Last updated on 18 January 2018
A squid working group was created in the 4th Scientific Committee (SC) meeting of the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation (SPRFMO). A 2017 stock assessment on the full stock of jumbo flying squid in the Southeast Pacific was published; CPUE data of Chinese vessels operating in the high seas were used as biomass abundance index in a state-space surplus production model (Xu et al. 2017). Improvement needs on modelling approach used, research on stock structure, spawning grounds, and other basic biology (i.e. maturity) were identified. A workplan was agreed with participation of Chile, Peru and China, as well as a squid stock assessment workshop to be held in 2018 prior to, or in conjunction with the next SC meeting (SPRFMO 2017).
Last updated on 19 July 2016
In Peru, assessments for jumbo flying squid are based on acoustic surveys conducted by the Marine Research Institute of Peru (Instituto del Mal del Perú, IMARPE). Scientific reports with stock assessments were generally publicly available in the last years but are not for both 2013 and 2014 fishing years.
Since jumbo flying squid is an annual species, population is assessed at the beginning of the season and probable catches are also estimated so that the recommended Total Allowable Catch (TAC) may ensure that 20% of the population (as assessed at the beginning of the season) remains in the water for reproduction (escapement criterion). In Southern Spring (September), an assessment of the intensity of the spawning is conducted and preliminary recommendations are issued regarding the TAC for the first half of the next year.
Jumbo squid, Dosidicus gigas, has a life span of little more than a year and it is a semelparous species, meaning it reproduces only once in its lifetime and shortly afterward dies. During their short life span, jumbo squids can reach a mantle length of around 1m (3 feet) and can reach weighs of up to 65kg (140 pounds). They are big, almost top-opportunistic predators and cannibalism is common.
In Peru, assessments for jumbo squid are based on acoustic surveys. IMARPE, the marine research institute of Peru, is in charge of the assessment of jumbo squid population. Research is oriented towards the assessment of abundance, distribution and availability of resources and their relationship with their environment.
Biomass abundance for this species is linked to El Niño/La Niña phenomena. It seems that moderate Niños encourage abundance, but strong Niños or Niñas are bad. Intermittent soft Niños have been characteristic during the last seven years, within what is generally considered a “cold decade”.
Since jumbo squid is an annual species, population is assessed at the beginning of the season and monthly projections for the cohort are calculated according to an exponential decay model (Pope 1972) with different mortalities for juveniles and adults. Specimens’ growth projections and probable catches are also estimated so that the recommended TAC may ensure that 20% of the population (as assessed at the beginning of the season) remains in the water for reproduction (escapement criterion).
In Southern Spring (September), an assessment of the intensity of the spawning is conducted and preliminary recommendations are issued regarding the TAC for the first half of the next year.
No reference points are set at a whole-stock level. A recent formal assessment, published by the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation (SPRFMO), provides an initial description of the dynamics of the stock (Xu et al. 2017). A maximum sustainable yield of 337,619 tonnes was estimated.
The squid working group made several recommendations to the SPRFMO Scientific Committee: i) evaluate working hypotheses on stock structure using data combined from all fishing countries, ii) research on the distribution, migration routes and intermixing patterns, iii) promote research on the reproductive process and the effect of environmental factors in determining the timing and the location and extension of spawning areas, iv) determine the most suitable stock assessment models and management alternatives, including research on methods for recruitment and escapement estimation, v) refine and develop data templates to address data gaps for informing a full stock assessment, as not all required information is contained within the templates, vi) encourage all fishing countries to share data and information necessary for stock assessment, vii) recover historical data and report the historical information to the extent possible.
A formal stock assessment has derived MSY variants for the whole stock (Xu et al. 2017). No management structure is in place at a stock-level.
Last updated on 13 July 2016
After assessment of the population, IMARPE issues a TAC recommendation. IMARPE’s preliminary assessment recommended a provisional TAC of 500,000 t for 2012. The advice may be changed, based on the results from acoustic survey conducted during the year (PRODUCE 2012a).
Last updated on 13 Jul 2016
In Peru, the sustainability criterion for this species consists in letting 20% of the population (as assessed at the beginning of the year) escape for reproduction purposes.
A 2017 stock assessment on the full stock concludes the jumbo flying squid stock in the Southeast Pacific is not overfished and overfishing does not occur, that the current catch level is much lower than the estimated MSY, and is sustainable. The team intends to improve their existing analyses by incorporating population structure, in future work (Xu et al. 2017).
Total catch levels have been gradually rising (p3,p5) but this does not appear likely to become problematic for a decade if such trends continue (p27a), and especially if Chile and Peru (representing 2/3rds catch) are increasingly actively managing their fisheries (Xu et al. 2017).
Last updated on 18 January 2017
Estimated biomass for between 2001 and 2011 oscillated between 2.51 and 2.96 million tons. Based on this, Maximum Sustainable Yield BMSY was estimated as 854,859 tons. The initial TAC for 2012 was set at 500,000 tons as recommended by IMARPE (PRODUCE 2012a).
Last updated on 18 Jan 2017
of jumbo squid have reached and surpassed the 250,000 tonnes mark in recent years. In 2010, reported catches were of 366,824 tonnes (IMARPE 2010). Fishing mortality (F) has been increasing since 1999 and remains below FMSY (which value is not available) (PRODUCE 2011a, 2012a).