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Last updated on 23 July 2018

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

IDENTIFICATION

SCIENTIFIC NAME(s)

Penaeus vannamei

SPECIES NAME(s)

Whiteleg shrimp, Camarón blanco

JURISDICTION

Guayas

PREDOMINANT PRODUCTION SYSTEM

Pond

WATER SOURCE

Brackish

JUVENILE SOURCE

hatchery - closed cycle


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • There is comprehensive legislation on water quality (although not aquaculture-specific) and health management, including a master plan for the management of animal health emergencies. There is also a national supply-chain Code of Good Practice, known as the National Control Plan (Plan Nacional de Control or PNC). However, this only focuses on food safety, quality, and traceability issues.
  • All farms are required to conduct an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and produce an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) in order to obtain an environmental license.
  • There is an active national research institution—The National Fisheries Institute (Instituto Nacional de Pesca, INP), who provides scientific advice to guide policy development, management strategies, and conducts training.
  • There is a national aquaculture organization, the National Chamber of Aquaculture (Cámara Nacional de Acuautura or CNA), who provides technical assistance, advice, promotional and lobbying activities, and has launched a First Class Shrimp campaign.
  • In March 2018, several shrimp producers launched the Sustainable Shrimp Partnership (SSP) under which members are committed to achieving ASC certification, eliminating the use of antibiotics, guaranteeing traceability, and implementing best practices to minimize impacts on water quality. 
Weaknesses
  • There is no adoption of zonal management approaches to aquaculture siting or management. The status of the shrimp disease alert system (SAEMA) is unknown.
  • The national supply-chain CoGP, known as the PNC, is focused on aquatic food safety and quality and traceability. Although it does include on-farm bio-security and veterinary drug use criteria, it does not include multiple aspects of farm management, including farm siting, water quality management, and coordinated disease control. 
  • There is a lack of publicly available information on which to assess the effectiveness of the management approach and aquaculture legislation. For example, there is no information on the results of mandatory EIA and EMP, waterbody and farm-level water quality, regional aquaculture production, the number of farms, disease outbreaks, disease control measures, and compliance with the PNC. 
  • The publicly available agriculture information system —Ecuadorian Agro Information System (General del Sistema de Informacion Nacional) does not include any information on aquaculture.
  • There is currently no information on member compliance with the goals of the SSP.
Recommendation for improvement
  • Publish further details of the EIA procedure, associated environmental licenses , as well as farm compliance with water quality standards set by Decreto Nº 3.516.

  • Publicly report data on licensing, production, waterbody quality, and disease outbreaks under portals such as General del Sistema de Informacion Nacional and Sistema Unico de Informacion Ambiental (SUIA).

  • Expand requirements of the PNC to include the following aspects of farm management: wastewater monitoring, farm planning based on an assessment of the carrying capacity of the water body, and the coordination of disease control and health management practices between farms.

  • Encourage feed companies to publicly disclose source fisheries (for example, via annual reports or sustainability reports, regularly updated websites, or initiatives such as the Ocean Disclosure Project). For source fisheries with sustainability concerns, initiate Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs).

  • Encourage the SSP to publish regular updates and progress against their goals via their website or through annual reports. 


FISHSOURCE SCORES

Management Quality:

regulatory framework

< 6

best practices

< 6

water quality

< 6

disease

< 6

feed

< 6


AIPS

No related AIPs

AQUACULTURE MANAGEMENT UNITS

In FishSource, information on aquaculture management is displayed at the highest resolution unit for which data is available. Ideally, information would simply be structured around an aquaculture management area (AMA) – the primary unit within which aquaculture management practices should be coordinated across a group of farms to mitigate against cumulative impacts and shared risks. Although AMAs are sometimes recognized in industry strategy and regulatory documents, they are not yet established across all aquaculture industries; so, we typically display information at the province/state level.

