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Profile updated on 19 August 2019

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Dosidicus gigas

SPECIES NAME(s)

Jumbo flying squid

COMMON NAMES

Humboldt squid, jibia, pota, calamar rojo, calamar gigante

Jumbo flying squid in the Eastern Pacific extends from the waters off Chile to the North American coast. The NE Pacific and SE Pacific represent genetically different stocks with some migration among them, in a genetic structure apparently influenced by oceanic currents (Sandoval-Castellanos et al. 2010).

Three intraspecific groups have been identified for Giant or Jumbo flying squid (Dosidicus gigas) in the Southeast Pacific, based on size-at-maturity (Nigmatullin et al. 2001), but as no genetic difference has been found between the three proposed sub-unit populations, thus it is still considered to constitute a single stock (Xu et al. 2017).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • The stock is considered healthy. 
  • Managers comply fully with scientific advice.
  • Bycatch is considered null due to selectivity of jigs and the interaction with the seabed ecosystem is regarded as minimal.
Weaknesses
  • No management exists at a whole-stock level, and there is thus scope for high-seas fleets to increase their catch levels at any time, potentially jeopardizing stock health. 
  • Ongoing uncertainty regarding the stock structure (three functionally independent stocks or one semi-mixed stock) combined with high annual/environmental variability hampers efforts to forecast and manage the stock(s) across national boundaries and in the high seas.
  • Assessment of the full stock needs improvement in fishery-independent and dependent data from Peru and Chile and the SPRFMO area. 
  • Regulations do not reflect the artisanal nature of the fishery.
  • Monitoring has been flag as ineffective.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

DATA DEFICIENT

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 8

Future Health:

≥ 8


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Work with the South Pacific RFMO and its members to define the population structure and agree on the approach to stock assessments, ensuring that the models incorporate appropriate fisheries, environmental, and biological data from the entire stock(s).
  • Develop a common management strategy covering the entire population unit(s) and seek its adoption by all management authorities (RFMO and states). The common management strategy will include clear management objectives, specific management measures, and use of biological reference points and harvest control rules.
  • Design and implement an effective fishery monitoring program that covers both national and international waters, assuring standardized and regular data collection covering all fleets required to support stock assessment. Ensure transparency and share data with all management authorities in the South Pacific RFMO.
  • Design and implement a research programme aimed at determining biological parameters and the effects of environmental variability on the stock(s). 
  • Implement effective surveillance and enforcement mechanisms to ensure compliance with conservation and management measures (CMMs) within both national and international waters.
  • Engage in and support the work of CALAMASUR in advocating for better science and management for jumbo flying squid fisheries in the Pacific.

 


FIPS

  • Peruvian Jumbo flying squid - Jig:

    Stage 3, Progress Rating C

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Chilean Chile/SPRFMO Chile Midwater trawls
Purse seines
Vertical Lines
Ecuador Ecuador/SPRFMO Ecuador Vertical Lines
Peruvian Peru/SPRFMO Peru Handlines hand operated
Pole-lines hand operated
Vertical Lines
SE Pacific High Seas SPRFMO - Industrial China Vertical Lines
Japan Vertical Lines
Korea, Republic of Vertical Lines
Taiwan, Province of China Vertical Lines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 19 August 2019

Strengths
Peruvian

Last updated on 19 August 2019

  • The stock is considered healthy. 
  • Managers comply fully with scientific advice.
  • Bycatch is considered null due to selectivity of jigs and the interaction with the seabed ecosystem is regarded as minimal.
Weaknesses
  • No management exists at a whole-stock level, and there is thus scope for high-seas fleets to increase their catch levels at any time, potentially jeopardizing stock health. 
  • Ongoing uncertainty regarding the stock structure (three functionally independent stocks or one semi-mixed stock) combined with high annual/environmental variability hampers efforts to forecast and manage the stock(s) across national boundaries and in the high seas.
  • Assessment of the full stock needs improvement in fishery-independent and dependent data from Peru and Chile and the SPRFMO area. 
Peruvian

Last updated on 19 August 2019

  • Regulations do not reflect the artisanal nature of the fishery.
  • Monitoring has been flag as ineffective.
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 16 October 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Work with the South Pacific RFMO and its members to define the population structure and agree on the approach to stock assessments, ensuring that the models incorporate appropriate fisheries, environmental, and biological data from the entire stock(s).
  • Develop a common management strategy covering the entire population unit(s) and seek its adoption by all management authorities (RFMO and states). The common management strategy will include clear management objectives, specific management measures, and use of biological reference points and harvest control rules.
  • Design and implement an effective fishery monitoring program that covers both national and international waters, assuring standardized and regular data collection covering all fleets required to support stock assessment. Ensure transparency and share data with all management authorities in the South Pacific RFMO.
  • Design and implement a research programme aimed at determining biological parameters and the effects of environmental variability on the stock(s). 
  • Implement effective surveillance and enforcement mechanisms to ensure compliance with conservation and management measures (CMMs) within both national and international waters.
  • Engage in and support the work of CALAMASUR in advocating for better science and management for jumbo flying squid fisheries in the Pacific.

