Last updated on 4 October 2016

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Makaira nigricans

SPECIES NAME(s)

Blue marlin

COMMON NAMES

Blue marlin, marlin

Blue marlin Makaira nigricans is here regarded as a worldwide species. Hinton (2001) considers that there is a single stock in the Pacific Ocean. The last genetic study was conducted in 2003 and no population structuring was found. It is assumed that there is a single stock in the Pacific Ocean {ISCBWG 2013}.


ANALYSIS

Strengths

A new analytical assessment with suggested reference points,estimates of uncertainty, and projections is now available
Stock biology suggests that it is resilient to fishing and very productive

Weaknesses

Mangers have yet to establish reference points and goals for this stock.
It is unclear if the assessments recently completed has been peer reviewed
Model used suffers from a severe retrospective pattern that over estimates SSB and under estimates F relative tot he terminal year
Few if any management measures such as quotas or input controls are used to manage this fishery currently
SSB has been in decline over the time series while F has largely been increasing.
Outside of the US harvester compliance is unknown, but maybe problematic

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6

Fishers Compliance:

< 6

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

9

Future Health:

9.1


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Ensure member countries comply with all Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission’s (WCPFC’s) and Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission’s (IATTC) conservation and management measures (CMMs), including measures aimed at both target and bycatch species, and all other mandated obligations. Member countries must make information on monitoring and compliance with all WCPFC’s and IATTC’s obligations publicly available, including actions being taken to address any non-compliance with WCPFC CMMs identified by the WCPFC Compliance Committee.
2. A) Regulators -Promote the adoption by the WCPFC and IATTC and member countries of precautionary and ecosystem-based management measures, including biological reference points, harvest control rules, increased observer coverage for longline fleets, national management measures and monitoring efforts adequate to ensure harvest strategy objectives are being met.
B) Catchers – Inform relevant delegations to the WCPFC and IATTC, those being Member and Cooperating Non-Members in countries where your company is incorporated and where your company conducts operations, to have WCPFC and IATTC adopt a formal target reference point, a harvest strategy responsive to the state of the stock and designed to achieve the limit and target reference points, and adopt management measure and tools consistent with the harvest strategy that reduces fishing mortality, as a limit reference point is approached. Comply with current required onboard observer coverage rates. In addition, the WCPFC should explicitly define what “current” fishing levels refers to.
3. Support the continued cooperation between the distant water fishing nations (Japan, Korea, China and Chinese Taipei) and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) regarding the provision and analysis of operational data (i.e. set by set catch and effort data.
4. Ensure that fishing mortality rates do not exceed levels from 2009-2011 to avoid overfishing.
5. Conduct studies, increase monitoring, both temporally and spatially to record rare events, and publish information to assess longline interactions with endangered, threatened and protected (ETP) and other bycatch species. Identify and mandate best practice bycatch mitigation techniques. Provide evidence of full compliance with recently implemented WCPFC management measures prohibiting the retention of silky and oceanic whitetip sharks. Provide evidence of full compliance with providing species specific catch data for the key shark species (as identified by the WCPFC).

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Encourage the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC), Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission and individual member countries to adopt precautionary and ecosystem-based management measures. Demand that member countries comply with all WCPFC’s and IATTC’s Conservation and Management Measures, and request the WCPFC and IATTC to make information on monitoring and compliance publicly available.
2. Explore implementation of control documents to ensure supplier compliance with WCPFC and IATTC conservation and management measures (CMM’s) (e.g. around bycatch) such as: recording and reporting interactions, use of dehooking devices and line cutters for sea turtles, sea bird mitigation measures and prohibition on retaining silky (WCPFC) and oceanic whitetip (WCPFC and IATTC) sharks. Source from vessels registered on the International Seafood Sustainability Foundation (ISSF) Proactive Vessel Register (PVR) and in full compliance with all measures relevant to their gear type as demonstrated by annual independent audit reports that are made publicly available. Encourage ISSF to expand the ecological sustainability criteria against which tuna vessels on the PVR are assessed.
3. Encourage the WCPFC, IATTC and member countries to conduct studies, increase monitoring and publish information to assess longline interactions with protected, endangered and threatened (PET) and other bycatch species. Explore opportunities to support studies and data gathering.
4. Contact SFP to learn more about fishery improvement projects (FIPs) and SFP’s Supplier Roundtables.