Country
Provinces
AMA
Shrimp - Ecuador Guayas

ANALYSIS

Information Sources

Information on outbreaks of notifiable shrimp diseases at the provincial level is available through the World Organization for Animal Health’s (OIE), World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). Information on fisheries and aquaculture research is available from the Instituto Nacional de Pesca (INP). Information on the (Plan Nacional de Control (PNC) - National Control Plan is available from the INP. Information on legislation and activities concerning water quality, health management and disease control measures (including a master plan for the management of animal health emergencies) is available from government institutions (Ministry of Aquaculture and Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, AGROCALIDAD, INP) as well as a national-level Seafood Watch report.

Management Status

Zonal Assessment

A farm-based approach to aquaculture regulations and licensing has been adopted. The Subsecretariat of Aquaculture under the Ministry of Aquaculture and Fisheries (previously the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Aquaculture and Fisheries - MAGAP) is responsible for the regulation of shrimp farms (IUCN and CI Ecuador 2015). Meanwhile, the MoE is responsible for controlling and monitoring aquaculture operations and issuing environmental licenses (Thompson 2014)(Zajdband 2012)

Under the unified text of Secondary Environmental Legislation (Texto Unificado de Legislación Ambiental Secundaria), also known as TULSMA, annual updates and maps of shrimp ponds should be produced (IUCN and CI Ecuador 2015). However, these maps do not appear to be publicly available. There does not appear to be any aquaculture related information available via the Ministry of Environment (Ministerio del Ambiente, MoE) Sistema Unico de Informacion Ambiental (SUIA) or the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock's Coordination General del Sistema de Informacion Nacional (MoAL 2017)(MoE 2015)

The Ecuadorian government's most recent development strategy (Plan Nacional para el Buen Vivir 2013 - 2017) identifies twelve national objectives, several of which refer to the country’s coastal ecosystems. For example, objective 5 outlines the government’s commitment to the sustainable management of forests (including wetlands and mangroves), while objective 7 concerns environmental protection and priorities for the management of coastal and marine areas. Objective 10 concerns the promotion of sustainable production and resource use for agriculture, aquaculture, and fisheries purposes. Under objective 7, protection and priority conservation zones have been identified, several of which are located in Guayas (IUCN and CI Ecuador 2015)

The Ministry of Aquaculture and Fisheries has published a draft Fisheries and Aquaculture Law (Mereghetti 2017)(MoAF 2017). Article 97 under Section IV includes provisions for the creation of areas of interest for marine aquaculture based on the needs of other resource users. It adds that scientific studies should be conducted prior to the establishment of farms in these areas, although it does not indicate whether these include carrying-capacity studies.  

Licensing: According to Article 54 of TULSMA, the construction of new shrimp ponds or the extension of existing farms is prohibited in mangrove ecosystems or transitional zones (IUCN and CI Ecuador 2015). According to the Environmental pollution control and prevention law (Reglamento a la ley de gestion ambiental para la prevencion y control de la contaminacion ambiental), aquaculture enterprises are required to conduct an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and produce an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) in order to obtain an environmental license (Thompson 2014)(Zajdband 2012).  

Authorization/ license forms and guidelines are available from the Sub-secretariat for aquaculture’s website – including forms for marine aquaculture and farms on private land and public beach and bay areas (Sub Secretariat of Aquaculture 2018).

Scientific Advice

Water Quality: No information available.

Health Management: Under Ministerial decree 177-A; 2006, the Instituto Nacional de Pesca (INP) or National Fisheries Institute is responsible for all health and sanitary issues (Massaut and Camposano 2015). The INP is attached to the Ministry of Aquaculture and Fisheries and its laboratories provide research and advice on aquatic resources, ecosystem health, aquatic disease control and monitoring. This includes an aquaculture program which conducts research into marine and freshwater aquaculture (INP 2017). 

Following the Ministerial Decree 98 (2008), a technical committee for import risk assessment has been formed. The committee included representatives of MAGAP, INP, the National Center for Aquaculture and Marine Research (CENAIM), and the National Aquaculture Chamber(Massaut and Camposano 2015).  

