Number of farms - VINAPA has created a website to map Pangasius farming ponds. The map currently displays around 256 ponds in Can Tho (VINAPA 2017).
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Last updated on 15 December 2018
PREDOMINANT PRODUCTION SYSTEM
hatchery - closed cycle
Encourage all feed companies to publicly disclose source fisheries (for example, via annual reports or sustainability reports, regularly updated websites, or via initiatives such as the Ocean Disclosure Project) - and where necessary, initiate Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs).
Apply and enforce MARD’s Decree 55/2017/NĐ-CP on the traceability of products to eliminate the use of prohibited veterinary substances.
Approve the Circular (currently unnumbered) to guide implementation of Environment Protection Law No. 55/2014/QH13.
Encourage the adoption of zonal management approaches and VietGAP standards into provincial master plans for pangasius production.
Encourage the DAH under MARD to establish a regional disease surveillance, prevention, and control system focused on coordinated control activities and zonal approaches to disease management. Encourage the DAH to continue with plans to publish a list of disease-free zones and disease zones on their website.
Encourage MARD to apply Circular 14/2016/TT-BNNPTNT, which requires pangasius farms to be managed under a zonal approach and under which zones should be registered with the DAH of DARD to be certified disease-free.
In FishSource, information on aquaculture management is displayed at the highest resolution unit for which data is available. Ideally, information would simply be structured around an aquaculture management area (AMA) – the primary unit within which aquaculture management practices should be coordinated across a group of farms to mitigate against cumulative impacts and shared risks. Although AMAs are sometimes recognized in industry strategy and regulatory documents, they are not yet established across all aquaculture industries; so, we typically display information at the province/state level.
Publicly available data is available from universities/institutes such as the Research Institute for Aquaculture (RIA) 2 and Can Tho University; public reports from the Vietnam Pangasius Association (VINAPA) and the Vietnam Association of Seafood Exporters and Producers (VASEP); government sources, and certification organizations. Regulations concerning aquaculture management and national and local strategies are provided by the legal normative documents website (VBQPPL), the Directorate of Fisheries (DFISH), and provincial government departments.
The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD)’s Circular 14/2016/TT-BNNPTNT requires farms to be managed under a zonal approach, under which zones should be registered with the DAH of Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (DARD) to be certified disease-free (Vbqppl 2017).
MARD has developed an atlas to identify specific aquaculture production zones (MARD 2017).
According to the National Government’s Decree No. 59/2005/NĐ-CP, all farmers must hold a business license for aquaculture (Vbqppl 2017). Farms should be located according to local aquaculture planning standards and operate according to national aquaculture, veterinary, food safety and environmental protection standards detailed in the licensing procedure and associated registration forms. Certification and registration is the responsibility of provincial DARD offices under MARD’s Circular No. 23/2014/TT-BNNPTTN concerning MARD’s National Decree 36/2014/NĐ-CP (Vbqppl 2017).
In 2016, the Directorate of Environment submitted a final version of a Circular to guide the implementation of the national assembly’s Law of Environment Protection No. 55/2014/QH13 regarding carrying capacity, allocation of wastewater discharging quota, pollution correction, and necessary environmental improvements for polluted areas. This circular is currently awaiting approval from the government and has not yet received an identification number.
In January 2017, Can Tho PPC issued Decision No. 102/QĐ-UBND on the approval of an aquaculture master plan in Can Tho until 2020 with a vision to view to 2030, under which pangasius production in Can Tho will reach 1,000 hectares (ha) by 2020 and 1,100 ha by 2030 (Quoc 2017).
Water Quality: According to the Law of Environment Protection No. 55/2014/QH13, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE) is responsible for carrying capacity studies, identifying water quality and volume limits for discharge water and issuing guidance and corrective measures. At the provincial level, responsibility for these issues belongs to the Provincial People Committee (PPC). Under the National Government’s Decree No. 38/2015/NĐ-CP, the PPC is also required to publish details of water bodies that exceed their carrying capacity. From 2010-2013, RIA2 conducted a carrying capacity study for the Tien and Hau Rivers, the results of this research were used to develop a national pangasius production and planning strategy for each pangasius producing province to 2020 (Hung 2013).
