Last updated on 14 July 2017

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Chlamys islandica

SPECIES NAME(s)

Iceland scallop

Information is scarse about the population structure of this species. According with Pedersen (1994) the individuals sex ratio is generally 1:1 and they become sexually mature from 30 to 55 mm shell height at ages 4–9 years.  There are small differences in shell height-at-agebetween males and females, but between area means vary from 58 to 68 mm at age 10 years. Seasonal and areal variations in both the muscle and gonad weights can be observed.


ANALYSIS

Strengths

In the past, scientists applied a conservative approach to TAC definition, limiting catches to 10% of the scallop stock > 65mm. There are some management measures in place ( e.g. licenses, quotas)

Weaknesses

There are signs of the Iceland scallops stock is overfished, with decreased in catches and in catch per unit of effort. No stock assessment was conducted in the last years and seems that there is no recent information on this fishery.

Options

A stock assessment is needed to understand the current state of the stock. More studies on possible environmental impacts of this fishery need to develop.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

< 6

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

< 6

Future Health:

< 6


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Western Greenland Greenland, Western Greenland Greenland Towed dredges

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Strengths

In the past, scientists applied a conservative approach to TAC definition, limiting catches to 10% of the scallop stock > 65mm. There are some management measures in place ( e.g. licenses, quotas)

Weaknesses

There are signs of the Iceland scallops stock is overfished, with decreased in catches and in catch per unit of effort. No stock assessment was conducted in the last years and seems that there is no recent information on this fishery.

Options

A stock assessment is needed to understand the current state of the stock. More studies on possible environmental impacts of this fishery need to develop.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Biological studies were initiated by the Greenland Home Rule Authorities and in 1984 and 1988 inshore surveys (within the 3-mile boundary) located several populations of commercial interest (Pedersen, 1994), with Nuuk been the main fishing ground with the largest scallops beds. Populations are generally composed of large scallops in the range of 60–110mm shell height with the majority being 75–100 mm. However, stock assessments to determine if exploitation of the species is sustainable have been considered difficult because of the lack of knowledge of scallop populations and their recruitment processes that is very low (Pedersen, 1994; Garcia, 2006). Additionally, there are no funds for conducting annual studies since this is a small resource distributed over a large area and there are several areas that have not been investigate (Engelstoft, 2003).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

The scientists applied a conservative approach to TAC definition, limiting catches to 10% of the scallop stock > 65mm. Greenland Institute of Natural Resources advises a total catch of 2000 tons for all West Greenland (Garcia, 2006). However, recent information on TAC and catches is not available.

Reference Points

There are no reference points defined for this stock.

CURRENT STATUS

The fishermen’s logbooks show a decreasing catch rate (catch per effort) in all areas since the beginning of the fishery. There are therefore indications that the population has been overfished. Despite the closure of some of the beds found in the 1980s, the fishery has been stable for a long time with annual catches of around 2000 tons until beginning of 2004 (Engelstoft, 2003; Garcia, 2006). In recent years, the catches had an accentuated decrease (about 400 tons) (FAO, 2014).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

The Iceland scallop fishery is regulated by licensing and since the middle of the 1980s permits have been given to 5-6 boats. In addition, three of the largest scallop areas by Nuuk, Attu and Sisimiut and Mudderbuggtena have a yearly quota based on the stock assessment studies carried out during the 1980s and in 1994. There are no regulations on the catch size at the remaining sites (Engelstoft, 2003; Garcia, 2006).

Recovery Plans

There is no recovery plan in place for this fishery.

COMPLIANCE

Iceland scallops are fished with medium-sized 100-200 BRT fishing vessels (Engelstoft, 2003). For the period 1995-2002, when info on catch and TAC is both available, the catches overpass slightly the set TAC in some years.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

The scallop fishery has possibly contributed to the decline in the number of moulting king eiders (Somateria spectabilis) in Aqajarua. The fishery may disturb the birds in a vulnerable period and destroy the benthic fauna that they feed on (Frimer,1993; 1995b in Engelstoft, 2003). However, more studies on possible impacts are needed.

HABITAT

In West Greenland, Island scallops are mainly distributed in the outer regions of fjords at depths between 20–60 m (Pedersen, 1994). They lived mainly on hard substrates, but are also found on substrates with sand, gravel, rock and occasionally clay. The scallops are attached to the substrate, which makes it possible for them to live in areas with very strong currents. The scallop fishery can cause large-scale unevenness on the sea floor, lift large pebbles from the sediment and presumably damage the epifauna (Engelstoft, 2003).

The scallops are fished along West Greenland in six primary areas: Nuuk; Attu south of Kangaatsiaq; the area south of Kangerluk; the area north of Akullit; Aqajarua and Upernavik Kujalleq. They are also sporadically fished in areas by Qaportoq, Sisimiut and north of Upernavik Kujalleq. Fishery distribution is influenced by ice conditions: around Nuuk scallops are fished until May and it is only in this period that all ships fish in the same area. The fishing boats move northward from Nuuk as the ice disappears. The remaining areas are fished from May to December (Engelstoft, 2003).

FishSource Scores

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2006 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

The scientists applied a conservative approach to TAC definition, limiting catches to 10% of the scallop stock > 65mm. However, there is no recent stock assessment to TAC .definition

As calculated for 2006 data.

The score is < 6.

No stock assessment was undertaken recently.

As calculated for 2006 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

For the period 1995-2002, when info on catch and TAC is both available, the catches overpass slightly the set TAC in some years.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2006 data.

The score is < 6.

Catches decreased in recent years and it is also observed a decreasing catch rate (catch per effort) indicating that the population has been overfished.

As calculated for 2006 data.

The score is < 6.

Catches decreased in recent years and it is also observed a decreasing catch rate (catch per effort) indicating that the population has been overfished.

No data available for biomass
No data available for biomass
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.

Download Source Data

Registered users can download the original data file for calculating the scores after logging in. If you wish, you can Register now.

Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

Engelstoft, J.J., 2003. Iceland scallop (4.4.25.) in Kim Diget Chri Sten Sen eds. The Biodiversity of Greenland– a country study. Technical Report No. 55, December 2003. http://www.natur.gl/fileadmin/user_files/Dokumenter/Tekniske_rapporter/Biodiversity_of_Greenland.pdf

FAO, 2014. FAO Statistical Online Queries. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Information and Statistics Service. Downloaded at 20 May 2014.http://www.fao.org/fishery/topic/16140/en

Garcia, E.G., 2006. The Fishery for Iceland Scallop (Chlamys islandica) in the Northeast Atlantic. Advances in Marine Biology Vol. 51. DOI: 10.1016/S0065-2881(06)51001-6 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065288106510016

Pedersen, S.A.,1994. Population Parameters of the Iceland Scallop (Chlamys islandica (Müller)) from West Greenland.J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci., Vol. 16: 75–87 http://journal.nafo.int/j16/pedersen.pdf

References

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