Disease Control: The INP has created a National Control Plan (Plan Nacional de Control or PNC) to control the quality and safety of fishery and aquaculture products. The PNC assesses conformity along a range of sanitary parameters, including adherence to HACCP standards hygiene measures, records of food inputs and medicines, and disease contingency plans (MoAL 2017)(MAGAP and INP 2015)(Schwarz, L. 2007). 

Managers' Decisions

The Aquaculture Control Directorate, Undersecretariat of Aquaculture within the Ministry of Aquaculture and Fisheries is responsible for overseeing regulations concerning aquaculture activities (MoAF 2014). Whiteleg shrimp is one of the species listed as permitted for marine aquaculture under MAGAP Memorando No. MAGAP-INP-2015-0606-M - Actualización de lista de especies aptas para maricultura (MAGAP 2015).

Water Quality: Decree No. 3.516 (Decreto Nº 3.516 - Norma de Calidad Ambiental y de descarga de efluentes: recurso agua (Anexo I, Libro VI) sets water quality limits for the use and discharge of water in marine waterbodies (FAO 2017)(Thompson 2014).

Health Management: Following historic outbreaks of WSD from 1999 onwards, Ministerial Decree 106-27 (2002) banned the capture and use of wild shrimp larvae for shrimp farming (Massaut and Camposano 2015). Under  Ministerial Decree 043 9 (2013), the import of live shrimp and products (as well as feed items and probiotics) from AHPND affected countries is banned (Latina 2013)(MoAL 2017)(Towers, L. 2013).

Research into a geographic approach to the monitoring of shrimp diseases risks, known as the Epidemiological Alert System and Aquaculture Management (SAEMA), was previously trialed in the Gulf of Guayaquil. This was based upon a comparison of average production within set grid references. The system provided monthly notifications of disease risk (green, yellow, orange and red) based on the identification of sub-optimal performance (Bayot et al. 2008)(FAO 2017). The SAEMA website is no longer available and the status of this initiative is unknown.

Disease Control: The PNC was first launched in 2006 to cover products destined for the European Union (EU), the PNC is regularly reviewed and updated, most recently in 2015 and now covers all international markets (MAGAP and INP 2015). Under MAGAP and INP's PNC producers are required to obtain certificates guaranteeing the quality and suitability of their products for export (MAGAP and INP 2015)(Schwarz, L. 2007). Any establishment found to be in non-compliance with the PNC can have their access to markets suspended until corrective actions are introduced (MAGAP and INP 2015)

Conformity with the PNC for aquaculture farms is assessed using form F05 Verificación Condiciones en Productos Acuícolas (INP 2017). Compliance points include an assessment of hygiene and sanitary measures, the use and monitoring of medicine, the presence of a traceability system and an emergency disease control plan (INP 2017).

Management Thresholds

Water Quality: Limits for a range of uses (including for livestock use and the preservation of flora and fauna – Table 3) and discharge limits (including discharge to a body of marine water – Table 13) have been set by Decree No. 3.516 - Environmental Quality Standard and discharge of effluents: water resource (FAO 2017). Adherence to these standards is monitored by the INP (Thompson 2014).

Health Management: The PNC requires operators to produce disease contingency plans (MAGAP and INP 2015). A list of diseases requiring mandatory declaration is provided by AGROCALIDAD under Resolution DAJ-2013461-0201.0214 (MAGAP and AGROCALIDAD 2013). Those applicable to shrimp production are YHD, WSD, Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis, IMNV, IHHN and Taura Syndrome (MAGAP and INP 2015). IPN conducts routine disease diagnostics on farmed shrimp via Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) testing for WSSV/WSD, INNV, Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV), Infectious Mionecrosis Virus (IMNV), Yellow Head Virus (YHV), Necrotizing Hepatopancreatitis Bacterium (NHP-B). The INP reports the presence of WSD, IHHN, and AHPND to the OIE. (Massaut and Camposano 2015).