Health Management: According to MARD’s Circular No. 17/2014/TT-BNNPTNT, the National Department of Animal Health (DAH) under MARD monitors the national implementation of aquatic health treatment and prevention plans, conducts training, and collaborates with local research institutes (such as RIA 2), universities (including Can Tho University, Nong Lam University), and international organizations (Vbqppl 2017).
MARD also provides advice and assistance in animal health, including forecasting animal disease and zoonotic outbreaks. DFISH also provides guidance on aquaculture planning and produces technical standards and requirements for aquaculture applications. In addition, the PPC and DARD and their lower levels (such as provincial departments of animal health and aquaculture agencies) are responsible for environmental and disease monitoring within their province.
Disease Control: DAH in collaboration with DFISH also provide guidance on the control of diseases. The DAH is also responsible for reporting outbreaks of animal disease to MARD as regulated by MARD’s Circular No. 17/2014/TT-BNNPTNT (Vbqppl 2017).
The Vietnam Directorate of Fishery (DFISH) is responsible for developing the master plan for pangasius production and national technical standards for aquaculture.
Water Quality: Can Tho PPC has issued the Environment Monitoring Plan No. 44/KH-UBND to develop sustainable aquaculture in Can Tho over the period 2016 – 2020. In December 2014, MARD approved Decision No. 5204 /QĐ-BNN-TCTS of DFISH concerning the environmental monitoring of shrimp, pangasius, tilapia and clam farms. The timeframe for this project is from 2015 2020. However, there is no publicly available information on the progress of this project (Fistenet 2014).
Health Management: A national disease prevention and treatment plan for pangasius have been introduced under MARD’s Decision No. 4995/QĐ-BNN-TY. The DAH has developed guidance No. 927/TY-TS in 2015 to implement this Decision. In March 2017, MARD approved the national plan of disease control plan for pangasius and shrimp for 2017 to 2020 in Decision No. 1038/QĐ-BNN-TY (Vbqppl 2017). Under this plan, the government and farmers are required to monitor disease and environment indicators, perform disease checks by spot-sampling, and collaborate on disease control (Vbqppl 2017).
Disease Control: The competent authorities responsible for the use of 1) chemicals in aquaculture and 2) veterinary drugs are identified - the DAH and the Department/Directorate of Fisheries and the DAH respectively(ASEAN Secretariat 2013). The use of chemicals and drugs is regulated by MARD under Decision 10/2007/QĐ-BTS which includes a list of approved chemicals (Vbqppl 2017).
Water Quality: MARD’s Circular 44/2010/TT-BNNPTNT and National Technical Standards QCVN 02-20:2014/BNNPTNT regulate pangasius production sites to ensure food safety and set in-pond and discharge water quality limits (Vbqppl 2017). MONRE’s Circular 36/2015/TT-BTNMT and the national government’s Decree No. 38/2015/NĐ-CP regulate toxic waste management (Vbqppl 2017). Water quality criteria for different types of public waterbodies are also described in MARD’s Circular 44/2010/TT-BNNPTNT and have been incorporated into VietGAP standards. Annex 3B. VietGAP Criteria. No. 2.1 and 4.2.2 outline in-pond water quality and wastewater quality respectively.
Health Management: Limits to stocking density are set by MARD’s Circular 44/2010/TT-BNNPTNT and National Technical Standards QCVN 02-20:2014/BNNPTNT. Under VietGAP, farms must comply with the existing regulations and have a fish health plan written by a fish health specialist or a veterinarian.
