SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Sardina pilchardus

SPECIES NAME(s)

European pilchard, Sardine, European sardine

COMMON NAMES

Iberian sardine, Atlantic-Iberian sardine, Atlanto-Iberian sardine, sardinha (Portuguese)

Several studies have been conducted to understand European pilchard stock structure widely distributed in the Northeast and Eastern Central Atlantic, and the Mediterranean and Black Sea (e.g. Spanakis et al., 1989; Tinti et al., 2002; Kasapidis et al., 2004; Atarhouch et al., 2006; Chlaida et al., 2006; Silva et al., 2006; Laurent et al., 2007; Chlaida et al., 2009; Antonakakis et al., 2011). However further research is needed considering uncertainties (Kasapidis et al., 2012; ICES, 2014b). Thus here we consider the following assessment units along the European pilchard distribution:
By the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES):
- Iberian (ICES Divisions VIIIc and IXa) and 2) and Bay of Biscay, Southern Celtic Seas and English Channel (ICES Divisions VIIIa,b,d and Subarea VII)
By the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM; FAO) of the 8 stock assessment units assumed (FAO, 2009; Kasapidis et al., 2012; GFCM, 2014) these 2 are already covered in profiles:
- Northern Adriatic Sea (GSA 17) and Northern Alboran Sea (GSA 01)
By the Fishery Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic (FAO, 2013a,b):
- NW Africa central (zones A+B; 32ºN – 26ºN) and NW Africa southern (zone C; 26ºN – the southern extent of the species distribution).

In Spain, vessels target anchovy, mackerel, sardine, and horse mackerel; in summer, part of the fleet switches to tuna fishing (ICES, 2013a) Most catch is taken by purse-seiners. Sardine catches are highest in the second half of the year and catches are concentrated to southern Galician and Cantabrian waters.


ANALYSIS

Strengths

The stock is assessed with an analytical age-based model and a benchmark assessment was conducted in 2012. Fishing effort and catch limitations have been in place for over a decade (ICES, 2008b). Impacts on PET species and benthic habitats are deemed low. A new management plan, with a harvest control rules, has recently been reportedly adopted and has been found to be provisionally precautionary (ICES, 2013c). In 2013, overall catches (46,000 tons) represented 83% of those recommended by scientists (55,000 tons).

Weaknesses

The biomass of age 1 and older fish has decreased since 2006 and is currently around the historic low. Recruitment has been below the long-term average since 2005. Fishing mortality since 2009 has been above the average of the last two decades prior to 2009 (ICES, 2014). No international annual TAC is set by management authorities and this has led the most recent catches to significantly exceed scientifically recommended limits (ICES, 2013a). The extent of mixing with sardine stocks to the north is unknown. The main uncertainties in the assessment relate to the discrepant signals about the stock trends provided by the daily egg production method (DEPM) and the comparability of Portuguese and Spanish acoustic surveys, on survey and fishery selection patterns, and on the weighting of the different data sources in the assessment (ICES, 2014a). The level of discards and slippage is not completely known.

FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 8

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6

Fishers Compliance:

≥ 8

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

< 6

Future Health:

5.5


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Support a decrease in fishing mortality.
2. Ensure that catches follow scientifically recommended limits.
3. Explore stock dynamics at low biomass levels further and translate findings into precautionary criteria to improve the proposed management plan.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Refer to the FishSource profile and encourage the formation of a Fisheries Improvement Project.
2. Attend or have a trade association representative attend the Southern Western Waters Regional Advisory Council meetings.


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

No related MSC fisheries

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Iberian Portugal/EU Portugal Purse seines
Spain/EU Spain Purse seines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 16 March 2015

Strengths

The stock is assessed with an analytical age-based model and a benchmark assessment was conducted in 2012. Fishing effort and catch limitations have been in place for over a decade (ICES, 2008b). Impacts on PET species and benthic habitats are deemed low. A new management plan, with a harvest control rules, has recently been reportedly adopted and has been found to be provisionally precautionary (ICES, 2013c). In 2013, overall catches (46,000 tons) represented 83% of those recommended by scientists (55,000 tons).