FIPS

  • Hawaii tuna and large pelagics - longline:

    Stage 5, Progress Rating B

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Pacific Ocean Chile Chile Longlines
IATTC Colombia Gillnets and entangling nets
Longlines
Pole-lines mechanized
United States Drifting longlines
Malaysia Malaysia Pole-lines hand operated
Viet Nam Viet Nam Hooks and lines
Pole-lines hand operated
WCPFC United States Drifting longlines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 28 October 2013

Strengths

A new analytical assessment with suggested reference points,estimates of uncertainty, and projections is now available
Stock biology suggests that it is resilient to fishing and very productive

Weaknesses

Mangers have yet to establish reference points and goals for this stock.
It is unclear if the assessments recently completed has been peer reviewed
Model used suffers from a severe retrospective pattern that over estimates SSB and under estimates F relative tot he terminal year
Few if any management measures such as quotas or input controls are used to manage this fishery currently
SSB has been in decline over the time series while F has largely been increasing.
Outside of the US harvester compliance is unknown, but maybe problematic

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Ensure member countries comply with all Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission’s (WCPFC’s) and Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission’s (IATTC) conservation and management measures (CMMs), including measures aimed at both target and bycatch species, and all other mandated obligations. Member countries must make information on monitoring and compliance with all WCPFC’s and IATTC’s obligations publicly available, including actions being taken to address any non-compliance with WCPFC CMMs identified by the WCPFC Compliance Committee.
2. A) Regulators -Promote the adoption by the WCPFC and IATTC and member countries of precautionary and ecosystem-based management measures, including biological reference points, harvest control rules, increased observer coverage for longline fleets, national management measures and monitoring efforts adequate to ensure harvest strategy objectives are being met.
B) Catchers – Inform relevant delegations to the WCPFC and IATTC, those being Member and Cooperating Non-Members in countries where your company is incorporated and where your company conducts operations, to have WCPFC and IATTC adopt a formal target reference point, a harvest strategy responsive to the state of the stock and designed to achieve the limit and target reference points, and adopt management measure and tools consistent with the harvest strategy that reduces fishing mortality, as a limit reference point is approached. Comply with current required onboard observer coverage rates. In addition, the WCPFC should explicitly define what “current” fishing levels refers to.
3. Support the continued cooperation between the distant water fishing nations (Japan, Korea, China and Chinese Taipei) and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) regarding the provision and analysis of operational data (i.e. set by set catch and effort data.
4. Ensure that fishing mortality rates do not exceed levels from 2009-2011 to avoid overfishing.
5. Conduct studies, increase monitoring, both temporally and spatially to record rare events, and publish information to assess longline interactions with endangered, threatened and protected (ETP) and other bycatch species. Identify and mandate best practice bycatch mitigation techniques. Provide evidence of full compliance with recently implemented WCPFC management measures prohibiting the retention of silky and oceanic whitetip sharks. Provide evidence of full compliance with providing species specific catch data for the key shark species (as identified by the WCPFC).

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Encourage the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC), Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission and individual member countries to adopt precautionary and ecosystem-based management measures. Demand that member countries comply with all WCPFC’s and IATTC’s Conservation and Management Measures, and request the WCPFC and IATTC to make information on monitoring and compliance publicly available.
2. Explore implementation of control documents to ensure supplier compliance with WCPFC and IATTC conservation and management measures (CMM’s) (e.g. around bycatch) such as: recording and reporting interactions, use of dehooking devices and line cutters for sea turtles, sea bird mitigation measures and prohibition on retaining silky (WCPFC) and oceanic whitetip (WCPFC and IATTC) sharks. Source from vessels registered on the International Seafood Sustainability Foundation (ISSF) Proactive Vessel Register (PVR) and in full compliance with all measures relevant to their gear type as demonstrated by annual independent audit reports that are made publicly available. Encourage ISSF to expand the ecological sustainability criteria against which tuna vessels on the PVR are assessed.
3. Encourage the WCPFC, IATTC and member countries to conduct studies, increase monitoring and publish information to assess longline interactions with protected, endangered and threatened (PET) and other bycatch species. Explore opportunities to support studies and data gathering.
4. Contact SFP to learn more about fishery improvement projects (FIPs) and SFP’s Supplier Roundtables.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 25 October 2013

Recently a qualitative assessment with reference points, projections and uncertainty has been conducted.This information is being considered by mangers. It is unclear from the document is the analysis has been external peer reviewed.While status for this stock is considered good, there is a strong retrospective patter which underestimates F and over estimates SSB relative to the terminal year.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 25 October 2013

A scientific assessment was only recently developed. It is unclear if this advice has been peer reviewed. But if followed the advice does provide uncertainty, projections, and reference points

Reference Points

Last updated on 25 Oct 2013

Reference points are not currently in use by management. However the recently presented assessment does give advice on SSB based reference points.Managers are currently considering this analysis and is anticipated to set target and limit reference points in the near future.

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 25 October 2013

According to the new assessment SSB has varied, but an overall decline is apparent. F has been increasing over the time period.

Trends

Last updated on 25 Oct 2013

Current stock status indicates that the stock is above SSB at MSY and fishing is below F at MSY. However, SSB has declined over the time series while F has increased.The retrospective pattern in the assessment suggest large uncertainties for the overall status.