Disease Control: The use of the antibiotics nitrofuran, chloramphenicol, dimetridazole/metronidazole and enrofloxacin; the disinfectant, malachite green, and cypermethrin; the chaemotherapeutant, trichlorfon; and the piscicide deltamethrin, is prohibited (ASEAN Secretariat 2013). VASEP summarizes multiple MARD Circulars concerning the use of chemicals, antibiotics, and bioproducts - and has produced lists of chemicals and antibiotics banned for use in fishery production, trading, and veterinary use. Restricted chemicals and antibiotics - including maximum residue levels (MRL) are also identified (VASEP 2014).
Despite the previous requirement under MARD’s National Decree 36/2014/NĐ-CP and Circular No. 23/2014/TT-BNNPTTN for all farms to be VietGAP (or another international standard) certified by 2015, only nine farms are certified to these standards in Can Tho (VietGAP 2016).
VietGAP requirements have now been postponed and MARD's Decree 36/2014/NĐ-CP has been replaced by Decree 55/2017/NĐ-CP (Vbqppl 2017).
Water Quality: According to the results of the environmental monitoring of aquaculture production sites (including pangasius) available for March and June 2017, both river and pond water is suitable for production and complies (CT Aqua 2017). However, some pond water parameters in Thot Not and Vinh Thanh districts were higher than the limits set by QCVN 02/20:2014/BNNPTNT (CT Aqua 2017).
It should be noted, that pollution in the lower Mekong basin is due to multiple factors such as intensive agricultural activities, industrial and municipal waste.
Health Management: Disease remains the most important issue for pangasius production in Vietnam. The most common is the bacterial disease, Enteric Septicemia, (ESC) caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri (Crumlish et al. 2002). This disease can result in mortalities of fingerlings up to 90% (Thanh Cong, 2015). According to Circular 38/2012/TT-BNNPTNT, outbreaks of this disease must be reported (Vbqppl 2017).
General data on mortality rates are not available for Can Tho. However, for the Mekong Delta, mortality was typically up to 30% during the early to mid-stages of production and less than 10 % in later stages, mainly as the result of disease and poor weather conditions (Halls and Johns 2013).
Disease Control: Farms owned by companies have qualified fish health specialists. However, most small-scale farmers rely on their own experience and use of chemical/drugs for disease control measures. The European Commission’s (EC) Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) includes six notifications (from 2015 onwards) of border rejections, alerts or information for attention concerning the presence of nitrofurans in pangasius product from Vietnam (classified as serious). It should be noted that the province that this product comes from is not stated (European Commission 2018).
Water Quality: No information available.
Health Management: Water exchange is the most commonly used disease prevention measure. ESC was first detected in intensive pangasius ponds in Vietnam in 1998 and now affects several Mekong Delta provinces, including An Giang, Dong Thap and Can Tho (Thanh 2015).
Disease Control: ESC may be treated with antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals but recent reports suggest that resistance to treatment is increasing (Thanh and Berntsen 2012). Almost all (97.5 %) strains of E. ictaluri are now resistant to commonly used treatments (trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, and streptomycin) and there is reduced sensitivity to flumequine, oxolinic and acid and enrofloxacin (Thanh and Berntsen 2012). According to the E. C’s RASFF portal, from 2008-2014, there were several notifications concerning the detection of prohibited veterinary drugs (Nitrofurans) in pangasius from Vietnam – all of which took place in 2014, were classified as serious, and resulted in border rejections (European Commission 2018).
Water Quality: In April 2016, Can Tho PPC’s issued Plan No. 44/KH-UBND. This outlines environmental monitoring plans for aquaculture for the period 2016 to 2020 (Can Tho govt 2016). The project is the responsibility of RIA2 and provincial DARD offices.
In Can Tho, there will be six monitoring sites in water bodies where Pangasius farms are concentrated (Tan Loc Island; Thoi An ward; Ninh Kieu district (Hau; Cai San; Can Tho Be; OMon; and Co Do rivers) as well as at four major Pangasius farming areas (Vinh Thanh; Thot Not; OMon and Co Do). The timeframe of the project is 2015 - 2020. However, there is no publicly available information on the of the project progress of this project (Fistenet 2014).