Disease Control: The Servicio Ecuatoriano de Normalización (INEN) - Ecuadorian Institute for Standardization have produced -  NTE INEN 184:2012 Pescados frescos refrigerados o congelados de producción acuícola. Requisitos (Requirements for Fresh fish, fresh or chilled from aquaculture production), although the content of these standards cannot be identified (INEN 2013)

The manufacturing, import, marketing and use of any products containing the antibiotics, chloramphenicol, and nitrofuran is prohibited (MAGAP and AGROCALIDAD 2016)

Industry and Management Performance

Compliance

Water Quality: No information available.

Health Management: No information available. 

Disease Control: No information available. Details of health and sanitary certificates issued under the PNC were previously provided by the INP as well as a list of enterprises approved to provide products to various international markets, but this information is no longer available. 

Current Performance

Water Quality: There is no information available concerning farm’s performance against limits to discharge as outlined by the Decree No. 3.516 - Environmental Quality Standard and discharge of effluents: water resource. The shrimp farming industry in Ecuador is now characterized as “low intensity”, with 60% using low-density, extensive farming systems (GAIN 2015). Water exchange rates are low during the production cycle (1%–3%). Most ponds only discharge at harvest (Thompson 2014). 

Health Management: The industry’s main forms of health management are the use of selected breeding of broodstock over several generations and the use of probiotics over chemical disease treatments (Thompson 2014).

Disease Control: Data on disease control methods and corresponding use of chemicals are not available. However, there is no indication of the presence of banned or violative substances in shrimp exports to the United States or the European Union from recent U.S Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Import Alerts or the EC Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed Portal (RASFF) (European Commission 2018)(FDA 2017)

Trends in Performance

Water Quality: Although there is no quantitative data on trends in water quality from farms, there has been a move toward semi-intensive and low-density forms of production following outbreaks of WSD in the late 1990’s (Massaut and Camposano 2015)(Thompson 2014)

Health Management: According to the OIE national disease timelines – two notifiable diseases (IHHN and WSD) have been reported in Guayas since 2005. IHHN is now listed as “limited to one or more zones” (previously listed as present), while WSD is now listed as absent (World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) 2017). AHPND has not been recorded in Ecuador (World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) 2017). However, outbreaks of this disease in Mexico have generated alerts by the INP, a contingency plan, and a ban on the entry of shrimp from affected countries (Latina 2013)(MoAL 2017)(Towers, L. 2013).

Disease Control: Broodstock selection and use of Postlarvae (PL) by the industry has resulted in greater disease resistance and a corresponding decrease in antibiotic use (Thompson 2014). The most recent “serious” notification concerning drug residues from the EC RASFF portal was in 2014 concerning the presence of nitrofurans in cooked frozen shrimp (RASFF 2014).  

Improvement Plans

In March 2018, several shrimp producers launched the Sustainable Shrimp Partnership (SSP) under which members are required to achieve Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) certification, not use any antibiotics, guarantee traceability across the production chain, and implement best practices to minimize farms' impacts on water quality (FiS 2018)(Massaut and Camposano 2015)(SSP 2017)(Undercurrent News 2018). Compliance with the goals of the initiative is not currently available (SSP 2017).  

Water Quality: The INP have launched a research program known as Investigación de los Recursos Bioacuaticos y su Ambiente (IRBA) - Research on Bio-Aquatic Resources and their Environment. The program consists of two components: 1) Elaboración y Ejecución de Proyectos (EEP) which aims to generate scientific research on fisheries, aquaculture, and the environment, and 2) the Evaluación de Proyectos, Recursos Bioacuáticos y su Ambiente (EPRBA) which aims to use this research to support decision-making and management measures for the sustainable use of fishery resources and their environment (INP 2017).

Health Management: In addition to its responsibilities under the PNC, the INP conducts shrimp farmer training to build awareness of current diseases and their impact on production as well as a campaign to prevent the introduction of AHPND (MoAL 2017)(MoAL 2017)The INP has also developed further contingency plans against AHPND (MoAL 2017). The CNA has also formed a committee to oversee the latest health information and recommend actions to reduce disease risks. Extension work is conducted through the Aquacultura magazine, workshops and conferences (Massaut and Camposano 2015).

