SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Gadus morhua

SPECIES NAME(s)

Atlantic cod

COMMON NAMES

2GH cod, northern cod

Cod in the Northern Labrador region has been evaluated as a stock since the 1970s, when it was considered to have been more severely depleted than fisheries to the south. However it is not definite that it constitutes a discrete stock, and information is lacking as the targeted commercial fishery has been closed since 1996 and surveying has been incomplete (DFO, 2005). The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife considers a Newfoundland and Labrador “Designatable Unit” which includes this (NAFO 2GH) management unit, along with Newfoundland cod (NAFO 2J3KL), and Southern Grand Bank cod (NAFO 3NO) (COSEWIC, 2010).


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • The compliance with the moratorium is high. 
  • Cod bycatch in shrimp fisheries is low.
  • Impacts on environment and biodiversity are presently non-existent due to the moratorium on fishing (no directed fishery).
Weaknesses
  • Information on the Labrador cod stock is sparse and there is no survey time series from which to evaluate trends.
  • This stock has shown no sign of recovery since a moratorium on directed fishing was imposed in 1993.
  • An evaluation of the status by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) classified cod in the area as Endangered.
  • Previous impacts on the ecosystem are not known.  

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

< 6

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

< 6

Future Health:

NOT YET SCORED


RECOMMENDATIONS

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN
  • Start a fishery improvement project (FIP) to address the lack of publicly available information on this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP's Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs and other resources at https://www.sustainablefish.org/Programs/Professional-Guidance/FIP-Toolkit-Resources
  • Encourage scientists to share their studies/publications with FishSource by commenting on the profile and uploading a hyperlink to the document.
  • Work with the government and scientists on the collection of data and make them accessible online.

FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
N Labrador Canada 2GH Canada Bottom trawls

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 4 January 2018

Strengths
  • The compliance with the moratorium is high. 
  • Cod bycatch in shrimp fisheries is low.
  • Impacts on environment and biodiversity are presently non-existent due to the moratorium on fishing (no directed fishery).
Weaknesses
  • Information on the Labrador cod stock is sparse and there is no survey time series from which to evaluate trends.
  • This stock has shown no sign of recovery since a moratorium on directed fishing was imposed in 1993.
  • An evaluation of the status by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) classified cod in the area as Endangered.
  • Previous impacts on the ecosystem are not known.  
RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 28 December 2018

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain
  • Start a fishery improvement project (FIP) to address the lack of publicly available information on this fishery. For advice on starting a FIP, see SFP's Seafood Industry Guide to FIPs and other resources at https://www.sustainablefish.org/Programs/Professional-Guidance/FIP-Toolkit-Resources
  • Encourage scientists to share their studies/publications with FishSource by commenting on the profile and uploading a hyperlink to the document.
  • Work with the government and scientists on the collection of data and make them accessible online.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 4 January 2018

Survey data is irregular and coverage is incomplete so no assessment of the stock is available since 1996 (DFO, 2011).  

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 4 January 2018

Routine scientific advice is not provided. Fishery is currently under a moratorium.

Reference Points

Last updated on 04 Jan 2018

No reference points have been proposed for this stock. 

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 4 January 2018

The stock became commercially extinct in the late 1980s. An evaluation of the status by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) classified cod in the area as Endangered. This stock has shown no sign of recovery since a moratorium on directed fishing was imposed in 1993 (DFO, 2011). Since that time, no assessment has been conducted and status remains unknown.

Trends

Last updated on 04 Jan 2018

Cod in Div. 2GH experienced a large increase in catch by foreign fleets from the mid 1960s to early 1970s peaking at 94,000 t in 1966. Canadian catches averaged 480 t annually during 1960-1990 with a maximum catch of 3,200 t in 1982 (Worcester et al., 2009).

Survey indices suggest that relative abundance is extremely low (Worcester et al., 2009). Landings have been below 14,000 tons since 1969, and no landings have been reported since 1991, although a small amount of bycatch occurs in the shrimp fisheries (DFO, 2011). 

Routine scientific advice is not provided. Fishery is currently under a moratorium.

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 4 January 2018

A total allowable catch (TAC) for Div. 2GH cod (20,000 t) was first introduced in 1974 by the International Commission for the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries (ICNAF) following estimation of Fmax yield in the range of 20,000-40,000 t. No directed fishing on cod in Div. 2GH has been permitted since 1993, and there has been no reported directed fishery (Worcester et al., 2009; DFO, 2011). 

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 04 Jan 2018

A recovery plan is not currently in place as the fishery is under a moratorium.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 4 January 2018

There appears to be strong compliance with the moratorium on fishing in place, no landings have been reported since 1997. Bycatch of Cod occurs in shrimp fisheries in 2GH and from 2004-07 has ranged between 250 kg to 500 kg annually (Templeman, 2012). 

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 30 July 2014

Impacts on environment and biodiversity are presently non-existent due to the moratorium on fishing (no directed fishery).

Other Species

Last updated on 30 July 2014

Impacts on environment and biodiversity are presently non-existent due to the moratorium on fishing (no directed fishery).

HABITAT

Last updated on 4 January 2018

Impacts on environment and biodiversity are presently non-existent due to the moratorium on fishing (no directed fishery).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 04 Jan 2018

A full MPA is located in Gilbert Bay in Labrador Canada(DFO - Gilbert Bay MPA n.d.)

FishSource Scores

Last updated on 18 December 2016

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is < 6.