 

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 18 January 2018

In the Eastern Pacific Jumbo flying squid is captured by industrial fleets (i.e., China, Korea, and Japan) off Ecuador, Peru and Chile’s EEZ where they are assessed within each country, (Rosa et al. 2013; Morales-Bojórquez and Pacheco-Bedoya 2016). However, since Dosidicus gigas have a short life cycle (<2 years), are highly migratory, and their recruitment processes are driven by the environment; its assessment and management off EEZs represent a big challenge (Rodhouse 2001; Rosa et al. 2013)

Peruvian

Last updated on 19 August 2019

The assessment of Jumbo flying squid in Peru is conducted by the Instituto del Mar del Perú (National Marine Institute, IMARPE) as a request of the Ministerio de la Producción (Ministry of Production, PRODUCE) following the jumbo flying squid Fishery Management Regulation (PRODUCE 2011)

The assessment of the Jumbo flying squid in Peru has been based principally on biomass estimates obtained by IMARPE through acoustic methods and fishing trials, conducted on a regular basis (late spring or early summer) since 1999 (Flores et al. 2016)(IMARPE 2015)(IMARPE 2018). In addition, to obtain an index of abundance of recruits, this information is completed with industrial and artisanal data of size frequency distribution and CPUE (Arkhipkin et al. 2015)(Csirke et al. 2015). Since 2010, the Schaefer Biomass Dynamic Model was used to estimate the Jumbo flying squid population’s parameters (Arkhipkin et al. 2015). However, more recently, the Jumbo flying squid assessment has also included the application of a surplus production model in which industrial and artisanal catch and effort data are considered (IMARPE 2015).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 19 August 2019

There are not recommendations and no reference points are set at a whole-stock level.

Peruvian

Last updated on 19 August 2019

In late 2017, IMARPE assessed the jumbo flying squid population (IMARPE 2018)(IMARPE 2018). A short-term risk assessment was performed to estimate the probability of the population to be under the predecessor’s population level and 50 percent risk was used as recommended by (Haddon 2011). As Peruvian Jumbo flying squid fishery is managed through annual catch quotas, which are based on the information from the fishery and research cruises, the reference points (e.g., TAC, MSY) are upgraded every year. For 2018, the reference points Bmsy, MSY, and Fmsy were 203.8 million of individuals, 135.4 million of individuals, and 0.664, respectively (IMARPE 2018).

To calculate a recommendation for the Total Allowance Capture (TAC) for 2018, IMARPE considered two scenarios: (a) predominance of large individuals with average total weight of 13.9 kg, and (b) predominance of smaller individuals with average total weigh of 6.9 kg. Under these assumptions, and taking into consideration that the MSY is 96.7 million of individuals, they calculated that: (1) in the first scenario TAC should not exceed 1.344 million tonnes, and (2) in the second scenario TAC should not exceed 609 thousand of tonnes. In addition, they pointed out that although D. gigas has a rapid growth rate, larger individuals would not be present in the short-term, conversely it is expected that individuals with similar sizes (short and medium size) from 2016 and 2017 would be presented in 2018 (IMARPE 2018).

CURRENT STATUS

No stock assessment including the whole stock is yet conducted.

 
Peruvian

Last updated on 19 August 2019

In the last years it has been estimated that the biomass of jumbo flying squid in Peruvian waters was around 2 million tonnes with a Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) at around 800,000 tonnes (IMARPE 2015)(Yamashiro et al. 2016). Fishing mortality (F) has grown steadily since 1999, however, without exceeding the reference value (FMSY) (Arkhipkin et al. 2015).

In a more recent stock assessment, the abundance at MSY (Nmsy) was estimated at 203 millions individuals, and the current abundance was 318 millions of individuals, suggesting that the stock is in good condition (IMARPE 2018)​. There is some bycatch of jumbo flying squid during the purse seine operations, targeting Peruvian anchoveta. The bycatch is not quantified, but it is not flagged as a danger for the population (IMARPE 2018)​.