Weaknesses

The biomass of age 1 and older fish has decreased since 2006 and is currently around the historic low. Recruitment has been below the long-term average since 2005. Fishing mortality since 2009 has been above the average of the last two decades prior to 2009 (ICES, 2014). No international annual TAC is set by management authorities and this has led the most recent catches to significantly exceed scientifically recommended limits (ICES, 2013a). The extent of mixing with sardine stocks to the north is unknown. The main uncertainties in the assessment relate to the discrepant signals about the stock trends provided by the daily egg production method (DEPM) and the comparability of Portuguese and Spanish acoustic surveys, on survey and fishery selection patterns, and on the weighting of the different data sources in the assessment (ICES, 2014a). The level of discards and slippage is not completely known.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Support a decrease in fishing mortality.
2. Ensure that catches follow scientifically recommended limits.
3. Explore stock dynamics at low biomass levels further and translate findings into precautionary criteria to improve the proposed management plan.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Refer to the FishSource profile and encourage the formation of a Fisheries Improvement Project.
2. Attend or have a trade association representative attend the Southern Western Waters Regional Advisory Council meetings.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 16 March 2015

Data is collected from Spanish and Portuguese egg surveys, and acoustic surveys conducted in the first quarter of the year and from landings and catch–at-age data (ICES, 2014a,b). An age-based analytical (Stock Synthesis v3) stock assessment model is applied since the last benchmark assessment (ICES, 2012a), combining information from the various sources. Previously, recruitment estimates from the assessment were corroborated by a Portuguese acoustic survey in November but this was discontinued in 2008 (ICES, 2013b). The precision of estimates had been reasonable and consistent over the time series (ICES, 2012b) but a retrospective pattern has become apparent in recent year (ICES, 2013b) and the main uncertainties relate to the extent of sardine exchanges with the stock to the north of its distribution, the comparability of the Spanish and Portuguese acoustic surveys, the fishery selection pattern for older aged fish and the weighting of the different data sources (ICES, 2014a,b). Exchanges with Bay of Biscay sardine may have been higher than average in 2012. The egg and acoustic surveys do not show similar trends and are broadly averaged by the assessment. The absence of the 2012 Portuguese acoustic survey index and the three-year periodicity of the egg survey have led to recent large fluctuations in the assessment (ICES, 2013a). Changes in the assessment method and input data in the latest benchmark assessment in 2012 also led to revisions of previous estimates of spawning stock biomass (SSB), fishing mortality and recruitment. Stock abundance has revised downwards in recent years and fishing mortality revised upwards, possibly due to the acoustic and egg survey inconsistencies (ICES, 2013b). Discards are assumed to be negligible for stock assessment purposes (ICES, 2014a,b).

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 19 March 2014

In 2013, ICES advice for 2014 was based on precautionary considerations considering the 2002-2007 average fishing mortality F (F = 0.22) as an objective. As the biomass is at low levels, a further decrease in F was advised based on a linear reduction to F=0 at zero biomass, resulting in advised landings of less than 17,000 tons in 2014 (ICES, 2013a). ICES had recommended that a long term management plan should be implemented for the stock. A joint plan has been developed by Portugal and Spain and the European Commission requested in 2013 that it be evaluated by ICES. As a limit biomass reference point could not be defined from the available data, ICES concluded the plan was provisionally precautionary until more accurate estimates of reference points are available, and further projections conducted under a range of scenarios. The plan is based on a “modest” exploitation rate of F=0.22, which is in the lower range of candidate maximum sustainable yield FMSY reference points.

