidence of both under- and over-reporting.

Iturup Island Sakhalin

Last updated on 11 July 2008

Assessments of stocks are conducted by measurements of fry emigration (hatchery releases plus fry net sampling near mouths of index rivers), adult escapements monitored at eight weirs on the island and through walking surveys of spawning areas, and commercial catch records.

Prior to each fishing season, the Sakhalin Fisheries and Oceanography Institute (SakhNIRO) forecasts the total return of pink salmon based on parent spawning escapements (two years earlier), hatchery releases, and spawner-recruit relationships. The target escapement is based on the proportion of spawning grounds occupied by spawners (see below for description). By subtracting target escapement from total returns, a pre-season Recommended Catch (RC) is calculated. Since 2009, the RC is used for planning purposes only rather than in-season management.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 1 July 2008

Review of data and methods of assessment go through a series of steps. Review of the Recommended Catch (RC) occurs first at the regional scale. Forecasts and the RC are then presented to the Federal Fisheries Agency main branch (Rosrybolovstvo), and the information is subject to final approval by the Prime Minister’s office.

After federal approval, the RC is implemented by regional Commissions for Anadromous Fish Fisheries (CAFFs). In the pre-season, CAFFs allocate the RC first by fishing zone, and then by individual fishing plot. Any in-season RC adjustment recommended by scientists is subject to approval by Federal Fishery Agency regional branches and CAFFs.

During the season, CAFFs can make changes to allocations on the basis of ongoing spawning migration surveys. Fishing pressure is managed with the objective of achieving escapement goals established for main spawning rivers of Sakhalin (Trumble and Lajus 2008; Portley and Geiger 2014). Independent research has indicated that many official escapement goals do not reflect the actual freshwater habitat capacity (i.e. there is greater spawning area in the rivers than that which is reflected by the figures used in fishery management) (Makeev 2011).

Reference Points

Last updated on 01 Jul 2008

Escapement performance against goals is generally strong over the last 15 years (1998-2012) in the main salmon regions of Kamchatka and Sakhalin. See nested fishery profiles for data and references.

However, in Khabarovsk, meanwhile, average escapements throughout the region (excluding the Amur River basin) were at only 18% of reference points in 2010 and 17% in 2009 (Zolotukhin 2009; 2010). Meanwhile, according to Augerot and Foley, pink salmon stocks in Primoriya were at high risk of extinction as of 2005 (2005). Low pink productivity in this region is generally attributed to changes in ocean conditions and Primoriya’s vulnerable southernmost position in the pink salmon habitat range rather than to poor management decisions (Markovtsev 2006; Semenchenko 2010).

Iturup Island Sakhalin

Last updated on 11 July 2008

Escapement goals are in place for all major systems in the fishery, and escapement monitoring coverage is appropriate to the specificities of the region and the fishery (SCS 2009). While, these escapement goals do not delineate between hatchery and wild stocks, otolith marking underway at local hatcheries since 2009 and associated recapture studies have indicated that there is a low rate of pink salmon straying into wild spawning habitat (SCS 2013).

Reference Points

Last updated on 11 Jul 2008

In both of the main pink-salmon bearing regions of Iturup Island (Prostor Bay and Kurilsk Bay), escapements have exceeded 70% of spawning ground capacity in every year since 2005 (through 2012) (SCS 2013) (Figure 1).


Figure 1: Estimated escpapement into rivers of Kurilsk and Prostor Bays, Iturup Island, 2005-2012. Estimates reflect results of walking surveys on approximately 20 rivers in the two regions. Escapement is expressed as a percent of spawning areas filled, with 70-100% filled considered to reflect healthy escapement.

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 1 July 2008

Stock status for salmon is reflected by multi-year escapement trends and performance against various escapement targets (see synopsis under reference point section and more detailed information under district profiles). 

While catch and escapement are generally exhibiting increasing trends over the last 15 years (1998-2012) on Sakhalin and Kamchatka, there are particular stocks in the mainland regions of Primoriya and Kamchatka, as well as the Sea of Japan stock of Southwest Sakhalin, that are in a depleted state. See also "Trends" section.

Trends

Last updated on 01 Jul 2008

Russian pink salmon stock productivity is generally healthy, and catches have been increasing since the ocean current regime change of 1989 (Irvine et al. 2009). Sakhalin Island has been the leading region for harvest of pink salmon in the recent past, closely followed by Kamchatka.

Iturup Island Sakhalin

Last updated on 11 July 2008

Stock status for salmon is reflected by multi-year escapement trends and performance against various escapement targets (see synopsis under reference point section). 