The MAGAP and its Agencia Ecuatriana de Aseguramiento de la Calid del Agro (AGROCALIDAD) (Ecuadorian Agency for Quality Assurance of Agro) recently introduced a master plan (maestro para la gestion de emegencias santarias animales)  for the management of animal health emergencies which appears to be applicable to all animal diseases (both terrestrial and aquatic) (MAGAP and AGROCALIDAD 2016). The plan outlines a range of preventative and control measures. In the case of emergency disease outbreaks, surveillance zones, tracing of infection, and the zoning of affected areas is required. (MAGAP and AGROCALIDAD 2016).

Disease Control: The CNA is currently promoting a “First Class Shrimp” Campaign to promote the Ecuadorian shrimp industry (and its use of low-density farming methods) at home and abroad (Shrimp News International 2015). Part of this approach is the antibiotic-free initiative (Kearns 2017)

Scores

Regulatory Framework

The regulatory system addresses risks to and from aquaculture through a zonal approach to siting, licensing, and production management.

In 2015, the INP and MAGAP (now the Ministry of Aquaculture and Fisheries) established a National Control Plan to control the quality and safety of fishery and aquaculture products (MAGAP and INP 2015). Aquaculture enterprises are required to conduct an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and produce an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) in order to obtain an environmental license (Thompson 2014)(Zajdband 2012). Aquaculture license/authorization forms are available from the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (Sub Secretariat of Aquaculture 2018).

There is no information on the number of environmental licenses awarded, EIAs conducted or EMPs produced. 

All farms require environmental licenses from the MoE (Zajdband, 2012). Aquaculture enterprises are also required to conduct an EIA and produce an EMP in order to obtain this license (Thompson 2014)(Zajdband 2012) (IUCN). Coastal protection and priority conservation zones have been identified under the Ecuadorian government's Plan Nacional para el Buen Vivir 2013-2017. Several of these are located in Guayas (IUCN and CI Ecuador 2015). However, aquaculture management areas are not identified. 

The Undersecretariat of Aquaculture under the Ministry of Aquaculture and Fisheries is responsible for the regulation of shrimp-farms (IUCN & CL Ecuador, 2016). Meanwhile, the MoE is responsible for controlling and monitoring aquaculture operations and issuing environmental licenses (Zajdband, 2012).  Article 54 of TULSMA states that the construction of new shrimp ponds or the extension of existing ones in is prohibited in mangrove ecosystems and transitional zones (IUCN and CI Ecuador 2015). However, there is no information regarding the enforcement of these measures, EIA conducted or the number of licenses awarded. 

Organized Producers Following Code of Good Practice

The presence of an active producer organization representative of the whole industry and establishment of a Code of Good Practice.

The National Chamber of Aquaculture (Cámara Nacional de Acuautura, CNA)  is the main producer association formed through the unification of the Federation of Shrimp Farmers (FEDECAM),  the Chamber of Shrimp Producers, and the Association of Laboratories (CNA 2017).  However, there is no information on membership. The PNC outlines a range of hygiene, food safety and quality parameters for aquaculture enterprises (MAGAP and INP 2015), but there is no evidence of regular reporting against this, and it is food safety and quality focused.

In March 2018, several shrimp producers launched the Sustainable Shrimp Partnership (SSP) under which members are required to achieve ASC certification, eliminate the use of antibiotics, guarantee traceability across the production chain, and implement best practices to minimize farms' impacts on water quality (FiS 2018)(Massaut and Camposano 2015)(SSP 2017)(Undercurrent News 2018). Compliance with the goals of the initiative is not currently available (SSP 2017). 

Until recently, the PNC appears to be the main form of guiding industry practice - and was last revised in 2015. However, it focuses on hygiene/sanitary best practices and does not refer to zonal management or other aspects of farm management. There is no indication whether the CNA represents both small and large scale producers (CNA 2017). 