However, taking into account the low biomass, below previous Bloss and the below-average recruitment, ICES considers fishing mortality F should be reduced further(ICES, 2014a) This reduction is based on the ratio between the current biomass (B1+(2014) = 188,000 tons) and the average biomass in the period before high fishing mortality occurred (average B1+(2002-2007) = 406,000 tons, ratio of 41%) to F = 0.11.This results in catches of no more than 16,000 tons.

Although ICES found the new management plan to be precautionary, its advice for 2015 continued to be based on precautionary considerations (16,000 tons). Under the management plan, catches in 2015 should not exceed 19,095 tons (ICES, 2014a).

Reference Points

Last updated on 19 Mar 2014

No biomass reference points have been defined. In 2012, Blim and FMSY reference points were proposed by the ICES benchmark assessment. B1+= 306,000 tons, which corresponds to the lowest observed biomass estimate (B1+) from which good recruitments were produced (Bloss), was considered to be an adequate Blim reference point (ICES, 2012a). The fishing mortality reference point F50%BPR= 0.35, estimated from the spawner per recruit analysis, was considered an adequate proxy for FMSY (ICES, 2012a). Bloss is now not considered to a suitable candidate for Blim as recent biomass levels close to Bloss at low exploitation rates showed no declines in recruitment. A new FMSY proxy was estimated at 0.27 (ICES, 2013c). Aspects of stock dynamics are still insufficiently known and it has been suggested that some inferences may be drawn from studies of other sardine stocks (ICES, 2013a).

As no MSY Btrigger has been proposed, a Portuguese fisheries research institute (IPMA) technical report to MSC suggested the Btrigger for the harvest control rule be set at 1.2 times the Blim proxy that was available at the time (Bloss in 2000), =368,400 tons, intending to take into account the uncertainty of the Blim estimate in the absence of a sound basis for using a different approach (Silva and Azevedo, 2012), and was adopted as the target biomass for the 2012-2015 Portuguese fishery action plan (SMFA, 2012) and the subsequent Spanish-Portuguese joint plan (ICES, 2013c).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 22 January 2015

The stock biomass of age one and older fish (B1+) was estimated at 188 thousand tons in 2014, and recent values were revised significantly downwards: B1+ (2015) = 169 thousand tons (ICES, 2014a). According to the new management plan it gives low probabilities of exceeding Floss or driving B1+ below Bloss and a high probability of rapid recovery when B1+ declines to below trigger values.The weak state of the stock is due to the lack of any strong recruiting classes since 2005 (ICES, 2013b). The level of recruitment and stock productivity (number of recruits per spawner) show a downward trend over time, which appears to be partly explained by the environment (Solari et al., 2010; Santos et al., 2012).

Estimated fishing mortality in 2013 (F = 0.44) was above the revised FMSY estimate (= 0.27) and also above that implied by the management plan harvest control rule (mean F=0.22) (ICES, 2014a).

Trends

Last updated on 22 Jan 2015

Stock Biomass (B1+) has been decreasing since 2006 and the most recent estimate (2012) was just a slight increase on the historically low 2011 level, which was 64% below the long-term average (ICES, 2013a). Fishing mortality had previously fluctuated without trend but following an increase from 2006 to 2011, F dropped again in 2012 and 2013 and is presently just above the time-series average level. Recruitment has been weak and below average since 2005. Landings had been stable in the range of 80,000 to 102,000 tons since 1999 but 2013 landings were the lowest of the historical series (45,818 tons) (ICES, 2014a).

In a long term period, Sardine landings at Vigo Spanish port show strong increases in catches in the late 1920s and decreases in the early 1960s, and low catches in between (Alheit et al., 2014).

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

Last updated on 19 March 2014

A management plan has been developed for the stock and reportedly has been formally adopted by both Portugal and Spain (SFMAG, 2012; FishNewsEU, 2013; FIS, 2013). ICES evaluated the management plan in 2013 and concluded that it was provisionally precautionary, given the current incomplete knowledge of stock dynamics. The plan contains a harvest control rule that aims for a target catch of 86,000 tons and linearly reduces the target catches to zero for biomass levels between Btrigger (368,400 tons) and the lower trigger level (“B0”=135,000 tons) (ICES, 2013c).