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 1 July 2008

The primary means of managing harvest in the fishery are by setting the length of the season, mandating the size and location of trap nets (no closer than 1 km from the river mouth), and making in-season adjustments to fishing pressure and location through decisions of the CAFFs.

However, there is not publicly available evidence that spatial or temporal closures are being actively enacted by all regional Russian pink salmon fisheries when management objectives are not being met. Inadequate management responsiveness may be partly responsible for declines in the Sakhalin Sea of Japan pink salmon stock (Trumble and Lajus 2008), although these declines are ongoing for two decades. Meanwhile, the West Kamchatka pink salmon fishery had a banner year for catch in 2012, but missed the presumed regional escapement goal of 70% of spawning capacity (Klovach et al. 2013).

Particularly on Sakhalin but elsewhere in the Far East as well, on an annual basis through decisions of the CAFF, in-river weirs are put into place at river mouths to block upriver salmon migration and perceived “over-escapement” that would lead to elevated enroute or pre-spawning mortality or redd superimposition. Questions remain as to whether this over-escapement clause is misused by managers and fishermen to increase harvests (when the weirs are in place, all returning fish are harvested at the river mouth by the owner of the adjacent coastal fishing plot). Independent monitoring has indicated cases where in-river weirs are permitted by the CAFF but escapement for the particular rivers is below 100% of spawning capacity (Sakhalin Environment Watch 2011).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 01 Jul 2008

Russia’s salmon fishery regulations do not include a stock of regulatory concern listing system nor requirements to develop recovery plans for at-risk stocks.

There is precedence for year-to-year management measures to reduce pressure on at-risk stocks (e.g., Sea of Japan pink), which have been implemented through regional Commissions for Anadromous Fish Fisheries (CAFF). For example, the Sakhalin CAFF closed the Southwest Sakhalin salmon fishery in 2013.

Iturup Island Sakhalin

Last updated on 11 July 2008

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 11 Jul 2008

There are no depleted stocks in the fishery.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 1 July 2008

One of the key problems in Russia’s salmon fisheries is lack of compliance of laws and regulations, specifically illegal, unregulated and unreported (IUU) fishing. One may distinguish two types of illegal fishing for salmon in Russia: 1) exceeding of quota by companies that have a fishing permit (unreported); and 2) poaching, which is performed by persons and teams who have no permit at all (illegal).

Poaching for Pacific salmon is common in all regions of the Russian Far East. Predominantly poachers’ activities include fishing for females on spawning grounds or adjacent parts of rivers to obtain roe (salmon eggs). Once the roe is removed from females, carcasses of fish (both females and males) are often buried in deep pits or just left where they were harvested to decompose. Such poaching was most common in the 1990s because of severe socio-economic conditions, weak enforcement by government, and corruption. There seems to be a correlation between the amount of poaching and deteriorating economic conditions. Anecdotal evidence suggests the scale of poaching may have decreased slightly in recent years as socio-economic conditions of people have improved and because the government has provided more effective protection.

The product of poaching is usually salted roe which is then sold to dealers and sold in local and national markets. Little evidence suggests that illegally harvested roe is shipped overseas. Roe is an important source of income for many local people especially in more remote parts of the Sakhalin Island where the transport system is less developed, control over poaching is weaker and socio-economic conditions are more severe. Poachers use gillnets and seines on the main rivers, blocking portions of, or entire salmon runs, with wire mesh. Under the current fisheries management system that manages the fishery via spawning escapement goals, poaching can result in a decrease of legal catch, but may not affect reproductive capacity of the population assuming the monitoring of spawning grounds indicates that sufficient density of spawning occurs. However, this presumes effective “real time” management. In some areas of Russia, poaching has caused serious depletion of salmon spawning escapement, while in other areas monitoring shows that the escapement regularly reaches escapement goals.

The scale of poaching has not been accurately estimated, and assessments vary by region. A 2008 UNDP document estimated poaching of pink salmon in the Bolshaya River on Kamchatka in 2002-2006 at 22% of the legal catch (UNDP 2008). Meanwhile, the 2008 MSC pre-assessment of the Sakhalin island salmon fishery estimated poaching at 20-25% of the legal catch.

In 2009, salmon fishing plots in the main salmon regions (Kamchatka and Sakhalin) were allocated for the first time to commercial fishermen by long-term (20 year) lease. It was considered that this could reduce illegal fishing volumes by fostering a sense of long-term stewardship among fishermen. The new system has now been in place for four years and, therefore, it is too early for final evaluation of whether or not it has resulted in reduced illegal fishing. No comprehensive studies of illegal fishing volumes have been undertaken in 2010-2013, and government regulatory entities have also not attempted to generate formal estimates. Anecdotal reports do indicate that illegal fishing is still continuing at considerable levels, at least on Kamchatka:

1. http://www.fishkamchatka.ru/?cont=long&id=41581&year=2013&today=04&month=02;

2. http://www.fishkamchatka.ru/?cont=long&id=42743&year=2013&today=02&month=04).