The SSP includes a commitment to ASC certification, eliminating antibiotic use, and implementing best practices to minimize farms' impacts on water quality, but there is no indication of whether members represent both large and small-scale producers (SSP 2017). 

Under the PNC, producers are required to obtain certificates guaranteeing the quality and suitability of their products for export (MAGAP and INP 2015)(Schwarz, L. 2007).  Details of health and sanitary certificates issued under the PNC were previously available from the INP, but are no longer available  The CNA website outlines the benefits of membership and services, but not membership rules (including if membership is conditional on following the PNC or any other industry standard. However, SSP members are committed to achieving ASC certification (SSP 2017).

Water Quality Management

The impact of aquaculture on the quality of public water resources is managed.

No water quality monitoring information is available. 

The Ecuadorian government's Decree No. 3.516 - Environmental Quality Standard and discharge of effluents - sets water quality limits for the use and discharge of water in marine and freshwater waterbodies (FAO 2017)(Thompson 2014). However, it should be noted that these are not aquaculture-specific. 

There is no evidence of enforcement (or responsibility for enforcement) concerning sites exceeding set limits identified in Decree No. 3.516 Environmental Quality Standard and discharge of effluents. 

Disease Impact and Risk Reduction

Industry is protected from catastrophic losses through best practice disease management on farm and at the zone level.

Information on disease outbreaks (at the provincial level) is only available from the OIE for internationally notifiable diseases. 

The industry has launched multiple initiatives and legislation to prevent the introduction of new diseases, including AHPND (Latina 2013)(Massaut and Camposano 2015)(MoAL 2017)(Towers, L. 2013). Farm-level biosecurity measures are incorporated under the PNC (MAGAP and INP 2015). A master plan for the management of animal health emergencies which appears to be applicable to all animal diseases (both terrestrial and aquatic) has been produced (MAGAP and AGROCALIDAD 2016). 

Any establishment found to be in non-compliance with the PNC can have their access to markets suspended until corrective actions are made - the results of which will be published in a database (MAGAP and INP 2015)

Marine Feed Ingredient Management

The fishmeal and oil in aquaculture feed is sourced from well managed or improving fisheries.

Several GAA BAP certified mills providing feed to the national shrimp industry can be identified - and include Alimentsa, GISIS, Inbalnor and Inprosa (GAA 2017). Other major feed companies include Skretting, Ecuador (a subsidiary of Nutreco) (Skretting Ecuador 2017). Information on source fisheries is not available (Alimentsa 2016)(Inprosa, 2017)(Skretting Ecuador 2017). 

Skretting Ecuador has established a code of conduct for suppliers which sets minimum environment, social and legal criteria. The code is mandatory for new suppliers with over 90% of all suppliers currently abiding by its terms. Sustainability audits have also been developed to focus on countries and ingredients that are classified as high risk (Skretting Ecuador 2017).  Alimentsa production is certified to various international certification standards (certifications such as BAP, INEN, TESCO, ISO 9001 2008, HACCP and GLOBAL GAP) (Alimentsa 2016).

Statistics:

No data available for Production
No data available for Production
No data available for Water Quality Monitoring
No data available for Water Quality Monitoring
To see data for Disease Reporting, please view this site on a desktop.
Data Notes

The OIE WAHIS database presents data at the provincial level in Ecuador and reveals that there were multiple instances when notifiable diseases were reported in Guayas (World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) 2017).

In 2017, there were 79 reports of  IHHN and 4 of WSD.

Notifiable disease outbreaks for the period 2010-2016 are as follows (OIE, WAHIS 2017):

  • 2010 - No outbreaks reported
  • 2011 - No outbreaks reported
  • 2012 - 14 IHHN and 4 WSD
  • 2013 - 26 IHHN and 15 WSD 
  • 2014 - 78 IHHN and 69 WSD 
  • 2015 - 28 IHHN and 46 WSD
  • 2016 - 5 IHHN 

Despite its presence in Mexico, there have not been any reported incidents of AHPND, also known as Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS) (World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) 2017).