International annual TACs are not set (ICES, 2013a). Additional management measures are implemented independently by Spain and Portugal and include a minimum landing size, maximum daily catches, restrictions on number of fishing days permitted, enforcement of closed areas and periods (ICES, 2009a). Since 2010, annual catch limits are set for the Portuguese fishery by the Portuguese authorities but no TACs or quotas are yet in place for the Spanish fishery (ICES, 2014a). Portuguese managers and scientists worked together to put in place measures that ensure the stock recovery by 2015. Besides a 2012-2015 fishery management plan that was subsequently also adopted by Spanish managers as a multi-annual plan, managers have taken immediate measures to ensure the stock recovery: e.g., a 45 days fishing ban during the first quarter of the year, among other measures already in place.

For 2013 the annual catch limit for the Portuguese fishery was set at 36,000 tons (Despacho n.º 15351-A/2012) split into three fishing seasons. A 48-hour closure on weekends has been in place since 2011 (Portaria nº 294/2011). For 2015, Portugal set a first season quota of 4 thousand tons for the period between 1st March and 31st May. The fishery will be closed until 28th February (Despacho n.º 15793-b/2014).

The extent of mixing with stocks to the north is unknown, but only Spanish and Portuguese catches are regulated (ICES, 2013b).

Recovery Plans

Last updated on 19 Mar 2014

An international multi-annual management plan is now reportedly in place for this stock, based on the Portuguese management plan put in place for the 2012-2015 period, with the main objectives of: 1) avoiding further declines in stock biomass, by reducing fishing effort; and 2) recovering the levels of stock biomass to above the then proposed Blim by 2015. The adopted harvest control rule is based on a catch target of 86,000 tons (Cmax) when the stock is healthy (i.e. B1+ > Btrigger). Catches are to be linearly reduced from Cmax at B1+ ≥ Btrigger to 0 when stock biomass is at or below 135 tons (ICES, 2013c).

Spain/EU

Last updated on 16 March 2015

In Spain, management measures include a maximum allowable catch of 7,000 kg per fishing day and a 5-fishing-days week limitation since 1997 (ICES, 2014a).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 22 January 2015

International annual TACs are not set but overall catches (Portugal and Spain) have been over the scientifically recommended limits since 2008. In 2013, overall catches by Portugal and Spain (46,000 tons) represented 83% of those recommended by scientists (55,000 tons).

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

BYCATCH
ETP Species

Last updated on 23 January 2015

Sardine is an important prey species for several marine mammals in the region including common (Delphinus delphis) and other dolphins and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) (Wise et al., 2005). The pursuit of the same prey as the sardine fleet appears to be responsible for most incidents of bycatch of common dolphins, the species most frequently affected by the fishery, aggravated by the fact that their night-time feeding rituals coincide with purse-seining activities (ICES, 2008b). Recent surveys of this fishery have reported an increment of common dolphins’ incidental captures in 2010, although values are still below the maximum Potential Biological Removal (PBR), which is set as 2% of the Iberian populations (Nichols et al., 2011). Two species of marine turtles, the loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and the leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) are also common in the area (ICES, 2008c), but interactions with the sardine fishing gears are rare (Nichols et al., 2011). Marine mammal interactions with purse-seine fisheries was recorded but compared with other fisheries, purse-seine fishing does not seem to be among the most damaging to marine mammals (Wise et al., 2007; López et al, 2003).

Data on sea-bird populations and their interactions with the fishery is sparse, but bycatch and associated mortalities seem to be low. An indirect impact of the fisheries on the Portuguese guillemots has been hypothesized, but with a high level of uncertainty (Hough et al., 2010). Data collection and conservation measures have been increasing in recent years.

Observer data and interview surveys of fishers also indicate a low impact on cetaceans, seabirds, and turtles (ICES, 2013a). The most likely way the fishery impacts on macrofauna may be via trophic relationships (ICES, 2013a) but further research is needed.