This stock has shown no sign of recovery since a moratorium on directed fishing was imposed in 1993 (DFO, 2011). No reference points are in place and no recovery plan in force.

As calculated for 2006 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the Advised TAC.

The Set TAC is 0.00 ('000 t). The Advised TAC is 0.00 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/Advised TAC for this index is .

As calculated for 1996 data.

The score is 10.0.

This measures the Reported landings as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Reported landings is 0.00 (' 000 t). The Set TAC is 0.200 ('000 t) .

The underlying Reported landings/Set TAC for this index is 0.00%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is < 6.

Relative abundance indices from research surveys suggest that biomass is at extremely low levels (Worcester et al, 2009). There are no signs of recovery since the moratorium applied in 1993 (DFO, 2011).

No data available for biomass
No data available for biomass
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for fishing mortality
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES
  1. No analytical assessment is routinely conducted. Biomass estimates are survey indices from research surveys (Worcester et al., 2009), and suggest that biomass is at extremely low levels. 2000, 2004 and 2006 values are only for NAFO 2H.
  2. The lack of information means and lack of data indicates that this stock is data deficient .
  3. A moratorium is in place since 1993, in the first years with limited catches and since 1997 with no direct commercial fishing allowed (DFO, 2011). Catch limits as well as catch levels were assumed as zero in the datasheet and scores #2 and #3 were computed accordingly. No specific annual bycatch allowance or a scientific recommendation on bycatch are known to exist (like for other cod stocks in this region). Bycatch occurs in shrimp fisheries in 2GH and from 2004-07 has ranged between 250 kg to 500 kg annually (Templeman, 2012).

Download Source Data

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits
  1. Canada-Newfoundland and Labrador Action Team for Cod Recovery, 2005. A Strategy for the Recovery and Management of Cod Stocks in Newfoundland and Labrador.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/fm-gp/initiatives/cod-morue/strategie-nl-eng.htm
  2. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), 2010. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in Canada, xi +76pp.http://www.nwmb.com/en/list-all-site-files/public-hearings/2012-1/the-proposed-listing-of-atlantic-cod-arctic-lakes-population-as-a-species-of-special-concern-under-the-federal-species-at-risk-act-march-7th-may-7th-2012/proposal-for-nwmb-decision-and-supporting-evidence-6/1874-003-part-1-mou-3111-cosewic-status-report-atlantic-cod-eng/file
  3. DFO, 2000. Newfoundland Region Groundfish Overview. DFO Science Stock Status Report A2-19.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/Csas/status/2000/A2-19e.pdf
  4. DFO, 2004. Allowable Harm Assessment for Newfoundland and Labrador Cod. DFO Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Stock Status Report 2004/042.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/Csas/status/2004/SSR2004_042_e.pdf
  5. DFO, 2011. Recovery potential assessment for the Newfoundland and Labrador Designatable Unit (NAFO Divs. 2GHJ, 3KLNO) of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua). DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2011/037.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Csas-sccs/publications/sar-as/2011/2011_037-eng.pdf
  6. DFO, 2014. Species Quota Report, Newfoundland and Labrador Region - Preliminary Data - Subject to revision. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Government of Canada [Accessed 18 July 2014] http://www.nfl.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/publications/reports_rapports/Cod_Morue_2013_eng.htm
  7. Fisheries Resource Conservation council.http://www.frcc.ca/2003/sf2003.pdf
  8. Frank, K.T., Petrie, B., J.A.D. Fisher & W.C. Leggett, 2011. Transient dynamics of an altered large marine ecosystem. Nature 477, 86–89.http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v477/n7362/full/nature10285.html
  9. Lilly, G.R. and Murphy, E.F., 2004. Biology, fishery and status of the 2GH and 2J3KL (northern) cod stocks: information supporting an assessment of allowable harm under the Species at Risk Act for the COSEWIC-defined Newfoundland and Labrador population of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec., Res. Doc. 2004/102.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/CSAS/Csas/DocREC/2004/RES2004_102_e.pdf
  10. McDonald, M., 2012. Cod recovery off Newfoundland finally evident 20 years after moratorium. Canada.com.http://www.canada.com/news/national/recovery+Newfoundland+finally+evident+years+after+moratorium/6866069/story.html
  11. Smedbol, R.K, P.A. Shelton, D.P. Swain, A. Fréchet & G.A. Chouinard, 2002. Review of population structure, distribution and abundance of cod (Gadus morhua) in Atlantic Canada in a species-at-risk context. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document 2002/082.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/CSAS/Csas/DocREC/2002/RES2002_082e.pdf
  12. Templeman, N.D., 2012. Canadian Research Report for 2011- Part A. Newfoundland and Labrador Region. NAFO SCS Doc. 12/014.40pp http://archive.nafo.int/open/sc/2012/scs12-14.pdf
  13. Worcester T, J Brattey, GA Chouinard, D Clark, KJ Clark, J Deault, M Fowler, A Fréchet, J Gauthier, B Healey, Y Lambert, D Maddock Parsons, R Mohn, MJ Morgan, EF Murphy, D Power, H Powles, P Schwab, DP Swain, M Treble, 2009. Status of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) in 2008. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document 2009/027. http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/CSAS/Csas/Publications/ResDocs-DocRech/2009/2009_027_e.pdf
References

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    Atlantic cod - N Labrador, Canada 2GH, Canada, Bottom trawls

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