Aquaculture Improvement Projects (AIPs)

No related AIPs

Certifications & Codes of Good Practice

Certified Farms

To see data for Certified Farms, please view this site on a desktop.

Certified Production

No data available
No data available

Data Notes

Certified Farms

The information presented here is based on publicly available information from the respective certification websites. The unit of certification varies between the different Certification schemes.

  • For ASC,  we report only the number of farms that are listed as certified on their website. We do not include farms that are in assessment.
  • For BAP, we report only the farms that are certified. We do not include hatcheries, processing facilities, or farms in the iBAP program.
  • For GlobalG.A.P., we report the number of fish farming companies that are certified. The number of farms operated by companies certified by GlobalG.A.P is not publicly available. We do not include certified companies that only operate hatcheries. 

Production Volume

  • The ASC does publish certified production volume by country, but data is not available at the province/state level. Information presented here is manually compiled from publicly available certification audits on a semi-annual basis.
  •  Certified production volume data is not publicly available from BAP or GlobalG.A.P.

BACKGROUND

Ecosystem

The coastal region of Guayas is part of the Gulf of Guayaquil - the largest estuarine ecosystem on the Pacific coast of South America. The gulf is characterized by an outer and inner estuary. More than twenty rivers flow into the gulf, including the Guayas River. The quantity and quality of river discharge have been impacted by the upland deforestation of natural vegetation as well as changes in agriculture, urban and industrial activities (Ryckebush, H. 2017)(Twilley et al. 2001).  The diversion of water for industrial activity, agriculture, and damming have led to a reduction in freshwater discharge. The construction of shrimp ponds has been implicated in the loss of mangroves and changes to the environmental quality of the Gulf and Guayas River estuary (Twilley et al. 2001).

Biology of farmed stock

Ecuadorian PL is hatchery-reared from native broodstock selected over several generations to have greater disease resistance (Thompson 2014)(Vandenberghe et al. 1999).  The use of wild shrimp larvae and wild-caught broodstock for shrimp farming is banned (FAO 2005)(Massaut and Camposano 2015). 

Fish farming history

Shrimp farming (of the native whiteleg shrimp) began in Ecuador in the 1960’s in El Ora province, before expanding into Guayas province in the 1970’s due to the availability of saltpans and an abundance of PL. The industry and associated infrastructure continued to expand until the 1990’s when Taura Syndrome caused a 13% fall in shrimp exports in 1993 (Schwarz, L. 2007). In 1999, WSD caused production to fall by 17.5%, and by 2001 exports had fallen by 60% compared to 1998 with a loss of around 100,000 (FAO 2005)(Schwarz, L. 2007).

Following this, the industry reverted to lower production intensities (Thompson 2014). Shrimp, of which 95% is represented by whiteleg shrimp, is now the main form of aquaculture production in Ecuador and focuses on extensive, improved- extensive, and semi-intensive production (GAIN 2015)(SeaFish 2015)(Thompson 2014). The industry has become increasingly consolidated, with large vertically integrated companies owning processing plants, feed mills, hatcheries, and farms (Thompson 2014). The main areas of production include the Gulf of Guayaquil (SeaFish, 2015). There are currently around 3,000 shrimp farms in Ecuador covering 175,000 hectares (66% of which is in Guayas).

Two-thirds of farmers are small (0-50 ha) or medium (50-250 ha) producers (Massaut and Camposano 2015) . Adoption of multiple phase form of production with the number of cycles per year increasing from 2.5 in 1998 to 3 - 9 in 2014.The average yield has increased from < 275 kg/hectare  in 2000-2001 to 1,600-1,800 kg/ha in 2014 (Massaut and Camposano 2015).