Landings have averaged 450,000 tonnes between 2007 and 2016 (PRODUCE 2018). However, in 2016 and 2017, landings have decreased significantly in comparison with 2015 (IMARPE 2018)(PRODUCE 2018). This particularity is meant to be a response to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) which, according to the intensity, duration, and coverage, has been proved to have impacts in the availability and abundance of jumbo flying squid in Peru (Yamashiro et al. 2016).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

No management measures exist at stock level for regulating the Jumbo flying squid fisheries. The South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation (SPRFMO) has developed some general management measures to regulate fisheries in the high seas areas of the South Pacific Ocean, but none of these refer to squid specifically.

A Permanent Commission of the South Pacific (Comisión Permanente del Pacífico del Sur, CPPS) exists to promote coordination of maritime policies within national waters of its members (Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru) and in the context of international and regional fisheries organizations (CPPS 2018).

Peruvian

Last updated on 19 August 2019

The fishery is managed by the Ministry of Production (PRODUCE) following the Fishing Ordinance Regulation for jumbo flying squid since 2011 (PRODUCE 2011). However, this regulation does not take into account the artisanal nature of the fleet (Gutiérrez and Sueiro 2017).  

Even though this regulation requires the establishment of annual quotas for jumbo flying squid, a TAC for 2012 was set at 500,000 tonnes (PRODUCE 2012a), but no TACs were defined between 2013 and 2017. For 2018, PRODUCE set a TAC of 609,000 tonnes, in line with the advice provided by IMARPE (PRODUCE 2018).

COMPLIANCE
Peruvian

Last updated on 19 August 2019

TACs were only set in 2012 and 2018 for Jumbo flying squid in Peruvian waters. Total national landings did not surpass the TAC set (PRODUCE 2018).

However, compliance issues have been raised, namely: no reliable data on landings, as these are only estimated from exports and no regular record system is in place, and ii) lack of effective monitoring and control, given the increasing number of illegal fishing vessels operating over the resource which compete with the legal fleet (Gutiérrez and Sueiro 2017).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species
Peruvian

Last updated on 13 July 2016

There are no records on impacts over Protected, Endangered and Threatened (PET) species.

Other Species
Peruvian

Last updated on 18 January 2017

The fishery is driven by jiggers so bycatch in this fishery is null.

It used to be thought that the abundance of jumbo flying squid was affecting hake’s numbers in both Peru and Chile. But, using an ecosystem approach, it was demonstrated (Arancibia et al. 2005) that growing numbers of jumbo flying squid is not the immediate cause to diminishing numbers of hake. Furthermore, even though hake is indeed one of the giant squid’s preys, it is not the main one.

Jumbo flying squid’s surge in numbers may be related to top predators’ declination, particularly cachalot’s depletion (Clarke et al. 1988, quoted by Icochea 2006). It was estimated that in the late 1950’s the cachalot population consumed between 6 and 14 million tones each year.

HABITAT
Peruvian

Last updated on 30 August 2016

The impact of this fishery on the habitat is regarded as practically null.

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 30 Aug 2016

Paracas Marine Reserve is the only marine reserve in Peru. It is located in the province of Pisco, department of Ica and it extends over 335,000 hectares (217,594 of which correspond to sea waters). Paracas Marine Reserve was created in 1975 to protect wildlife, especially seabirds such as the Humboldt penguin.

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 19 August 2019

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2019 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

A Fishing Ordinance Regulation exists for jumbo flying squid (PRODUCE 2011), which indicates general objectives for the stock. However, this regulation does not take into account the artisanal nature of the fleet (Gutiérrez and Sueiro 2017).  

As calculated for 2018 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 609 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 609 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is 100%.

As determined for 2019.

No regular record nor effective monitoring system is in place (Gutiérrez and Sueiro 2017).

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

Stock is in a good condition (PRODUCE, 2012a).

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

According to IMARPE, exploitation rates are at sustainable levels (PRODUCE, 2012a).