Other Species

Last updated on 23 January 2015

The Iberian sardine fishery used to have one of the highest discard rates of purse seining, with 60% rejection observed in the observational study mentioned (Borges et al., 1997). This may be largely attributed to “slippage” – release before landing on-board, due to quota limitations, illegal sizes and unmarketable bycatch (Stratoudakis and Marçalo, 2002; ICES, 2009b). The current levels of discards are still uncertain (ICES, 2012b) but are under study (ICES, 2013c); however the technological improvements of the purse seine Portuguese fishery in recent years have resulted in much lower levels of bycatch. There is still no data on survival rates of discarded fish (Hough et al., 2010).

Spain/EU
Spain

The Spanish fleet targets anchovy, mackerel, sardine and horse mackerel with sardine and horse mackerel representing 75% of purse seine landings in recent years (ICES, 2009b). Purse – seines have a low by catch of non target species and when targeting sardine, the catches are virtually monospecific. The current levels of discards are still uncertain (ICES, 2012b). There is still no data on survival rates of discarded fish (Hough et al., 2010).

HABITAT

Last updated on 5 April 2013

The sardine has a continuous distribution along NE Atlantic coasts from Senegal (16°N) to the North Sea (60°N) (Binet et al., 1998). However, the northern and southern boundaries change in sequence with decadal climate trends. Also changes in the proportion of the potential spawning habitat in which spawning actually occurred, but did not show any relationship with spawning stock biomass. Results from other studies show that environmental effects are often weak and in some cases findings have been contradictory. For example, upwelling intensity has been found to affect recruitment both positively and negatively. (ICES, 2014a).

Pelagic purse seining is the gear used for taking 99% of catches (ICES, 2012b). Purse -seiners operate in open waters so there is little impact on the seabed but the overall effect of the sardine fishery on the pelagic ecosystem of the Atlantic Iberian waters has not been evaluated. The most likely impacts will take place in alterations of prey–predator relationships via modification of sardine abundance, size structure, and behavior. Permanent loss of purse seine gear to the sea is rare and ghost fishing is not an issue (Hough et al., 2010).

Marine Reserves

Last updated on 05 Apr 2013

Both Portuguese and Spanish management of this fishery includes days fishing limitations and closed areas at either specified periods of the year or on a permanent basis to protect sardine, among other species (ICES, 2012c). Other temporary closures have also been enforced when necessary. The extension to marine areas of the EU Natura 2000 network of special conservation areas, under the Birds Directive 79/409/EEC and the Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC, is currently underway and special fishery management measures may be applied.

FishSource Scores

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

An international management plan has reportedly been adopted by both Portugal and Spain, and has been evaluated by ICES and found to be provisionally precautionary, under the current incomplete knowledge of stock dynamics (ICES, 2013c). However, ICES advice for 2015 continued to be based on precautionary considerations and no reference points are defined for this stock (ICES, 2014a)

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

There is no international TAC. Until 2014, the fisheries are managed by Portugal and Spain through minimum landing size, maximum daily catch, days fishing limitations, and closed areas. Since 2010, annual catch limits are set for the Portuguese fishery by the Portuguese authorities but no TACs or quotas are yet in place for the Spanish fishery (ICES, 2014a). Portuguese managers and scientists worked together to put in place measures that ensure the stock recovery by 2015. Besides a 2012-2015 fishery management plan that was subsequently also adopted by Spanish managers as a multi-annual plan, managers have taken immediate measures to ensure the stock recovery: e.g., a 45 days fishing ban during the first quarter of the year, among other measures already in place.

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

In 2013, overall catches by Portugal and Spain (46,000 tons) represented about 83% of those recommended by scientists (55,000 tons).

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is < 6.

Biomass in 2014 (188,000 tons) was estimated at 58% below the time-series average (444,107 tons). No reference points are defined .The biomass of age 1 and older fish has decreased since 2006 and is currently around the historic low (ICES, 2014a).