Laws and Institutions

Legislation - Responsible institutions - Relevant activities

Ley de Pesca y Desarrollo Pesquero -The Fisheries and Fisheries Development Law 1974, amended 1985 by the Ley Reformatoria de la Ley de Pesca y Desarrollo Pesquero - The National Council for Fisheries Development - Revised in 1985 to include aquaculture, covers regulations concerning capture fisheries, aquaculture, processing, and trade. 

Reglamento General a la Ley de Pesca y Desarrollo Pesquero, 2002 - The General Regulation to the Fisheries and Fisheries Development Law - The National Fisheries Development Council  - Contains procedures for the establishment of aquaculture facilities and their operation, including the authorization system; EIAs, deed use & veterinary drugs (including responsible institutions and controls on drug use)

Texto Unificado de Legislación Ambiental Secundaria, (TULSMA), Secondary Unified Environmental Legislation - MoE - Ecosystem conservation.

Reglamento a la ley de gestion ambiental para la prevencion y control de la contaminacion ambiental - Environmental pollution control and prevention - MoE - Requires farms to conduct an EIA and produce an EMP in order to receive a license.

Normas de Calidad Ambiental y de Descarga de Efluentes: Recurso Agua, del Reglamento a la Ley de Gestión Ambiental para la Prevención y Control de la Contaminación Ambiental, Libro VI de Calidad ambiental de TULSMA - Water resources from the environmental management laws and regulations. Prevention and control of environmental pollution, Book VI of Environmental Quality TULSMA.    - National Government - National water quality standards for effluents for different types of water bodies, but not aquaculture specific.

Ley Forestal y de Conservación de Areas Naturales y Vida Silvestre, 1981 (amended)  -  The Forestry Law -  MoE - Includes the protection of mangrove areas and the banning of aquaculture activities within them. 

Texto Unificado de la Legislación Secundaria del Ministerio del Ambiente, 2002 - Consolidated Text of the Secondary Legislation - MoE - Establishes responsibility for granting concessions for aquaculture activities near mangrove areas. Also regulates the movement of wild terrestrial and aquatic fauna.

Ley de Aguas, 1972 – The Water Law (amended) - National Secretariat for Water (SENAGUA) - Water and resource use and granting of concessions for different categories of users by the Instituto Ecuatoriano de Recursos Hidráulicos - National Institute for Water Resources. These do not outline procedures for aquaculture.

Ley de Gestión Ambiental, 1999 – The Environmental Management Law - MoE - Establishes the Sistema Único de Manejo Ambiental - Global Environmental Management System (SUMA) including an EIA system - regulated by the Consolidated Text of the Secondary Legislation issued by the Ministry of Environment, but does not include aquaculture. 

Ley de Sanidad Animal, 1981 - Animal Health Law and Regulation, 1996 - Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock - Establishes responsibility for animal health issues to the Servicio Ecuatoriano de Sanidad - Ecuadorian Service for Animals and Plants Health (SESA) under MAGAP. No specific rules for aquaculture.

Management Timetable

No information available. 

Stakeholders

Government

  • Ministerio de Acuacultura Y Pesca - Ministry of Aquaculture and Fisheries
    • Subsecretaría de Acuacultura - Undersecretariat of Aquaculture
    • The Aquaculture Control Directorate
    • Subsecretaría de Calidad e Inocuidad- Undersecretariat of Quality and Safety
    • Instituto Nacional de Pesca - National Fisheries Institute  
  • Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería
    • AGOCALIDAD - La Agencia Ecuatoriana de Aseguramiento de la Calidad del Agro - the National Sanitary, Phytosanitary and Food Safety Authority
  • Ministerio del Ambiente - Ministry of Environment
    • Secretaría del Agua - Secretariat of Water
    • Undersecretariat of Marine and Coastal Management (SGMC)
    • Undersecretariat of Environmental Quality

Producer Associations

  • Cámara Nacional de Acuautura (CNA) – National Chamber of Aquaculture 
  • Sustainable Shrimp Partnership (SSP)

Sources

References

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    Shrimp - Ecuador, Guayas

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