Health Management: In 2017, Can Tho PPC produced a disease prevention and treatment Plan No. 136/KH-UBND for terrestrial and aquatic species ((Hương 2017). Under this plan, Can Tho has created a free hotline (hosted by Aquaculture Agency under Can Tho DARD) for farmers to contact in case of emergency outbreaks. However, there is no evidence of the implementation of this plan.
Disease Control: In order to improve traceability and the planning of production, and to comply with MARD’s Decree no. 36/2014/NĐ-CP, by May 2016 farms require an individual identification code.
The regulatory system addresses risks to and from aquaculture through a zonal approach to siting, licensing, and production management.
Aquaculture enterprises require a business license that meets the conditions prescribed and published by the national government’s Decree No. 59/2005/NĐ-CP. In January 2017, Can Tho PPC issued Decision No. 102/QĐ-UBND on the approval of an aquaculture master plan in Can Tho until 2020 with a vision to 2030 (Quoc 2017). The EIA procedure is outlined under Decree No. 18/2015/NĐ-CP (Vbqppl 2017). The number of registered aquaculture licenses and the results of EIAs are not made publically available.
Farms should be managed under a zonal approach as regulated in MARD’s Circular 14/2016/TT-BNNPTNT (Vbqppl 2017). All farms must possess a business license to operate; however, the licensing procedure does not currently include zonal management considerations. Under the PPC's Decree No. 18/2015/NĐ-CP only farms with a surface area > 10 ha and extensive farms >50 ha require an EIA report (Vbqppl 2017).
MARD and MONRE have regional sub-departments such as An Giang DONRE and DARD. In addition, DAH, DFISH, Sub DAH and other aquaculture agencies at the provincial level are responsible for collaborating to enforce MARD’s Decision No. 4995/QĐ-BNN-TY on disease control (Vbqppl 2017). Can Tho DARD is responsible for developing an annual plan for the pangasius industry, convening meetings, gathering feedback, and liaising with the National Government to review regulations (Vbqppl 2017). Can Tho DONRE is responsible for monitoring of environmental issues. The PPC is the lead organization for the approval of EIAs and is regulated by the National Government’s Decree 18/2015/NĐ-CP (Vbqppl 2017). However, there is little evidence of enforcement of farm license conditions.
The presence of an active producer organization representative of the whole industry and establishment of a Code of Good Practice.
VietGAP is the national standard Code of Good Practice (CoGP). The number of VietGAP certified farms is available through the VietGAP portal, which shows that there is very limited compliance to these standards (VietGAP 2016). The industry is represented by VASEP and VINAPA (VASEP 2018)(VINAPA 2017). Details on individual VASEP members (name, contact details and product) are available via the VASEP website through the “find your suppliers” tab. Details on VINAPA members (name and logo) are available via the VINAPA website (VASEP 2018)(VINAPA 2017).
VietGAP standards currently focus on the individual farm, rather than zonal-level. Both VASEP and VINAPA include both large and small scale producers (VASEP 2014)(VINAPA 2017).
Previously, the National Government’s Decree No. 36/2014/NĐ-CP required that all pangasius farms shall apply and be certified to VietGAP standards (or equivalent international standards) by Dec 31st, 2015. However, this was replaced by Decree No. 55/2017/NĐ-CP in 2017 - which states that VIETGAP is no longer compulsory (Vbqppl 2017). VASEP and VINAPA do not require members adhere to the CoGP, but encourage producers to follow these standards (VASEP 2014)(VINAPA 2017).
The impact of aquaculture on the quality of public water resources is managed.
The results of environmental monitoring of aquaculture production sites in Can Tho (including pangasius) are available, but only for March and June 2017 (CT Aqua 2017).