Iturup Island Sakhalin

Last updated on 11 July 2008

Compliance is reported to be strong in the Iturup fishery, although illegal fishing is widely considered a problem for Sakhalin at large (SCS 2009). Estimates of illegal harvest throughout the Sakhalin region amount to at least 20-25% over the legal harvest (Trumble and Lajus 2008).

HATCHERY IMPACTS

Large-scale pink salmon hatchery production in Russia is restricted to the Sakhalin-Kuril Islands region (227.1 million releases in 2012). Hatcheries in Magadan release smaller quantities (5-23 million juveniles) annually (Zaporozhets and Zaporozhets 2011). There is currently no hatchery production of pink salmon on Kamchatka, in Khabarovsk, or in Primoriya.

In the Sakhalin-Kurils region, large contributions of hatchery fish to harvest in some areas may result in unsustainably high harvest rates on wild stocks, as the hatchery fish are not temporally or spatially separate from wild fish. Government hatcheries recently re-initiated a thermal marking program, indicating potential for increased commitment to management for wild stock conservation (Trumble and Lajus 2008). However, recapture survey results have not been made public for all years and districts in the fishery (notably, the Iturup MSC client Gidrostroy has established a website to make various reports available for its district fishery, but a similar endeavor has not been realized for the southern portion of the mainland).

Relative total hatchery and wild run sizes have been estimated based on hatchery release numbers and wild production inferred from natural escapements and juvenile monitoring (Kaev et al. 2007). Based on this we can approximate contribution to total catch and escapement of pink salmon in recent years as approaching 50% in the southern Sakhalin. Evidence exists that hatcheries are not necessarily augmenting total production. Kaev et al. (2008) has indicated that above approximately 200 million emigrating fry in southern Sakhalin, returns are primarily a function of ocean conditions. Therefore, increasing production beyond this threshold does not increase the likelihood of stronger returns. Evidence of density dependent effects in hatchery dominant systems suggest numerically more fish but of smaller size.

Additional risks associated with hatcheries include competitive and reproductive interactions between wild and hatchery fry. Reduction of hatchery releases may, in fact, result in a compensatory increase in wild salmon survival. There is currently work underway to develop a more robust estimate of the true contribution of hatchery operations through a marking program in a number of hatcheries. This program is an important step forward in assessing impact of hatchery production on wild salmon in the region. There is active debate among scientist and resource managers around the Pacific Rim about the overall role of hatcheries and whether they serve a net benefit for conservation and long-term sustainability of salmon fisheries.

Iturup Island Sakhalin

Four conditions (#1-3 and 6) relevant to impacts of hatchery activities in the region were opened during the 2009 MSC assessment of this fishery (SCS 2009). One of the conditions remains open as of the end of 2013, and will be carried over into the next certification cycle (SCS 2013). This condition involves ensuring that hatchery impacts on wild stocks are minimized through appropriate broodstock selection and escapement goal setting strategies. However, expected further work is focused upon chum rather than pink salmon (SCS 2013).

Hatchery fish are thought to contribute 27% of the fishery’s pink salmon harvest in the even (more abundant) years (SCS 2009). Of the eight currently operating hatcheries on Iturup Island, four (Kurilsk, Reydovo, Skalnyy, and Kuibyshev Bay) release pink salmon. Kurilsk and Reydovo, the two hatcheries that are owned by the MSC client group Gidrostroy JSC, account for 84% of the total pink salmon releases of these four hatcheries (SCS 2013).

The Iturup pink salmon hatchery programs are intended to be “integrated” systems intended to maintain the genetic characteristics of the local natural populations among hatchery fish by minimizing the genetic effects of selection or domestication. The hatchery programs employ a mixture of hatchery and natural-origin fish as broodstock, include large effective population sizes of broodstock, spawn fish over the duration of the run, avoid selective incubation and rearing practices, and minimize the duration of hatchery rearing (SCS 2013).

At the time of the 2009 MSC assessment, there were only six hatcheries operating on Iturup. Since then, two new chum hatcheries have begun operations, one in Prostor Bay (Olya Bay hatchery) and one in Kurilsk Bay (Kitovyy hatchery). The two new programs will likely double hatchery chum production of the fishery and create additional impacts on wild stocks (SCS 2011 and Russian Federal Government 2006). These developments are of greater concern for wild chum stocks than for wild pink stocks.