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

SELECT FIP

Access FIP Public Report

Progress Rating: C
Evaluation Start Date: 15 Feb 2018
Type: Comprehensive

Comments:

FIP has transitioned from basic to comprehensive but no stage 4 results reported to date. Stage 3 activities underway - FIP remains C rated 

1.
FIP Development
Feb 18
2.
FIP Launch
Dec 17
3.
FIP Implementation
Jun 18
4.
Improvements in Fishing Practices and Fishery Management
Verifiable improvement in policy/management and fishing practices
5.
Improvements on the Water
Verifiable improvement on the water
6.
MSC certification (optional)
MSC certificate made public

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. FAO, 2014. FIGIS - Global Capture Production 1950-2012 [Accessed 29 May 2014] http://www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/global-capture-production/query/en

  2. Icochea, LA., 2008. [Dosidicus gigas and the artisanal fishermen], o.t. (Spanish): La pota y el pescador artesanal. FIUPAP, September, 2006. Consulted on November 10th, 2008, at: http://www.fiupap.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=12&Itemid=2

  3. IMARPE, 2008. [Technical report: current status of giant squid and catch perspectives for 2008], o.t., (Spanish): Informe Técnico: Situación del recurso calamar gigante y perspectivas de captura para el 2008. May, 2008. Consulted November 10th, 2008 at: http://190.81.184.108/imarpe/informe_invertebrados/inf_pota_cuota_%20anual2008.pdf

  4. IMARPE, 2010. Anuario Científico Tecnológico Imarpe. Vol. 10, 2010. Instituto del Mar de Peru (IMARPE). Callao, Perú. 205 pp. (In Spanish)http://www.imarpe.pe/imarpe/archivos/informes/imarpe_anuario_2010.pdf

  5. Nigmatullin, Ch.M., K.N. Nesis, A.I. Arkhipkin, 2001. A review of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae). Fisheries Research 54:9-19.http://www.cephbase.dal.ca/refdb/pdf/6869.pdf

  6. PRODUCE, 2010a. Modificar los artículos 2o y 9o de la Resolución Ministerial N° 163-2010-PRODUCE, de fecha 30 de junio de 2010. Resolución Ministerial N° 286-2010-PRODUCE. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE). 03 November 2010. Lima. 4 pp. (In Spanish)http://www2.produce.gob.pe/pesqueria/publicaciones/2010/noviembre/rm286-2010-produce.pdf

  7. PRODUCE, 2011a. Establecer la cuota de Captura rel recurso calamar gigante o pota en 250 mil toneladas para el primer semestre del año 2011. Resolución Ministerial N° 075-2011-PRODUCE. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE). 02 March 2011. Lima. 3 pp. (In Spanish)http://www2.produce.gob.pe/pesqueria/publicaciones/2011/marzo/rm075-2011-produce.pdf

  8. PRODUCE, 2011b. Prorrogar hasta el 31 de diciembre del 2011, la vigencia del Régimen Provisional para la extracción comercial del calamar gigante o pota, establecido por la Resolución Ministerial N° 163-2010-PRODUCE. Resolución Ministerial N° 075-2011-PRODUCE. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE). 28 June 2011. Lima. 3 pp. (In Spanish)http://www2.produce.gob.pe/dispositivos/publicaciones/2011/junio/rm197-2011-produce.pdf

  9. PRODUCE, 2011c. Aprobar el Reglamento del Ordenamiento Pesquero del Calamar Gigante o Pota (Dosidicus gigas). Decreto Supremo N°014 -2011-PRODUCE. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE). 04 October 2011. Lima. 7 pp. (In Spanish)http://www2.produce.gob.pe/dispositivos/publicaciones/2011/octubre/ds014-2011-produce.pdf

  10. PRODUCE, 2012a. Establecer una cuota de captura del recurso calamar gigante o pota, de 500 mil toneladas para el año 2012. Resolución Ministerial N° 036-2012-PRODUCE. Ministerio de la Producción (PRODUCE). 20 January 2012. Lima. 3 pp. (In Spanish)http://www2.produce.gob.pe/dispositivos/publicaciones/2012/enero/rm036-2012-produce.pdf

  11. Alarcón-Muñoz, R., Cubillos, L., Gatica, C. 2008. Jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) biomass off central Chile: effects on Chilean hake (Merluccius gayi). CalCOFI Rep. 49, 157-166 "http://www.calcofi.org/publications/calcofireports/v49/Vol_49_Alarcon-Munoz_web.pdf"

  12. Comité Científico Técnico de Recursos Demersales Zona Centro-Sur (CCT-RDZCS), 2014. Adjunta informes técnicos sesiones 1 y 2 Comité Científico Técnico de Recursos Demersales Zona Centro-Sur. Valparaiso, 20 enero 2014, 29 pp. "http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-82593_documento.pdf"

  13. Comité Científico Técnico de Recursos Demersales Zona Centro-Sur (CCT-RDZCS), 2013. Adjunta Acta sesión 02/2013 del Comité Científico Técnico de Recursos Demersales Zona Centro-Sur (CCT-RDZCS). Valparaiso, 20 diciembre 2013, 6 pp. "http://www-old.subpesca.cl/transparencia/documentos/Acta_02-2013CT-RDZCS_CART-2013_MERLUZA_COMU.pdf"  