Water quality criteria for different types of public waterbodies are described in MARD’s Circular 44/2010/TT-BNNPTNT and national standards e.g. VietGAP (Vbqppl 2017). From 2010 - 2013, RIA2 conducted a carrying capacity study for the Tien and Hau rivers, with the results used to review pangasius production planning to 2020 (Hung 2013).
Enforcement agencies such as MARD and MONRE are identifiable but there is little evidence of monitoring, compliance data, or penalties for infringement.
Industry is protected from catastrophic losses through best practice disease management on farm and at the zone level.
In 2016, the DAH released a report on aquaculture health management (DAH 2016). Mortality and fish health are recorded by individual farms and government agencies; however, this information is not publicly available. The DAH also plans to publish a list of disease-free zones and disease zones via their website.
There is a national disease control plan for 2017 to 2020 as regulated by DAH’s Decision No. 1038/QĐ-BNN-TY (Vbqppl 2017). However, only certified farms implement biosecurity measures. MARD’s Circular No. 14/2016/TT-BNNPTNT concerning applications for disease-free zone status came into force in 2016 (Vbqppl 2017). Disease management is coordinated across the industry for emergency disease situations; however, it lacks the participation of the whole industry (VINAPA 2016).
There is no information concerning the enforcement of disease regulations at the farm level under DAH’s national disease plan for 2017-2020. There is no evidence of enforcement of MARD’s Circular No. 14/2016/TT-BNNPTNT concerning applications for disease-free zone status. However, awareness building and training workshops have been conducted (VINAPA 2016).
The fishmeal and oil in aquaculture feed is sourced from well managed or improving fisheries.
BAP certified feed companies can be identified through the GAA’s BAP certification site (GAA 2017). Other feed companies supplying can also be identified. The major companies supplying feed can be identified. These include Vietthang (Vietthnang 2017), Proconco (Pronconco 2017), Co May (Co May 2017), Cargill (under EWOS Vietnam) (Cargill 2017), Viet Tien Fishmeal company, and CP Vietnam (CP Vietnam 2017). However, only Cargill discloses its source fisheries through annual reports and SFP’s ODP(EWOS 2016)(SFP 2017).
CP and Cargill produce annual sustainability reports which outline their commitment and progress with regards to the improvement of source fisheries (CP 2016)(EWOS 2016). The Viet Tien Fishmeal Company, who provide fishmeal to Vietthang, are participants in the Ben Tre FIP (ICAFIS 2016)(SFP 2017) and are committed to making improvements in their source fisheries.
Number of farms - VINAPA has created a website to map Pangasius farming ponds. The map currently displays around 256 ponds in Can Tho (VINAPA 2017).
No related AIPs
Other in the Certified Farms graph is VietGAP
The information presented here is based on publicly available information from the respective certification websites. The unit of certification varies between the different Certification schemes.
Can Tho province is situated in the Mekong Delta region of southern Vietnam. The Hau river flows through the province. The province presents many opportunities for the development of aquaculture, particularly pangasius. In addition to pangasius farming, various agricultural and industrial activities take place.
Originally, the supply of pangasius broodstock depended on wild-caught animals. Research into the artificial propagation of pangasius in Vietnam began in 1978, but the first successful artificial propagation did not occur until May 1995. By 1999, Vietnam had established a successful pangasius breeding program. Since this time, pangasius culture in Vietnam has increased dramatically. Currently, most broodstock is sourced from hatcheries, where fully-domesticated broodfish (i.e. closed life cycle) are replaced approximately every 2-3 years (VASEP 2014).
Cage rearing originated in Lake Tonlesap in Cambodia and initially took place in Chau Doc, Tan Chau (An Giang province) and Hong Ngu (Dong Thap province) in the 1950s. Cage rearing reached a peak in 2004 with 2,333 units. Cage culture was replaced by extensive cage culture, which eventually shifted to pens, and then pond-based systems. in the 1970's. Almost all pangasius production for export is produced in pond systems (VASEP 2014).