Recapture studies on marked Itutup hatchery pink salmon have been ongoing since 2010 (Akinicheva 2011; 2012; 2013). Results demonstrate that: 1) hatchery broodstock does include wild fish, indicating that the hatchery program is in fact “integrated”; 2) substantial numbers of hatchery-origin fish spawn naturally in rivers where hatcheries are located; and 3) hatchery-origin pink salmon comprise a relatively small fraction of natural spawners in rivers not connected to hatchery rivers, with more straying in Kurilsk Bay as compared with Prostor Bay.

It is unknown whether or not the integrated nature of the Iturup pink salmon hatchery program and straying noted particularly in Kurilsk Bay (and associated inter-breeding between hatchery- and natural-origin fish) are negatively impacting productivity of the stock.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species
Iturup Island Sakhalin

Last updated on 11 July 2008

There are no outstanding MSC assessment conditions with respect to impacts upon threatened species.

FishSource Scores

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

Click on the score to see subscores

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 10.0.

Escapement goals are in place for all major systems in the fishery, and escapement monitoring coverage is appropriate to the specificities of the region and the fishery (SCS 2009). While, these escapement goals do not delineate between hatchery and wild stocks, otolith marking underway at local hatcheries since 2009 and associated recapture studies have indicated that there is a low rate of pink salmon straying into wild spawning habitat (SCS 2013).

Click on the score to see subscores

×

Management Responsiveness Subscores

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 8.0.

The 2009 MSC assessment of this fishery assessed no conditions regarding limitation of fishing pressure in low-abundance seasons. The assessment does cite particular instances of closures in the chum fishery, but not the pink fishery. One of the stakeholder submissions to the original assessment document questions whether or not in-season closures have ever been used in management of this fishery (SCS 2009). The season was extended by five days in 2012 due to late run-timing (MRAG 2013).

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 10.0.

extended by five days in 2012 due to late run-timing (MRAG 2013). [1.2] There are no depleted stocks in the fishery.

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 10.0.

Spawning habitat on Iturup island is relatively pristine compared with that of neighboring Sakhalin Island. No concerns regarding habitat conservation are raised in the fishery's MSC assessment.

×

Adequacy of Data Subscores

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 8.0.

Compliance is reported to be strong in this fishery, although illegal fishing is widely considered a problem for the region of Sakhalin (SCS 2009).

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 8.0.

The fishery's current score on MSC Performance Indicator 1.1.2.1 (Estimation of Stock Removals) is "80," reflecting the fact that stock-specific harvest information is lacking, but otolith marking at hatcheries both on Iturup and on mainland Sakhalin is improving this knowledge gap.

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 19.0.

Adult escapements are monitored at eight weirs on the island and through walking surveys of spawning areas (SCS 2009).

STOCK HEALTH:

Click on the score to see subscores

Click on the score to see subscores

×

Stock Status Subscores

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 10.0.

Escapement goals have been consistently met in 2005-2012 in the approximately 20 basins where escapement monitoring occurs on the island (SCS 2013).

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 10.0.

Harvest trends for Iturup pink salmon have been fairly stable over the last 15 years (1998-2012), with higher harvests in even years compared with odd years. The fishery recovered in 2012 from a very low harvest year in 2011 (SCS 2013).

×

Hatchery Impacts Subscores

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 7.0.

A marking program has been in place since 2008 and indicates that there is stock mixing near hatchery locations, but less at locations further and further from hatcheries.

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 8.0.

Straying has been demonstrated to occur near hatcheries, but stray rates appear to be low at rivers not in proximity to hatcheries.

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 7.0.

The hatchery program is inteded to be "integrated," meaning that hatchery and wild fish are intended to mix and form an integrated stock rather than two segregated stocks.

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 8.0.

Hatchery activities are monitored and controlled the government agencies (Rosrybolovstvo, Rosprirodnadzor, etc), but review documentation is not made public (SCS 2009).

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses within this fishery.

Choose Stock:
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No data available for hatchery releases
No data available for hatchery releases
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To see data for hatchery impacts, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES

Scores appearing at the region level reflect the range of scores for the district profiles in the region for each of the five FishSource scoring criteria.  District profiles are scored according to the complete FishSource salmon scoring method, which can be downloaded here. A summary of the method’s scoring criteria for district profiles follows below.