  14. Fondo de Investigación Pesquera y Acuicultura (FIPA), 2013. Memoria Año 2013, 87 pp. "http://www.fip.cl/Archivos/Documentacion/Noticias/Memoria%202013.pdf"

  15. Ibáñez, C.M. 2013. El impacto ecológico del calamar Dosidicus gigas sobre poblaciones de merluzas en el Océano Pacífico poblaciones de merluzas en el Océano Pacífico, Sociedad Malacológica de Chile (SMACH), Amici Molluscarum 21(1): 7-16 "http://www.amicimolluscarum.com/app/download/8559517969/Ib%C3%A1%C3%B1ez.pdf?t=1381976766"

  16. Ministerio del Medio Ambiente (MMA), 2008. Biodiversidad de Chile. Patrimonio y Desafíos, Capítulo II: Nuestra Diversidad Biológica, Gobierno de Chile, 320 pp.  "http://www.mma.gob.cl/librobiodiversidad/1308/biodiversid_parte_2a.pdf"

  17. Ministério de Economia, Fomento y Turismo (MEFT), 2014. Decreto Exento 22/2014 Establece cuota anual de captura para el recurso jibia XV-XII regiones, año 2014, 2pp. "http://www.subpesca.cl/normativa/605/articles-82297_documento.pdf"

  18. Mundo Acuicola, 2014. Gremio pesquero descarta colapso de la jibia y llama al Gobierno a no dejarse presionar "http://www.mundoacuicola.cl/comun/index.php?modulo=2&cat=6&view=1&idnews=59167"

  19. Reilly, S.B., Bannister, J.L., Best, P.B., Brown, M., Brownell Jr., R.L., Butterworth, D.S., Clapham, P.J., Cooke, J., Donovan, G.P., Urbán, J., Zerbini, A.N. 2008. Megaptera novaeangliae. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2 "http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/13006/0"

  20. Sepulveda, A. 2012. Seguimiento e impacto de la jibia en las pesquerías de la zona centro-sur y sur-austral de Chile, Instituto de Investigación Pesquera. Seminario "Biología, Producción y Comercialización de Jibia (Dosidicus gigas)", Subsecretaría de Pesca, 41 pp. "http://www.subpesca.cl/prensa/601/articles-60495_recurso_2.pdf"

  21. Servicio Nacional de Pescay Acuicultura (Sernapesca), undated. Nuestra Institución, Ministério de Economia, Fomento y Turismo "http://www.sernapesca.cl/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=12&Itemid=126"

  22. Servicio Nacional de Pesca y Acuicultura (Sernapesca), 2013. Informe Actividades de Fiscalización efectuadas en materia de pesca y acuicultura en el año 2012, Ministerio  de Economía, Fomento y Turismo, 55 pp. "http://www.sernapesca.cl/presentaciones/Informe_Final_Rendicion_de_Cuentas_2012_Art_4_B_LGPA_SERNAPESCA.pdf

  23. Subpesca, 2008. Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Reconstrucción, Subsecretaría de Pesca aprueba el Plan de Acción Nacional para reducir capturas incidentales de aves en pesquerías de palangre "http://mail.anfitrion.cl/GobiernoTransparente/pesca/NG/DCTO/2008/02/24777"

  24. Subsecretaría de Pesca (Subpesca), 2012a. Suspensión temporal del cierre de la inscripción en el registro pesquero artesanal para la pesquería de jibia (Dosidicus gigas) IV-VIII Regiones. Inf. Téc. (R.Pesq.) Nº 155-2012, Subsecretaría de Pesca, Valparaíso. 10 pp. "http://www.subpesca.cl/institucional/602/articles-79049_documento.doc"

  25. Subsecretaría de Pesca (Subpesca), 2012b. Cuota global anual de captura de jibia (Dosidicus gigas) XV-XII Regiones, año 2013. Inf. Téc. (R.Pesq.) Nº 239-2012, Subsecretaría de Pesca, Valparaíso. 11 pp. "http://www.subpesca.cl/transparencia/documentos/RPESQ-239-2012_Cuota_captura_anual_2013_jibia.pdf

  26. Tascheri, R. 2012. Incorporación de la predación por jibia en el modelo de evaluación del stock de merluza común, Instituto de Fomento Pesquero. Seminario "Biología, Producción y Comercialización de Jibia (Dosidicus gigas)", Subsecretaría de Pesca, 44pp.  "http://www.subpesca.cl/prensa/601/articles-60495_recurso_4.pdf"

References

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