As calculated for 2013 data.

The score is 5.5.

This measures the F as a percentage of the F management target.

The F is 0.437 (age-averaged). The F management target is 0.270 .

The underlying F/F management target for this index is 162%.

To see data for biomass, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for catch and tac, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for fishing mortality, please view this site on a desktop.
No data available for recruitment
No data available for recruitment
To see data for management quality, please view this site on a desktop.
To see data for stock status, please view this site on a desktop.
DATA NOTES

Notes:
1) The new harvest control rule is catch-based rather than F-based but is expected to result in an exploitation rate around 0.22. The target F included in the datasheet is the estimated FMSY=0.27, although this has not been formally accepted.
2) F-at-low-biomass has not been defined as the harvest control rule is catch-based. The plan has been found to be provisionally precautionary so score #1 has been assigned a qualitative score (please mouse-over score for details).
3) Although ICES found the new management plan to be precautionary, its advice for 2015 continued to be based on precautionary considerations (16,000 tons). Under the management plan, catches in 2015 should not exceed 19,095 tons (ICES, 2014a).
4) Bloss (biomass in 2000) had been proposed as a proxy Blim but has been found not to be adequate. No biomass reference points are currently defined and score #4 has been determined qualitatively (please mouse-over score for details).
5) Spain does not set catch limits so score #3 has been determined qualitatively.
For 2015, Portugal set a first season quota of 4 thousand tons for the period between 1 March and 31 May. The fishery will be closed until 28 February (Despacho n.º 15793-b/2014).

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

No related MSC certifications

Sources

Credits

The following authors contributed the majority of the content of this profile:

Fernández, Cynthia (cynthia@uvigo.es): Facultade de Ciencias do Mar, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, Universidad de Vigo, 36210 Vigo (Pontevedra), Spain.

Macho, Gonzalo (gmacho@uvigo.es): Facultade de Ciencias do Mar, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, Universidad de Vigo, 36210 Vigo (Pontevedra), Spain.

Ríos, José (joserios@consultorpesquero.com): Palmás, 1º Domaio, 36957 Moaña (Pontevedra), Spain.

under contract to CLUPESCA (Clúster del Sector Pesquero Extractivo y Productor)
Ed. Ramiro Gordejuela, Puerto Pesquero s/n
36202 Vigo (Pontevedra), Spain.
Email: arvi@arvi.org