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 25 October 2013

Scientific advice for this stock has been sparse.But a recent assessment is available. Managers prior to this had no analysis with which to base management decisions.

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 25 Oct 2013

A recovery plan is not in place as the overall removals have not exceeded MSY and stock is above BMSY

IATTC
United States
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 9 June 2013

Overall management has been following the scientific advice when provided.However while the estimates of MSY provided in an old assessment have not been exceeded, this value doesn’t incorporate uncertainty.There are currently no quotas in use in managing this fishery. In US managers have committed to more precautionary management should the 2013 assessment reveal the stock in poor condition

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 9 June 2013

Complience and the status of IUU fishing is unknown.There are some indications that it maybe problematic as related by IUCN

IATTC
United States
Drifting longlines

Last updated on 9 June 2013

Compliance in the US fishery is high.Vessels participate in both VMS and mandatory observer monitoring at sea.

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

FishSource Scores

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2011 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

A quantified assessment has only recently been conducted. I its unclear if it is yet peer reviewed, but it includes reference points suggestions as well as projections.

As calculated for 2011 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Managers are currently working on measures and reference points for this stock. Prior to this mangers had no scientific information with which to base management. Currently quota and other measures are not in place.

As calculated for 2011 data.

The score is < 6.

Compliance is unknown. However the IUCN has indicated that IUU fishing maybe problematic.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2011 data.

The score is 9.0.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the SSBmsy.

The SSB is 24.4 ('000 t). The SSBmsy is 19.4 ('000 t) .

The underlying SSB/SSBmsy for this index is 126%.

As calculated for 2011 data.

The score is 9.1.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 0.230 (age-averaged). The F management target is 0.320 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 71.9%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.

Download Source Data

Registered users can download the original data file for calculating the scores after logging in. If you wish, you can Register now.

Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

SELECT FIP

Access FIP Public Report

Progress Rating: B
Evaluation Start Date: 1 Feb 2015
Type: Basic

Comments:

Progress rating B due to FIP being a basic FIP with stage 4 progress over past 12 months.

1.
FIP Development
Aug 14
2.
FIP Launch
May 14
May 16
3.
FIP Implementation
Nov 17
4.
Improvements in Fishing Practices and Fishery Management
Jul 18
5.
Improvements on the Water
Aug 17
6.
MSC certification (optional)
MSC certificate made public

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

Buonaccorsi, V.P., McDowell, J.R. and Graves, J.E. 2001. econciling patterns of inter-ocean molecular variance from four classes of molecular markers in blue marlin (Makaira nigricans). Molec. Ecol. 10: 1170-1196.

Buonaccorsi, V.P., Reece, K.S., Morgan, L.W. and Graves, J.E. 1999. Geographic distribution of molecular variance within the blue marlin (Makaira nigricans): a hierarchical analysis of allozyme, single-copy nuclear DNA, and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers. Evolution 53: 568-579.

Collette, B., Acero, A., Amorim, A.F., Boustany, A., Canales Ramirez, C., Cardenas, G., Carpenter, K.E., de Oliveira Leite Jr., N., Di Natale, A., Die, D., Fox, W., Fredou, F.L., Graves, J., Guzman-Mora, A., Viera Hazin, F.H., Hinton, M., Juan Jorda, M., Minte Vera, C., Miyabe, N., Montano Cruz, R., Nelson, R., Oxenford, H., Restrepo, V., Salas, E., Schaefer, K., Schratwieser, J., Serra, R., Sun, C., Teixeira Lessa, R.P., Pires Ferreira Travassos, P.E., Uozumi, Y. & Yanez, E. 2011. Makaira nigricans. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on 25 December 2011.

Collette, B.B., McDowell, J.R. and Graves, J.E. 2006. Phylogeny of Recent billfishes (Xiphioidei). Bull. Mar. Sci. 79(3): 455-468.

Hinton, M. G. 2001. Status of blue marlin in the Pacific Ocean. Stock Assessment Report. Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission. Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission. 1: 284-319.

IOTC. 2011. Report of the Ninth Session of the IOTC Working Party on Billfish. Victoria, Mahé, Seychelles, 4–8 July 2011. IOTC–2011–WPB09–R[E]: 63 pp.

Kleiber P, Hinton MG, Uozumi, Y. 2003. Stock assessment of blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) in the Pacific using MULTIFAN-CL. Marine and Freshwater Research 54:349-360.

Nan-Jay, S., Sun, C-L., Punt, A.E., Yeh, S-Z., Dinardo, G. 2011. Evaluation of a spatially sex-specific assessment method incorporating a habitat preference model for blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) in the Pacific Ocean, Fish. Oceanogr. 20:5, 415-433.

References

    Comments

    This tab will disappear in 5 seconds.

    Comments on:

    Blue marlin - Pacific Ocean, IATTC, United States, Drifting longlines

    comments powered by Disqus