In Vietnam, government policies are defined in laws, decrees, ordinances, circulars, and regulations, with the latter often at the provincial level (MOFI and WB 2005). Policies and decisions are created via a process of vertical and horizontal consensus building (Shanks et al. 2004).
In summary, all major policy decisions passed at the national level are reviewed and approved at the provincial/city level through locally specified decisions and guidelines to support implementation.
Law - Responsible institutions - Relevant Activities
National Fisheries Law (Law No. 17/2003/QH11) - MOFI, now MARD - Management of the capture fisheries and aquaculture sectors.
Decision No. 3824/QĐ-BNN-TCTS - MARD - VietGAP standard for aquaculture.
Decree No. 36/2014/NĐ-CP and Circular No. 23/2014/TT-BNNPTTN - MARD - Regulations on raising, processing, and exporting pangasius.
Circular No. 44/2010/TT-BNNPTNT - MARD - Regulations on food safety and hygiene-guaranteed intensive pangasius production.
Decision No. 3885/QĐ-BNN-TCTS - MARD -Regulations on the approval of pangasius production and processing plan for the Mekong Delta until 2020.
Veterinary Law No. 79/2015/QH13 - National Assembly - Regulations on the prevention, treatment, and control of animal diseases; animal quarantine, animal products; control of animal slaughter, processing, processing of animals and animal products; veterinary hygiene inspection; & management of veterinary medicine.
Circular No. 14/2016/TT-BNNPTNT - MARD - Regulations and procedures to certify an animal disease safety zone/site As well as the organization and identification of those who need to develop and apply for a certification for disease safety zones.
Official Correspondence No. 927/TY-TS - DAH - Guidance on pangasius disease prevention and treatment.
Circular No. 71/2011/TT-BNNPTNT, National technical standards QCVN 01 - 80: 2011/BNNPTNT (grow out farms) and QCVN 01 - 81: 2011/BNNPTNT (nurseries and hatcheries) - MARD - Aquaculture for human consumption.
Decision No. 4995/QĐ-BNN-TY - MARD - The approval of national disease prevention, monitoring and treatment plan for pangasius.
National Technical Standards TCVN 10300:2014 - MARD - Regulations on compound feed for pangasius and tilapia.
Decree No. 201/2013/NĐ-CP - National Assembly - Regulations on water use and limits for discharge water.
Law No. 52/2005/QH11 and No. 55/2014/QH13 - National Assembly - Policies, measures, and resources to protect the environment; rights, obligations, and responsibilities of agencies, organizations, households, and individuals in environmental protection.
Law No. 17/2012/QH13 - National Assembly - Regulating management, protection, exploration, and use of water resource.
Circular No. 27/2015/TT-BTNMT and Circular No. 09/2014/TT-BNNPTTN - MONRE and MARD - Strategic environment assessment, environment impact assessment and environment protection reporting.
Law No. 20/2008/QH12 - National Assembly- Biodiversity.
No information available.
Producers & Processors
Pangasius is being produced in nine districts in Can Tho. In addition, to grow out producers, there are approximately five large-scale hatcheries and nurseries, and nearly 35 processing companies (MARD 2017)(NAFI6 2017).
There are also multiple institutions that set legislation, policy development, research, and environmental monitoring of Pangasius culture.
The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD). Relevant departments/institutions under MARD include:
Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE). Relevant departments/institutions under MONRE include:
Ministry of Planning and Investment (including General Statistical Office and the Central Institute for Economic Management)
Ministry of Labor, Invalids and Social Affairs
Ministry of Science and Technology
Government Inspectorate - a ministerial-level agency fulfilling the function of state management of inspection.
At the provincial level, Departments of Agriculture and Rural Development (DARD) operate as local branches of the Ministry, in partnership with Provincial People’s Committees.
Professional Associations, local NGOs