The FishSource sustainability criteria as applied to salmon: Criterion 1. Management Responsiveness (Is the management strategy precautionary?) 1.1 Over the last decade, has fisheries management exhibited in-season responsiveness to stock status? 1.2 Has fisheries management responded appropriately over the last 15 years when/if the stock has failed to meet management objectives and/or maintain yields? 1.3 Has management exhibited responsiveness to concerns regarding the conservation and restoration of the stock’s essential freshwater, estuarine and coastal habitats during the last ten years? Criterion 2. Management Guidelines (Do the managers follow scientific advice?) Have appropriate escapement goals or operational equivalents been developed and implemented for the fishery’s wild stocks? Criterion 3. Adequacy of Data (Do fishers comply?) 3.1 Is a portion of harvest attributable to illegal, unreported, or unregulated fishing, resulting in official harvest data that is lower than the actual catch? 3.2 Is the fishery’s harvest adequately and accurately measured and reported? 3.3 Has escapement been adequately and accurately measured and publicly reported? Criterion 4. Stock Status (Is the fish stock healthy?) 4.1 Have escapement measures for the fishery’s wild stocks been maintained above escapement goals or thresholds, or have harvest rates been below the target harvest rates? 4.2 Has the catch trend been level or increasing over a 15-year period? Criterion 5. Are hatcheries or other enhancement activities negatively affecting wild stocks? (Will the fish stock be healthy in the future?) 5.0 Do hatcheries account for 10% or less of the fishery’s total production, or are hatchery-produced fish not in substantial contact with wild salmon? If “no,” then the following sub-criteria are analyzed: 5.1 Are managers able to manage for the (wild) stocks in a fishery that also contains hatchery stocks of salmon? 5.2 Is there a low quantity of hatchery strays in the escapement throughout the freshwater habitat of the wild stock, and is hatchery straying quantified by means of a technically sound data collection and analysis? 5.3 Over the past 10 years, have hatchery strays, hatchery out-plants, or any returning hatchery-produced fish been intentionally allowed to mix with the wild stock during spawning? 5.4 Are there active and effective policies that (1) establish objectives for the conservation of wild salmon, (2) put into place operational systems that limit hatchery impacts on wild stocks, (3) grant sufficient oversight and authority over individual hatchery programs to management agencies, and (4) establish a hatchery evaluation system that monitors the performance of individual hatcheries against wild salmon conservation objectives?

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

Iturup Island pink and chum salmon

STATUS

MSC Certified on 10 September 2009

SCORES

Principle Level Scores:

Principle Score
Principle 1 – Target Species 83
Principle 2 - Ecosystem 80
Principle 3 – Management System 87

Certification Type: Silver

Sources

Credits
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  1. fishery scorecardNE_Sakh_pink_scorecard.jpg
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  1. Akinicheva E., V. Volobuev, E. Fomin. 2012. Ma rked salmon production by the hatcheries of Russia in 2012. NPAFC Doc. 1400, Rev. 1. 6 pp. Sakhalin Research Institute of Fisheries & Oceanography; Magadan Scientific and Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography. http://www.npafc.org/new/publications/Documents/PDF%202012/1400%28Rev1%29%28Russia%29.pdf
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  6. Kaev, A.M., Antonov, A.A., Chupakhin, V.M. and Rudnev, V.A. . 2007. Possible causes and effects of shifts in trends of abundance in pink salmon of southern Sakhalin and Iturup Islands. NPAFC Bulletin No. 4: 23-33. Kaev_et_al__2007__Possible_causes_and_effects_of_shifts_in_trends_of_abundance_in_pink_salmon_of_southern_Sakhalin_and_Iturup_Islands.pdf
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  1. Bugaev, V. F. 2002. On pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) abundance influence on Asian sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) abundance. North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission, Document 628, Vancouver. http://www.npafc.org/new/publications/Documents/PDF%202002/628(Russia).pdf
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  7. Vakhrin, Sergey. 2011. Two Rivers, Two Fates - One Alarming, One Tragic.http://www.fishkamchatka.ru/?cont=long&id=32389&year=2011&today=07&month=10&PHPSESSID=sazonqio
  8. West Kamchatka pink scorecardWest_Kamchatka_pink_scorecard.jpg
  9. Zaporozhets, G.V. and Zaporozhets, O.M. Salmon Hatcheries of Far East in the North Pacific Ecosystems. KamchatNIRO, Petropavlovsk Kamchatskiy: 2011. http://www.knigakamchatka.ru/nauchnye-trudy-nauchno-populyarnye-izdaniya-kamchatki/raboty-uchenyx-issledovateley-kamchatki/salmon-hatcheries.html
References

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    Pink salmon - Russia, Iturup Island Sakhalin, Russia, Russian Federation, Traps

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