References and Sources

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  2. Alheit J., Pohlmann T., Casini M., Greve W., Hinrichs R., Mathis M., O’Driscoll K., Vorberg R., Wagner C. (2012). Climate variability drives anchovies and sardines into the North and Baltic Seas. Progress in Oceanography 96. 128–139http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0079661111001418
  3. Bernal M., Stratoudakis Y., Coombs S., Angelico M.M., Lago de Lanzo´ s A., Porteiro C., Sagarminaga Y., Santos M., Uriarte A., Cunha E., Valde´s L., Borchers D. (2007) Sardine spawning off the European Atlantic coast: Characterization of and spatio-temporal variability in spawning hábitat. Progress in Oceanography 74. 210–227. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0079661107000687
  4. Borges TC, Bentes L, Castro M, Costa ME, Erzini K, Gomes J, Gonçalves JMS, Lino PG, Pais C, Ribeiro J, 1997. Studies of the discards of commercial fisheries from the south coast of Portugal. Final report to the European Commission, DG XIV-C-1. DISCARDS Project no. 95/081http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/documentation/studies/biological_studies/1309r03b95081.pdf
  5. Despacho n.º 15351-A/2012. Restrições à pesca da sardinha para 2013. [Retrictions for the sardine fishery in 2013] Ministério da Agricultura, do Mar, do Ambiente e do Ordenamento do Território. Gabinete do Secretário de Estado do Mar. Diário da República, 2.ª série — N.º 232. 30 November 2012. 2 pp. (In Portuguese.)http://dre.pt/pdfgratis2s/2012/11/2S232A0000S01.pdf
  6. FAO, 2013. Sardina pilchardus Species fact sheets. [last accessed on 04 April 2013].http://www.fao.org/fishery/species/2910
  7. Fish Information & Services (FIS), 2013. Sardina portuguesa recupera certificado internacional (sic). Monday, January 28, 2013, 01:30 (GMT + 9. [Accessed on 18 March 2014].http://fis.com/fis/worldnEws/worldnews.asp?l=s&id=58372&ndb=1
  8. FishNewsEU, 2013. News Archive: “The Portuguese sardine fishery has had its Marine Stewardship Council certificate reinstated.[…]”. Created on Friday, 25 January 2013 10:12 [Accessed on 18 March 2014].http://www.fishnewseu.com/latest-news/news-archive/46-latest-news/world/9734-portuguese-sardine-msc-certificate-reinstated.html
  9. Giannopoulos K, de Metrio G, de la Sema JM, 1999. Incidental catches of tunas in cluepeiod purse-seine fisheries (sic.). Final report to the European Commission. Project no. 96/093.http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/publications/studies/bio/1309R03B96093.pdf
  10. Hough, A., Nichols, J., Scott, I.and Vingada, J.V.S, 2010. Public Certification Report for Portuguese Sardine Purse Seine Fishery. Moody Marine Ltd. / Marine Stewardship Council. January 2010.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/north-east-atlantic/portugal-sardine-purse-seine/assessment-downloads-1/13.01.2010-portugal-sardine-pcr.pdf
  11. ICES, 2008a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment and Advisory Committee on Ecosystems, Book 7: The Bay of Biscay and Iberian Seas. 7.4.5 Sardine in Divisions VIIIc and IXa.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2008/2008/sar-soth.pdf
  12. ICES, 2008b. Report of the Working Group on Widely Distributed Stocks (WGWIDE), 2-11 September 2008, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen (ICES CM 2008\ACOM:13).http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2008/WGWIDE/WGWIDE08.pdf
  13. ICES, 2008c. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, 2008. ICES Advice, 2008. Book 7, 122 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/ICES%20Advice/2008/ICES%20ADVICE%202008%20Book%207.pdf
  14. ICES, 2009a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment and Advisory Committee on Ecosystems, Book 7: The Bay of Biscay and Iberian Seas. 7.4.5 Sardine in Divisions VIIIc and IXa. 7 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2009/2009/sar-soth.pdf
  15. ICES, 2009b. Report of the Working Group on Anchovy and Sardine (WGANSA), 15 -20 June 2009, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. Diane Lindemann. 354 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2009/WGHANSA/WGANSA09.pdf
  16. ICES, 2010. Report of the Working Group on Anchovy and Sardine (WGANSA), 24–28 June 2010, Vigo, Spain. ICES CM 2010/ACOM:16. 290 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2010/WGHANSA/WGANSA%202010.pdf
  17. ICES, 2011a. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, Book 7: The Bay of Biscay and Atlantic Iberian waters 7.4.7 Ecoregion: Bay of Biscay and Atlantic Iberian waters. Stock: Sardine in Divisions VIIIc and IXa. Advice summary for 2012, 7 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2011/2011/sar-soth.pdf
  18. ICES, 2011b. Report of the Working Group on Anchovy and Sardine (WGANSA), 24–28 June 2011, Vigo, Spain (ICES CM 2011/ACOM:16). 462 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2011/WGHANSA/WGANSA%202011%20.pdf
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  21. ICES, 2012c. Report of the Working Group on Southern Horse Mackerel, Anchovy and Sardine (WGHANSA), 23 - 28 June 2012, Azores (Horta), Portugal. ICES CM 2012/ACOM:16. 544 pp.http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2012/WGHANSA/WGHANSA%20Report%202012.pdf
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References

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